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HANDBOOK 

OF THE 

MODERN GREEK 
VERNACULAR 

GRAMMAR, TEXTS, GLOSSARY 



BY 



ALBERTr THUMB 

FKOFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN STRASSBURG UNIVERSITY 
SOMETIME PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MARBURG 



TRANSLATED FROM THE 
SECOND IMPROVED AND ENLARGED GERMAN EDITION 

EY 

S. ANGUS, M.A., Ph.D. 



Edinburgh: T. & T. CLARK, 38 George Street 

1912 



Printed by 
Morrison & Gibb Limited 

for 
T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH 

London: simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, kent, and co. limited 
new york : charles scribner's sons 






TO 

GEORGE N. HATZIDAKIS 

IN 

Sincerest Friendship 



248515 



FOREWORD TO THE ENGLISH 
EDITION. 

I have been repeatedly approached from the English side 
with regard to a translation of my Modem Greek Handbook. 
English-speaking scholars are of course sufficiently familiar 
with the German language to consult German works in the 
original. But as there is a large number of English-speaking 
students who cannot do this, and as, besides, it is easier to 
master a 1 foreign language in a grammar written in one's 
mother-tongue, I have been very pleased to give my consent 
when Messrs. T. & T. Clark of Edinburgh desired to arrange 
for a translation of the second edition of my Handbook, 
which was recently published and considerably enlarged. 
The translation gives the text of the German original with- 
out alteration, except that a few slips have been removed — 
partly due to the translator's accuracy. 

I desire to express my sincere thanks to Dr. S. Angus 
for the carefully executed translation; he has performed his 
task with great ability and with a perfect understanding of 
the subject. 

My wish is that my book, which has gained friends in 
its German form, may secure new friends in its English 
dress and contribute to an increased and deepened knowledge 
of Modern Greek among English-speaking scholars and 
students. 

A. THUMB. 

Strassburg, January 1912. 



TRANSLATOR'S NOTE. 



Professor Thumb's Forewords render^any further words 
from the Translator unnecessary, s The need for such a book 
as the present has been growingly felt in the English- 
speaking world. The works on Modern Greek with which 
the English student is familiar deal either exclusively or for 
the most part with the tcaBapevovaa, the " Atticizing " 
learned language of the present day. No fair account is to 
hand of the modern vernacular, which reflects the chequered 
history of the Greek people, and is alone the true descendant 
of the ancient language. It is not too much to claim that 
this book is the first in English to supply the want, and as 
such must prove welcome to the teachers and students of the 
Greek language. Professor Thumb's aim is to be practical 
in two ways, — first, to present a satisfactory account of the 
latest phase of Greek to those Hellenists who are convinced 
that they must pass beyond the classical and the Hellenistic 
periods for the study of a living language with an unbroken 
history of three thousand years; and, secondly, to furnish 
a Textbook of the modern Greek vernacular for beginners, 
as evidenced by the division into Grammar, Texts, and 
Glossary. 

Finally, the Translator has much pleasure in placing 
before English readers the Handbook which he used in 
Professor Thumb's own Modern Greek class in Marburg. 

S. A. 

Edinburgh, February 1912. 



FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN 
EDITION. 

The past century witnessed the publication of modern Greek 
grammars in large numbers. This output corresponds 
in a certain measure to the sympathy which, during the 
different decades of the century, Europe bestowed upon 
modern Greece. We shall find that the number of grammars, 
pocket-dictionaries, elementary text-books increased in those 
periods in which the Greeks to a special degree attracted 
the eyes of Europe, so that the mere statistics of publishing 
firms could furnish an exact index of the interest of the 
West in the people of Greece ; and, if we are to trust our 
index, this interest appears to have grown more intense again 
during the past lustrum. But notwithstanding the enor- 
mous output in this field, only a small proportion is of 
practical service, not a single one of the existing helps being 
adequate to the requirements which science imposes even on 
a grammar which professes to serve only a practical purpose. 
Indeed, one sometimes receives even the unpleasant impres- 
sion that the book in his hand is a work " made to order," 
owing its existence solely to the speculation of the book- 
selling trade. The peculiar literary conditions of Greece 
contribute partly to this lack of really serviceable helps. 
The term " modern Greek," as is well known, designates two 
forms of language — first, the living language spoken by the 
people and split up into numerous dialects or patois, which 
form alone properly deserves the name of modern Greek ; and, 
secondly, the literary language, the Kadapevovaa, i.e. " pure 
speech," which is a literary and learned revival of the more 
or less modernised ancient Greek common language, and is 
therefore a product of art by no means of recent date, but 
the result of the written usage of centuries reaching back 



xii FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION 

beyond Byzantine days. The extent to which this stereo- 
typed form of ancient Greek admitted and still admits 
modern elements borrowed from the popular language varied 
not only in different times, but still varies also according 
to author and locality. The majority of modern Greek 
grammars have this in common, that they present neither the 
one nor the other form of language exclusively, but select 
as a working basis either the learned language or the ver- 
nacular without confining themselves further strictly to the 
standard chosen. Those who prefer the literary language 
are in the majority : ordinarily this form is taught in such a 
way as if it were kclt e^o^rjv " the Greek language of the 
present day." And yet this literary complexion is not ex- 
clusively the dominant one even in the. province of. artistic 
literature, while lyrical and epic poetry belong almost 
entirely to the vernacular, which continues also to gain 
ground in other departments (comedy and narrative). * 

A combined account of both forms of the language 
suffers from want of clearness, quite apart from the fact that 
in most cases the vernacular in this way is denied fair treat- 
ment. Mitsotakis 1 so far has best succeeded in treating 
both together ; but he, like all the others, displays a lack of 
the training in philology necessary to do justice to the more 
rigorous scientific demands : he also lacks the necessary dis- 
crimination of the essential distinction between the popular 
and the literary language. The former is by no means 
satisfactorily treated, and in his grammar appears but too 
faintly as a pronounced independent form of language. The 
only elementary grammar of recent date which has essayed 
the task of presenting the popular language is that of Wied. 2 
This little volume, the popularity of which is attested by the 
immediate appearance of a second edition, is to be highly 
commended to the beginner for a rapid introductory sketch 
of the modern Greek vernacular ; but certainly those who try 
to gain from it a complete knowledge of 'the copious popular 
literature of modern Greece, or to become acquainted with 

1 Mitsotakis, Praktische Grammatik der neugriechischen Schrift- und Urn- 
gangssprache. Stuttgart and Berlin, 1891 (Speniann). xii and 260 pp. 
(12 Marks). Cf. my review in the Deutsche Ziteraturzcitung, 1893, col. 235 f. 

2 Wied, Die Kunst^ die neugriechischc Volkwprachc dtcrch Selbstunterricht 
schnell und leicht zu lernen. Vienna: Ilartleben, in the series "Kunstder 
Polyglotten," pt. xi. (2 Marks). 



FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION xm 

the structure of the speech of the common people, will soon 
be disappointed. There exists no text-book that can supply 
reliable and to some extent ample information upon the facts 
of the modern Greek popular language. An adequate text- 
book should be expected not only to introduce every scholar 
to an understanding of the abundant treasures of the modern 
Greek national and vernacular literature, but also to make 
the linguist and the philologist familiar with the principle 
of the growth of the language. To fill this breach is the 
object of my Handbook. 

I have already in a separate brochure x pointed out that 
the vernacular; and not the literary, language should be first 
learned, together with the reasons for this view. To repeat 
briefly : those who are familiar with ancient Greek and then 
learn the modern vernacular possess all that is essential 
to understand the modern Greek literary language; while 
those whp do not know, ancient Greek will never gain a clear 
grasp of the linguistic conditions of Greek literature of the 
present time. My Grammar is not intended for readers who 
are complete strangers to ancient Greek. Nevertheless, I 
have fully adopted the standpoint of modern Greek : for a 
descriptive grammar — and such mine professes primarily to 
be — must treat" a language only in its own light. It is, on 
the other hand, a confusing anachronism in a grammar of 
modern Greek to lay down rules, e.g. y on the long and short 
vowels e and 77, o and a>, or for the " diphthongs " at, oi 9 ei, or 
for the spiritus asper, the circumflex and acute accents, which 
possess no longer any meaning for the language of the 
present day, enjoying only a conventional existence in writ- 
ing. The grammars of modern Greek with which I am 
familiar are simply drawn up on the model of ancient Greek, 
because the authors for lack of proper scientific knowledge 
of the language were not aware of the wide gulf between the 
ancient Greek orthography and the form of the present 
language. It is in the department of " phonetics," or rather 
in that of " characters/' that our grammars betray* this un- 
fortunate habit most glaringly and senselessly; but even 
morphology cannot escape being crushed into this Pro- 
crustean bed to such an extent that its harmony and 

1 Die neugriechi>clic Sprache und ihre Erlernung : Beilage to Allgemeinc 
Zeitung, Aug. 6, 1891. 



xiv FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION 

symmetry are quite obscured. Thus, e.g., declension is 
treated according to the scheme of ancient Greek types of 
declension, that which is specifically modern Greek being 
attached as an accidental patch. Descriptive grammar 
demands, on the contrary, " that homogeneous phenomena 
should be grouped. But the criterion of what is to be 
regarded as homogeneous must not be sought in antiquity 
or in etymology, but in the ever-living genius of the lan- 
guage." 1 My classification of modern Greek declension 
satisfies, I believe, this requirement by treating and bringing 
together under a uniform point of view those elements which, 
in the consciousness of those who speak the language, fall 
together into groups, and consequently formally react upon 
one another. Deffner's, 2 as also Psichari's, 3 proposed classi- 
fication of the declension forms appears to me less lucid than 
that which I have adopted. I myself have, however, only 
carried into effect a suggestion put forward by W. Meyer- 
Llibke in his commentary on the grammar of Simon Fortius 
(p. 125) — a suggestion which he himself did not either 
follow up or carry out in his own classification of modern 
Greek declensions (p. 118). On the classification of verbs 
there can exist no doubt since the appearance of Hatzidakis* 
fine article " iiber die Pnisensbildung im Neugriechischen," 4 in 
which the formation of the present stem and its relation to 
the aorist are clearly stated. For the benefit of those who like 
to play with the term " practical," and who, in no way 
troubled with exact knowledge, regard " scientific " and " un- 
practical " as almost synonymous ideas, let me remark that the 
classification of the contents of a language based upon its own 
inner laws facilitates the acquiring of a language more than a 
grammar that presents the language on some external model. 
I need not specially emphasise that I have not attempted 
an exhaustive account of the treasures of modern Greek, as 
is clear from the concise compass of my Grammar. But, 
notwithstanding, it contains considerably more than other 
grammars of greater size, and is above all a grammar of the 

1 G. v. d. Gabelentz, Die Sprachwissensckaft (Leipzig, 1891), p. 92. 

2 In his review of Legrand's Grammar, Jenaer Liter aturzeitung, 1879, p. 
392. 

3 Psichari, Essais de Grammaire kistorique niogrecque, i. 88 (Paris, 1886). 

4 Kuhn's Zeitschrift f. vergl. Sprachf. xxvii. p. 69 ff., and Einl. in die 
neugrieck. Grammatik (Leipzig, 1892), p. 390 ff'. 



FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION xv 

vernacular Greek " Koivri" The existence of a common and 
uniform type of the " popular speech " ( Volkssprache) is, of 
course, denied by some, it being maintained rather that 
beside the affected archaic written language there exist only 
dialects. The latter assertion I dispute, and I maintain 
that we are justified in speaking of a modern Greek " Kolvtj," 
the language of the folk-songs in the form in which they 
are usually published being no more a specific dialect than 
that type of language of such popular poets as Christopulos, 
Drosiuis, Palamas, and many others, can be dubbed dialect. 
A perfect uniformity is admittedly not yet to be found, for 
just as sometimes on the one hand equally correct, i.e. 
equally wide-spread, forms occur side by side, so on the 
other many poets (as, e.g., Vilaras) manifest a marked pro- 
pensity for dialect elements ; yet in spite of all this we may 
speak of the "vernacular" in contrast to the dialects. 
Many folk-songs in the course of extensive diffusion, passing 
from place to place, must have had their dialectic peculiari- 
ties reduced to a minimum, so that by a quite spontaneous 
process a certain average speech resulted. Quite recently 
Pot8r}$ has also made a similar assertion, guided, however, 
more by instinct than by any scientific sense, and conse- 
quently he has overshot the mark in disputing absolutely the 
existence of dialects. 1 This average popular speech — which 
readily arises particularly in the larger centres — serves as a 
means of communication which is intelligible not only in 
Patras, Athens, and Constantinople, but also in the country. 

The collection of Texts served me as a guide for the 
limitation of my material : the less common (or dialectic) 
phenomena are in general only treated so far as they occur 
in these texts. The student will therefore not expect to find, 
e.g., the Greek dialects of Lower Italy or those of Pontus — to 
say nothing of Zaconian — given in any exhaustive manner. 
I have exceeded the dialect material contained in the Texts 
only when some linguistic phenomena of special interest on 
more general grounds (e.g. the history of the language) called 
for attention. Of course, -such a selection remains always 
more or less subjective and influenced by the personal 

1 ~Pot5r i s, T& EfSoAa. T\w<r<riK*i fieXhtj (Athens, 1893), p. 180 ff. It was 
naturally an easy matter for Hatzidakis to refute the " scientific " grounds of 
YotSrjs thesis ; ef. 'Adrjva, vii. 224 if. 



xvi FOREWORD TO. THE. FIRST. GERMAN EDITION 

equation. I considered it imperative to cite patois 
phenomena not only to produce an approximately correct 
conception of the diversity of patois, but also efficiently to 
facilitate the study of modern Greek popular literature. 
When, however, either in Grammar or Glossary, I mention 
a definite region {e.g. Naxos, Velvendos, Cyprus) as exhibiting 
certain philological points, it is not to be understood that 
these occur only in those regions : such particulars, given 
generally in connection with the texts, mean no more than 
that a form or usage is locally restricted. 

In the explanatory notes on the history of the language 
I confined myself to a selection of material on the same 
principles on which I made a selection from the dialect 
material. The relations between the ancient Greek forms 
and those of modern Greek are referred to in their salient 
characteristics. My object was to sketch in general outline 
their inner connection as the established result of the investi- 
gation upon modern Greek of the present time, and to put the 
reader on the right track, rather than to explain in detail all 
the separate linguistic points. Those who possess a scientific 
knowledge of philology will, with the aid of my directions, 
experience no difficulty in explaining many a detail. I aimed 
especially at presenting a clear account of the preservation or 
the disappearance of ancient, as well as the rise of new, types. 
A further consideration was to safeguard those who approach 
the study of modern Greek against such misconceptions as 
have been really exploded for science * through the indefatig- 
able exertions of Hatzidakis, but which misconceptions unfor- 
tunately stilLhaunt the brains of unscientific dilettanti. In 
order not to frustrate my main object — to produce a text- 
book of the modern Greek vernacular — I have avoided the 
citation of scientific apparatus (literature, discussions, etc.),. 
and have restricted to the smallest possible compass the 
employment of philological terminology — except the most 
common grammatical terms. The beginner will do well on 
the first reading to omit the section on Phonetics together 
with the notes and to go through the conjugation of the- 
verbs before paragraphs 140-164 [§§ 175-212 of the new 
edition]. The annotations on dialect peculiarities will some- 
times be best impressed on his mind by the reading of the 
texts. Let me refer those who seek information on the aims,. 



FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION xvii 

method, and tasks of investigation in modern Greek to my 
little book, Die neugriechische Sprache (Freiburg, 1892, 36 pp.), V 
which will serve as an introduction to the present Grammar. 
The older as well as the more recent literature upon this 
subject will be found collected there and in my reviews in 
the Anzeiger der Indogermanischen Forschungen, as also in the 
first part of G. Meyer's Neugriechische Studien} 

It is almost superfluous to remark how much I have 
profited by the successful labours bestowed upon investiga- 
tion in modern Greek philology during the past fifteen years. 
First in importance come the achievements of Hatzidakis, 
the fruits of which, as I hope, are apparent in this Grammar. 
Another work which I have frequently consulted with the 
greatest profit should also be gratefully acknowledged, viz. 
the commentary of W. Meyer (Liibke) 2 on the grammar of ^ 
Simon Portius. This commentary is the solitary attempt to 
furnish a brief but comprehensive account of the results of 
modern Greek philology. Its association with Simon Portius 
was a happy thought. His grammar (although of the 
seventeenth century) not only compares favourably . for a 
clear grasp of the material with the modern Greek grammars 
of the past century, but surpasses them in scientific spirit. 

The Texts, the requirements of which were constantly 
kept in view in the Grammar, offer a selection of pieces of 
poetry and prose from the vernacular, and from that section 
of the artistic literature which is based upon the vernacular. 
That the latter is more or less affected by the literary 
language will appear from a rapid comparison between Part I. 
and Part II. of the Texts. In the Grammar or the Glossary 
I have drawn attention to those elements of the literary 
language which formally betray themselves as such (and 
which are not altogether wanting in Part I. of the Texts) in 
order to prevent any doubt as to what is genuinely vernacular. 
The Table of Contents gives the sources whence I have taken 
my texts. From my own collections I admitted three pieces 

1 G. Meyer, Neugriechische Studien. I. "Versuch einer Bibliographie der 
neugriech. Mundartenforschung" ; Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie der 
WissenschafL Phil. -hist. Kl. exxx. (1894). 

2 Simon Portius, Grammatica linguae Graecae vulgaris. Reproduction de S 
l'edition de 1638, suivie d'un commentaire grammatical et historique par 
Wilhelm Meyer. With an Introduction by J, Psichari, Paris, 1889, Vieweg ; 

lvi and 256 pp. 

b 



xviii FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION 

together with a distich ; of these I have already published 
III. 4 elsewhere, while I. d. 7 and III. 13 (b) are inedita. 
Unfortunately no specially superior or authentic editions 
were at my command for the selections from some of the 
poets, still no real disadvantage can have, I believe, resulted. 
In general, I retained the texts in the form in which they 
were found in the editions which I used, in some cases with 
the alteration or addition of the headings. In purely ortho- 
graphical matters which in no way affect the pronunciation 
(so especially in regard to vowels) the orthography adopted 
in the Grammar is systematically carried out. In the first 
part I have taken the liberty to make some other alterations 
i.e. corrections, thus, e.g., in the case of final v, in order to 
present the normally correct popular form in harmony with 
my Grammar. I have, however, in . this respect practised 
considerable caution {e.g. I. a. 21, where forms like avry^coprjrd, 
earcoaav are borrowed from the ecclesiastical language). In 
the Texts of the artistic literature the orthography, of the 
literary language is retained in cases like ad instead of <jt, kt 
for x T > v & f° r vr i fi na l v > e ^ c -> ^ sucn were found in my copy ; 
the Grammar will be found to furnish adequate information 
upon these deviations from the vernacular language and 
orthography. In the text of Psichari (II. b. 1) the author's 
orthography remains absolutely unaltered, so as to present at 
the same time a sample of his proposals toward reform of 
orthography. My selection of texts was determined not only 
by the language itself, but also by having in consideration the 
history of literature and culture; on these principles the 
attempts toward the creation of a popular prose, or those 
selections which reflect wide-spread literary tendencies in 
modern Greek dress, are inserted ; and, again, the admission 
of Eangavis' song (II. a. 14) was determined by its affinity 
with the ballad literature (cf. I. a. 4). The brief biographical 
dates for the poets will prove useful to fix their place and 
time ; unfortunately I was not able to ascertain the dates 
for 'I. IWaXSo? and some of the writers still living. I 
venture to hope that the Texts, in the absence of a similar 
collection and in spite of their small bulk, are adapted to 
introduce the reader into the world of thought and ideas of 
the present-day Greek and especially the " Pw/uo?." 

The final part of the Texts consists of Specimens of 



FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION xix 

Dialect which give a fairly good idea of the multiplicity and 
variety of modern Greek patois. Annotations are here sub- 
joined in order to render the dialects more easily intelligible. 
Every one who is at all familiar with how far the alphabetic , 
representations of dialect texts fall short of phonetic exact- 
ness will comprehend the reason why I did not group the 
pieces in the first part, to which are attached notices of the 
places of origin (e.g. Epirus, Chios, Naxos), under Specimens 
•of Dialect: at best they are to be considered merely as 
reproductions of a common language with dialect colouring. 
But in the Specimens of Dialect the purpose was to portray 
with as much faithfulness as possible the local patois, which 
is more or less the case in the texts selected. That from 
Cyprus (III. 8) is unfortunately very imperfect : there exist 
but few really reliable texts of modern Greek dialects. The 
second specimen of Pontic (III. 13. b) is taken from my own 
collections which I made during a prolonged stay last year in 
Samsun, and which represent predominantly the dialect of a 
village situate east from Samsun (Tserakman). But in 
order to secure simplicity in the phonetic transcription a 
peculiarity of the pronunciation has been left unnoticed, viz. 
that an initial tenuis after a preceding nasal is sometimes 
pronounced as a voiceless media (or also fortis) : this I must 
reserve for detailed investigation on some other occasion. 

The Glossary is primarily prepared to suit the texts, 
tut embraces also all those words cited or discussed in the 
•Grammar ; from it the beginnner may acquire a serviceable 
stock of words. It was absolutely necessary to attach such 
a vocabulary, because the only handy dictionary, that of 
Kind (Leipzig : Tauchnitz), is long since antiquated and no 
longer serviceable, and the modern Greek-French dictionary 
of Legrand (Paris : Gamier) would not cover my texts. 

The principles which guided me in orthographical 
•questions are briefly indicated in § 3 n. Generally 
speaking, I endeavoured, of course, to harmonise the spelling 
with the principle of the historical orthography, i.e. to spell 
according to the origin and nature of a form ; but occasion- 
ally I also ventured to simplify as well as to effect a com- 
promise (" avfifitfiao-fios ") between the orthography demanded 
on scientific grounds and that • at present most commonly in 
use. Where the present orthography fluctuates among 



xx- FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION 

various spellings {e.g. in comparatives in -vrepos) I adopted 
without hesitation that demanded on the grounds of the 
history of the language ; while again from among several 
methods of spelling in vogue I selected that one philo- 
logically best justified. On the other hand, I avoided 
unusual spellings, like roh for rt?, in such a case preferring 
the neutral sign i. In the same way I could not admit 
spellings, e.g., like -irovWo, irovXki, etc. (which Hatzidakis x 
rightly demands on philological grounds), from a desire not to 
introduce into a Handbook an orthographical system too much 
at variance with the general usage. I have frequently aimed 
at simplification of orthography ; thus in carrying throughout 
all forms the ei in avrelvos as required by its origin, 2 or in 
writing e^w BeOel (for -rj, f}) to correspond to e^o> ISel and 
€^w Secret. In the question of accents my principle was to 
restrict the employment of the circumflex as far as possible, 
affixing it as a rule only where it would correspond immedi- 
ately to the ancient Greek circumflex (yXcoa-aa) : when possible 
I carried systematically the same accent throughout a para- 
digm (e.g. vavrr]<; — vavres, not vavTes), or at least the same 
accent in homogeneous groups (iraira<; iraird — irairdhes 
irairdho} ; iirarovaa in the singular, but eirar overage, iiraTov- 
crere, iirajovaav). I regard it as pedantic to accent specific 
modern Greek forms (like SovXa, Kvwfai, i/coificovTav) or loan- 
words (like /3ovX[X'\a) according to the rules of ancient Greek, 
frustrating, as it does, a much needed simplification of the 
historic orthography. Spellings, moreover, like yval/cd r (IIL 
11) or elirev drev (IIL 13. a) are rejected because they are 
used by editors manifestly only on analogy of ancient Greek : 
I at least am not aware that any distinction can be made 
between fj fidvva fiov and rj <y watted /juov. In regard to the 
spelling of consonants I was guided by the pronunciation > 
thus, e.g., vvyra, iXevrepos, yeXdcrrrjKa, cr/cl^co, or I have 
expressly called attention to a conflict between pronunciation 
and orthography, e.g., o-fiyvco more correctly ^ftrjvos or <r%i%o> 
for (7/a£w, etc. ; this latter course was absolutely necessary 
for the reason that some account must be given of the 
relations obtaining between the spoken language and the 

1 Cf. napvawds, xviii. (1895) 1 ff. 

2 Cf. e.g. B. J. Schmitt in the AeArfoy rrjs itrTopucris Kal idvoKoytKijs irouplas,. 
iv. (1893) p. 306. 



FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION xxi 

orthography, and also because the texts in this respect, as 
remarked above, reflect more frequently the orthography of 
the literary language. If in spite of painstaking correction 
I have here or there committed an orthographical slip, I 
beg indulgence. 
x A List of Abbreviations is given on p. 314. 
Finally, mention should be made of the name which 
graces the publication of my book. The dedication is not to 
be regarded merely as a token of my high appreciation of the 
pioneer work of Professor Hatzidakis in the department of 
modern Greek philology, but also as an expression of my 
gratitude for the repeated encouragement and benefit gained 
from a most friendly exchange of ideas both orally and by 
letter. I have also for the present Handbook had the 
advantage of Professor Hatzidakis' assistance, inasmuch as he 
was ever ready to communicate to me valuable information, 
and very kindly undertook to read through a portion of the 
proofs. 

Freiburg in Baden, July 1895. 



FOREWORD TO THE SECOND 
GERMAN EDITION. 

On the occasion of a revised edition of my book I ventured 

to be guided by the same principles which appeared to me 

expedient fifteen years ago, when I first offered to the public 

my account of the modern Greek vernacular. The plan and 

design of the book were on the whole received with general 

approval, and may therefore be allowed to remain unaltered. 

If one critic took exception to my classification of modem 

Greek declensions, another as highly commended it, so that 

I had no particular reason to yield to the carper. Some 

inequalities, either pointed out by critics or which I myself 

detected, have, of course, been removed. But the volume of the 

book has also been enlarged by the accession of new material 

such as will certainly be welcomed by those who use this 

edition. A brief account of Syntax had from the beginning 

formed part of my plan, and was precluded in the first 

edition for purely external reasons. On the present 

occasion I was persuaded to insert such an account, not only 

from a desire to furnish a fairly complete view of the 

structure of modern Greek, but also by the consideration that 

a modern Greek syntax is at least as imperatively needed as 

phonetics or morphology for the interest with which the 

Koine studies are being at present prosecuted. For I had 

more than once observed that the acquaintance with modern 

Greek on the part of those philologists who, in their Koine 

studies, were conscious of the necessity of casting a glance at 

the later development of the language, was limited to the 

material of my Handbook. Moreover, the abundant citation 

of examples for the rules of syntax, which will serve the 

beginner as exercises, is an advantage on practical grounds, 

and will, as I hope, enhance the usefulness of the book. 

xxiii 



xxiv FOREWORD TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION 

These examples will, moreover, facilitate the understanding of 
the texts from which they are as a rule selected, being only 
exceptionally taken from other sources. In preparing the 
sections on syntax I was, of course, obliged to confine myself 
to the most important points, and only quite rarely drew upon 
dialect examples — for the simple reason that practically no 
work .has been done on the problems of syntax. I am 
conscious that several of my statements can claim only 
provisional value : it will be quite obvious that in the almost 
complete absence of preliminary works, my remarks and rules 
cannot approach that degree of certainty that we may look 
for in the department of ancient Greek syntax, in which the 
work and experience of centuries may be utilised. But it 
afforded me a peculiar pleasure in many cases to be the first 
to formulate rules of syntax for the modern Greek vernacular, 
and, it may be, thereby to stimulate investigations along 
special lines, and set afoot comparisons between ancient and 
modern Greek syntax. It will easily appear that historic con- 
siderations weighed considerably with me in the arrangement 
of the material, so that students familiar with the ancient Greek 
will experience no difficulty in tracing the effects of a two 
thousand year development of the language. I am even 
convinced that, on the other hand, the chapter on the Order of 
Words in modern Greek will be serviceable for the historical 
understanding of Hellenistic texts, since we as yet know but 
very little about the arrangement of words in ancient Greek. 
I would also remark that my rules on the order of ! words 
have been drawn only from the prose texts of the vernacular 
literature. 

The other additions to my book are largely due to the 
increased number of texts. In the course of the last few 
years our knowledge of modern Greek dialects has been so 
enriched by a number of excellent works, that it appeared to 
me as obviously necessary to enlarge the third part of the 
Texts with some excellent and interesting specimens of 
dialect. From my own copies I again contributed a few 
more pieces in order that my dialect collections from the 
islands, the Maina, and Asia Minor might not lie completely 
fallow (c/. III. 3. 5. 13. b. c. 14. a and another version of 
15). Here let me thank Professor N. G. Politis of Athens 
for having most willingly and amply furnished me with the 



FOREWORD TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION xxv 

information asked for upon some texts, especially the two 
mirologies (elegies) from Maina. I considered it further 
desirable to increase the material in the first and second 
parts. o Some characteristic samples of the popular literature 
•are added ; the output of recent years must be taken into 
account, particularly as regards the progress which the 
struggle over the popular language has undoubtedly made 
since the beginning of the present century. The popular 
prose, having first asserted its claim to the field of narrative 
literature, is now ever more and more taking possession 
also of the literary essay (cultivated so excellently by 
writers like Palamas), and is experimenting even on the 
themes of abstract science. Psichari's example has been, and 
still continues, fruitful. The weekly paper " f O Noi/pa? " has 
already for a number of years done service to the propaganda 
of the popular language. Contrast this with earlier days 
when newspapers in the pure vernacular were obliged to 
suspend after a brief run. The reform movement visibly 
assumes ever larger proportions. It even seems to me as if 
Hatzidakis himself, the greatest adversary of the " language- 
heretics," has very recently altered his standpoint perceptibly 
in favour of a genuinely popular reform of the literary 
language. At least at the close of his Lectures on the 
Linguistic Question (ef. the Appendix on Bibliography) he gives 
-expression to principles upon a seasonable reform of the literary 
language that must sound to the advocates of the vernacular 
as a concession to their own views. If a man like Hatzidakis 
were to lend his support to the reform movement, that were a 
consummation to be wished. 

Unfortunately, I was obliged to leave unfulfilled some 
wishes which were expressed to me in the event of a new 
edition of my book, and especially that for the admission of 
Solomos' Hymn to Liberty. I could not consent to give only 
a few verses, as G. Meyer proposed,. and considerations for the 
bulk of my book forbade me to give it in its entirety, as 
Krumbacher advised (by letter). Further, it did not fall in 
with the character of this book to give selections from the 
mediaeval literature or from the written language. I do not 
ignore the practical object of such proposals, but I believe 
that this object would be better served in special collections. 

The Appendix on Bibliography is intended as a guide for 



xxvi FOREWORD TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION 

those who are interested in the problems and the history of 
modern Greek. Here everything is entered that appeared to 
me as specially characteristic for the purposes of introduction 
to modern Greek philology, as is also everything that could 
offer further help in bibliography, i.e. could present in outline 
the whole activity in the field of modern Greek philology. 
The entries from 1902 on are relatively more numerous 
because my reviews in the Indogermanische Forschungen 
extend only to that year. Such works on the Koine are 
selected as take account of the modern Greek standpoint. 

After my book has served the cause of modern Greek for 
fifteen years, I hope that in its revised form it will continue 
to prove serviceable to modern Greek and related studies. 

It remains to thank Doctor E. Kieckers for the kind 
assistance which he rendered me in the correction of the 
proof-sheets. 

ALBERT THUMB. 

Stkassburg, July 1910. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Foreword to the English edition . . . . vii 

Translator's Note . . . . . * . ix 

Foreword to the first German edition . . . xi 

Foreword to the second German edition .... xxiii 

GRAMMAR. 

^ PART L-PHONETICS . . . 3 

§ 1. Characters. § 2. Pronunciation. § 3. Phonetic system. 
§ 4. Accents. 



4 



PHONETIC CHANGE. 



a. Vowels and Diphthongs ...... 7 

§ 5. Long and short. § 6. Initial vowels. § 7. Dropping of 
vowels. § 8. Diphthongs. §§ 9, 10. i and e in the 
function of consonants. § 11. Contraction of vowels. 
§ 12. Vowels in the initial syllable. 
h Stops (Mutes) ....... 14 

§ 13. General remarks. § 14. ttt and kt. § 15. /irr, i/r, y< 
(lift, vd, yy). § 16. Less common groups of sounds. 
§ 17. Palatalising. 

c. Spirants ........ 18 

§ 18. Change to tenues. § 19. fs. § 20. 6. § 21. *. § 22. 
Voiced spirants ; disappearance of. § 23. Insertion of a y. 
§ 24. y and /3 before fi. § 25. 8 before y. § 26. Harden- 
ing of y and d. § 27. y becoming s. §§ 28, 29. a- and f. 

d. Liquids and Nasals ....... 23 

§ 30. Pronounced mouillL § 31. X and p. § 32. X and p 
dropped. § 33. Nasals. § 34. Final -v. 

e. Compound and double consonants . . . .26 

§ 35. Compound consonants. § 36. Double consonants. § 37. 
Combinations of consonants. 
/. Accent ........ 28 

§ 38. Position of the accent. § 39. Enclitics and proclitics. 

PART II.— MORPHOLOGY. 

Inflection of substantives . . . . . .30 

Use of the forms . . . . . . .30 

§ 40. Gender and number. § 41. Cases. § 41a. Composition 
of substantives. §§ 42, 43. Function of the Nominative. 



xxvm CONTENTS 

PAGE 

§§ 44-48. Genitive. §§ 49-53. Accusative. § 54. Render- 
ing of the Dative object. 
Article . . . . . . . 40 

§§ 55, 56. Inflection. §§ 57, 58. Use of. 
Substantives ........ 43 

§§ 59, 60. Classification of declensions. 

I. Masculine Nouns ....... 44 

a. Nom. pi. -oi . . . . . . .44 

§ 61. Terminations and paradigms. § 62. On the different 
cases. § 63. Indeclinable nouns, and historical notes. 
K Nom. pi. -es. . . . . . .46 

§ 64. Terminations. — - Parisyllabic : § 65. yipovras. § 66. ya- 
rovas. § 67. Some irregularities (gen. sing and pi.). 
§ 68. <\e(j)Tr]$. § 69. fjLao-Toprjs. — Non-parisyllabic : § 70. 
•jrairas. § 71. fiaatXids. §§ 72, 73. Irregularities in the 
plural. § 74. x aT & s - § 75, KapaftoKvpis. § 76. Non- 
parisyllabic plurals to the kX^ttjs paradigm. § 77. 

KClCpis. § 78. KOVTCS. § 79. iraTTTTOVS* 

II. Feminine ........ 53 

§ 80. Terminations. — Parisyllabic : § 81. Kaphid. § 82. Accent 

of the gen. pi. § 83. €p7ri8a. § 84. Gen. pi. (and sing.). 
§ 85. vv(prj, dbepcfrfj. § 86. fipixn. § 87. ^d/xo, $p6ar<o, 
Mapiya. — Non-parisyllabic : § 88. dXeirov. § 89. vevi, 
§ 90. Non-parisyllabic plurals in the paradigm KapSid, 
vv(f>rj, dd€p(f>rj, 

III. Neuter ........ 59 

a. in ~o(v), -io(v)> -t . . . . . . .59 

§ 91. Terminations. — Parisyllabic : § 92. |vXo. § 93 -\o, -id, 

and -to. — Non-parisyllabic : § 94. On the -paradigm 
£v\o. § 95. p,dri, 7raiSi. § 96. Xoyos 1 , Adyta. § 97. 
Historical note. 

b. in -os . . - . . . .63 
§ 98. Terminations. — Parisyllabic v § 99. \dBos. § 100. 

Formation of the plural, andr historical note. — Non- 
parisyllabic : § 101. 

c. in -a, -tfio, -as . . . . . . .64 

Non-parisyllabic : § 102. Terminations. § 103. rrpdiia, ovofxa. 

§ 104. ypdyfnfio. § 105. Kpeas. 
Adjective . . . . . . Q6 

§§ 106, 107. General remarks. * 

I. Adjectives in -os . . . . . .67 

§ 108. koKos. § 109. ttXovo-los. § 109<x. Ancient Greek con- 
tracted adjectives. 

II. Adjectives in -is . . . . . . .70 

a. Oxy tones (-vs) . . . . . .70 

§ 110. fia6us. § HI. Fluctuation between -6s and -vs. § 112. 

7T0\VS. 



CONTENTS xxix 

PAGK 

6. Barytones (-is, -ys) . . . . . 71 

§ 113 {ovXidpts. § 114. dicafjLdTrjs. § 115. Fate of the ancient 
Greek adjs. in -t}?. 

Comparison of Adjectives . . . . . . 7& 

§ 116. Comparative in -re fas. § 117. -vrcpos from adjs. in -6s. 
§ 118. Irregular comparatives. § 119. Comparative 
formed with ttio. § 120. " than," etc. 

Adverbs ........ 7& 

§ 121. Use of. § 122. Regular mode of formation. § 123. 

Comparative and superlative. § 124. Adverbs in -as. 

§ 125. Adverbial expressions. § 126. Independent 

adverbs. 
Numerals ........ 80 

a. Cardinals (§§ 127-129) ....... 80 

b. Ordinals (§ 130) ....... 82 

c. Derivatives and special usages of numerals . . .82 
§ 131. Fractions. § 132. Distributive numbers, multiplicatives. 

§ 133. Numeral substantives. 

Pronouns . . . . . . . . . .84 

a. Personal Pronoun . . . . . .84 

§ 134. eyw. § 135. eVv. § 136. alros. § 137. Usage of the 
personal pronouns. § 138. Position. § 139. Circum- 
locutory forms for the personal pronoun. 
/;. Reflexive . . . . . . .88 

§ 140. Reflexive. § 141. Reciprocal. 

c. Possessive (§§ 142, 143) . . . . . .89 

d. Demonstrative . . . . . . . .90- 

§ 144. avros. § 145. rovros. § 146. (tyicewos. § 147. Position ; 

-bd. § 148. T€TOlOS. 

e. Relative (§§ 149, 150) . . . . . .93 

/. Interrogative . . . . . . .94 

§ 151. TTOLOS. § 152. TIS. 

g. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives of a pronominal nature . 95- 
§ 153. navels, Kavivas ; K<m, rtVore. § 154.. Kairotos. § 155. 
KaSeis, Kadivas ; <d6e. § 156. Kapiroaos, o\os y aWos. 
% 157. 6 i'Sior, pouos, races', and Selvas. 

Prepositions ........ 98 

§ 158. Introductory note. § 159. In composition of verbs. 

Proper Prepositions . . . . . . . 100* 

§ 160. els. § 161. (itto. § 162. pi § 163. yid. § 164. Kara. 
§ 165. dvris. § 166. a>$. § 167. x^P^y ®ix m * § 168. 
TTpGS, ox> «?• 

Improper Prepositions ...... 10T 

§§ 169, 170. General remarks. § 171. Preps, combined with 's. 
§ 172. With a™. § 173. With pi.- § 174. In the 
dialects. 



XXX 



CONTENTS 



THE VERB. 

Preliminary Remarks ...... 

§ 175. Voice. § 176. Active. § 177. Middle. § 178. Tense 

§ 179. Mood. § 180. Aktionsart (kind of action), 

§ 181. Infinite. §§ 182, 183. Augment. § 184. Re 

duplication. § 185. Personal endings. 

Usage of the Tenses and Moods .... 

Present stem and Aorist stem . 

§ 186. Pres. Indie. § 187. Aktionsart. § 188. Imperfect. 
§ 189. Aor. Indie. § 190. Pres. and Aor. Subjunctive, 
§ 191. Future. § 192. Relative sequence of time. 
Mood ........ 

§§ 193, 194. Subjunctive. § 195. Imperfect in modal sense, 
§ 196. Imperative. 
Formation of Verbal Stem 

§ 197. Stem of pres. and aor. 
§ 199. Present stems. 
Aorist Stem 

a. Aorist active ...... 

§200. Principles of formation. §201. Sigmatic aorist. §202 
/c-aorist. § 203. Non-sigmatic aorist forms. § 204. 
Note on the historic relation of the present and the 
aorist stem. 
b Aorist passive and kindred formations . 

§ 205. Aor. in -6rj-Ka. § 206. Enlarged aor. stems. § 207. Aor. 
in -tjkcl. § 208. Historical note., 
c. Perfect passive participle and related forms 

§209. General. §210. Participle in -pivos. §211. Participles 
with enlarged stems. § 212. Participle in -tos. 



§ 198. Table of Classification 



PAGE 
111 



119 
119 



126 



129 



137 
137 



144 



148 



Conjugation of Verbs. 

I. Barytones ........ 151 

Simple tenses ........ 151 

Active : § 213. Present. § 214. Imperf. and aorist. § 215. 

Non-sigmatic aor. subj. §§ 216-218. Imperative. 
Passive: § 219. Present. § 220. Imperf. § 221. Aorist. 
§ 222. Imperative. 
■Compound tenses . . . . . . .158 

§§ 223, 224. Auxiliary verbs, etc. . . . .158 

Active: §§ 225, 226. Future. § 227. Perfect and plnperf. 
§ 228. Future perfect. § 229. Use of the compound 
tenses. § 230. Conditional. 
Passive : § 231. Future. § 232. Perfect, pluperfect, and future 
perfect. § 233. Conditional. 
Participles . . . . . . . 167 

§ 234. Forms of. §§ 235, 236. Usage of. 



CONTENTS xxxi 

PAGE 

II. Contracted Verbs . . . . . . .169 

§ 237. Classification of. — 

First Class . . . . . . . .1*70 

Active : §§ 238, 239. Present and imperfect. § 240, Im- 
perative. 
Passive: §§ 241, 242. Present and imperfect. § 243. Im- 
perative. § 244. Other forms. 

Second Glass . . . . . . . .173 

Active : § 245. Present and imperf. § 246. Imperative. 
Passive : § 247. Present and imperf. § 248. Imperative. 
§ 249. Other forms. § 250. Extent and currency of the 
first and second classes. 

Semi-Contracted (§§ 251, 252) . . . . . .176 

PART III.— SYNTAX. 

Principal Sentences ....... 179 

a. Form and Content . . . . . .179 

§ 253. Sentences without a verbal predicate. § 254. Sentences 

without a subject. § 255. Interrogative sentences. 
§ 256. Exclamations. § 257. Interjections. 

b. Connection of sentences . . . . . .182 

§§ 258, 259. Asyndeton. § 260. Co-ordinate connection (by 

conjunctions). § 261. kclL 

Subordinate Sentences . . . . . .185 

§ 262. Prelimary observations. 

Attributive and substantival clauses . . . . .186 

§§ 263-265. Relative clauses. §§ 266-268. Substantival clauses 
with vd, Iras, iTov. § 269. Indirect interrogative 
sentences. § 270. Indirect discourse. 

Adverbial Clauses . . . . ... .192 

§ 271. Of place. §§ 272-275. Of time. § 276. Causal. § 277. 
Conditional. § 278. Concessive. § 279. Consecutive. 
§ 280. Final Clauses. §§ £!81, 282. Of manner. 

Affirmation and Negation . . . ' . . .199 

§ 283. "Yes" and "no." § 284. "Not." § 285. Emphatic 
negation. 

Order of Words . . . . . . .200 

§ 286. Preliminary. § 287. The verb in a sentence of two 
members. § 288. More than two. § 289. In dependent 
clauses. § 290. Object. §§ 291, 292. Adverbial quali- 
fications. § 293. Adjective. § 294. Attributive 
Genitive. § 295. Dependent Clauses. § 296. Artistic 
Devices. 



XXX11 



CONTENTS 



TEXTS. 
I. FOLK-LITERATURE. 

A. Folk- Songs ...... 

1. ^H a\a>ai rrjs KcavoTavTivov7ro\is . 

a. Passow, Popularia Carmina Graeciae recentioris (Leipzig, 

1860), No. 197 . 
6. Passow, No. 194 

2. 'O Aicikos. Passow, No. 234 

3. c O ^ripyios. Passow, No. 54 . 

4. 'O diroxaip€Ti<rii6s tov kX^ttj, Passow, No. 153 . 

5. 01 K\i(j)T€s naif) avot£i. Aravantinos, 2t;AAoyq brjpaSwv do-^drcov 

rijs 'HTTttpov (Athens, 1880), No. 127 . 

6. XcXidovio-fia. Passow, No. 305 . 

7. '0 Xdpos kcu oi Vvxts. Passow, No. 409 . 

8. Xdpos. B. Schmidt, Griechische March en, Sagen und Volks- 

lieder (Leipzig, 1877), No. 18 . 

9. 'O Xdpos Kai 6 To-07rdvr]s. Passow, No. 426 

10. MoLpoKoyt. B. Schmidt, No. 15 . 

11. c Bovptcokaicas. Passow, No. 517 

12. To yio(j)vpi rrjs "hpras. Passow, No. 511 . 

13. Nawdpio-pa. Passow, No. 281 

14. *H t-€viT€id, Passow, No. 323 . . 

15. c pTTKTTiKbs <j>ikos, Jeannarakis, Kretas Volkslieder (Leipzig, 

1876), No. 174 

16. C H iriphiKa. Passow, No. 493 . < . 

17. 'H x°pevrpia. Aravantinos, No. 426 
18 y Epa>TiKOv napdirovo. NeoeXX?7i>iKa WvoXckto (Athens, 1870 ff.), 

ii. p. 445, No. 20 . 

19. C H x a l JL * VT ) evKaipia. Aravantinos, No. 211 

20. To o~rap.v\ ro-aKio-pivo. Passow, No. 591 . 

21. 'O nan as dyair^TtKos. Passow, No. 585 . 

22. 'E^o/ioAoyr/o-i. Kanellakis, XiaKa. 'AvaXejcra (Athens, 1890), 

No. 93 

23. 'H ao-xvM vvfyri. Aravantinos, No. 360 . 

24. Distiches .... 

(1-3. 5-7. 9. 11. 12. 14-16. 19-24. 27. 28. 32-34. 38. 40. 
44. 45. 49. 50 from Passow, 4. 31. 35. 39. 41. 43. 46-48 from 
Aravantinos, 8. 13. 36 from NeoeXX. 'AvaXe/cra, i. 257 ff. ; 18. 26. 
29 from Jeannarakis, 25. 30. 37 from Kanellakis, 10. 42 from 
Brighenti, Crestomazia neoellenica [Milan, 1908], 17 Author's 
copy.) 

B. Proverbs ........ 

(1. 2. 4. 12. 19 from Politis, Uapotpiai [Athens, 1899 ff.] ; 6. 
8. 14. 17. 20 from NeoeXX. 'AvdXeKra, i. 131 ff. ; 5. 10. 13. 15 
from Sanders, Das Yolksleben der Neugriechen [Mannheim, 
1844] ; 3. 7. 16 'Eor/a, 1890, i. pp. 171, 190, 231 ; 9. 11. 18 from 
Jeannarakis.) 



PAGE 

211 
211 



211 

211 
211 
213 
21& 

214 
214 
215- 

215 

21a 

217 
217 
219 

22a 

221- 

221 
221 

222' 

222. 

22a 

223. 

224 

224- 
225 
225- 



230 



CONTENTS xxxiii 

PAGE 

C. Riddles . . . . . . . .231 

(1. 2. 6. 7 from NeoeXX. 'AvdX. i. 193 ff., 3-5 from 
Kanellakis, 8. 9 from Sanders.) 

D. Popular Tales and Legends . . . , . .232 

1. To xP vcr ° P € pyl* -Pi°» Pontes populaires grecs (Copenhagen, 

1876), p. 16 if. . . . . . . .232 

2. Td <f>l8i, to o-kvW tat r} yard. Pio, p. 26 ff. . . . 23G 

3. c O icvp Ad{apos k ol SpdnoL. Pio, p. 34 ff. ... 239 

4. c O (pTcoxos teal 6 ttXovctios. NfoeXX. 'AvdXcKra, ii. p. 13 f. . 241 
5 OlQLXoi. Pio, p. 220 ff. . . . . . .242 

6. Has e(f)r€idcrrrj 6 \ayos kol to XayaviKO. AcXtlov ttjs icrTOpiKr t s kcu 

€0vo\oyiKrjs haipias ttjs 'EXXdSos (Athens, 1883 ff.), i. p. 355 . 243 

7. *H Aap7r rjdova. Author's copy ..... 244 

8. 'O o-(opos tov MapaOcbva. Politis, Uapaboa-eis (Athens, 1904), 

No. 7 . . . . . . .244 

9. Ot MvXopdoi. Politis, No. 108 . . . . 245 
10. Ot Kopes tov Kaa-Tpov. Politis, No. 136 .... 245 

II. ARTISTIC LITERATURE. 

A. Poetry ........ 246 

1. HoXcixicrTTjpioVy by Vrjyas. 'AvdoXoyta 7roirjTiKr) {tiro N. M^a- 

\o7tov\ov (Athens, 1888), p. 6 (and Hapvao-o-bs rj dirdvdio~p.a 

T<i>V €Kk€KTOT€p(OV T^a^tO)!/ TTJS V€QS iWrjVLKtjS TT0Ll)O-€O>S V7TO K. 

TecpapUrj, Athens, 1868, p. 16). . . . .246 

2. Tepos /cat OavaTos, by BrjXapas. IloiiJ/tara virb 'I. TSrjkapd (ill 

2aK€\\aplov Bi(3\iodr}KT] tov AaoO), p. 58 . . . 247 

3. Qikdpyvpos, by the same, ib. p. 61 . . . •. 248 

4. Ot Xdpes /cat 6 "EponTas, by XpiojoTrovkos. Avpitca ano 'A. Xpi- 

VToirovkov (in IZaKiWapiov Bi{3\io6r)Kr) tov Aaov), p. 17. . 249 

5. r O Xoyios, by the same, ib. p. 88 . . . . .249 

6. *H yfruxovXa, by 2oXcopos. Aiovvo~lov 2o\(opov "Anavra rot 

€vpio-K.6}i€va (Athens, 1901), p. 16 . . . . 250 

7. *H (jxipiJLaKtopivr), by the same, ib. p. 18 . . . . 251 

8. *0 €vy€vrjSj by 'A. Sovtctos. llavopapa ttjs 'EXXdSor, reprinted in 

Legrand, Grammaire grecque mod erne (Paris, 1878), p. 252 . 252 

9. Bderavo?, by II. 2our(To?. AvtfoXoyta, p. 258 . . . 253 

10. GaXacrcra, by TavraXto^ff. Uapvao-o-os, p. 437 . . . 254 

11. FoBov /cat x°P T( *Ph ^y ZaXajccooras. Tct "AiravTa Tecopyiov X. 

ZaXa/cwo-ra (Athens, 1859), p. 269 . . . 255 

12. Ne/cpt/cj) cobrjj by BaKaoDpiTrjs. "AiravTa 'A. BakacopiTov (Athens, 

1884), i. p. 1 . . . . . .255 

13. C H papicovXa, by TviraXbos. 'AvdoXoyia, p. 263 . . . 257 

14. 'O K\e<l)TT]s, by 'A. FayKaftrjs. UapvaacroSj p. 360 . . 257 

15. To op<t>avb ttjs KprjTrjs, by 9 A. Ilapao-^off. 'A. Uapdcrxov IlotiJ/tara 

(Athens, 1881), iii. p. 365 . . . . . 259 

16. 'O pavdfirjs, by Kd/c/coj. 2/cd/cov €Tr]criou 'HfiepoXoyiov tov erovs, 

1890, p. 105 . . . . . .260 



xxxiv CONTENTS 



17. *0 XapoKarjptvos, by I\ Maptcopas. MapKopa UoirjTina tpya 

(Corfu, 1890), p. 274 . . . . . . 260 

18. Eej/ir«a, by T. Kapirvo-rjs. Brighenti, Crestomazia neoellen. p. 98 260 

19. TpayovdaKiy by 'I. Xla7rabiapavT07rovXos. Pernot et Legrand, 

Chrestomathie grecque moderne (Paris, 1899), p. 98 . . 261 

20. 2tj) pepand, by T. Apoaivris. 'Ecrri'a, 1893, i. p. 33 . . 261 

21. *H vorepvr} fxand rrjs, by UaXap,ds, Tpayovbia rrjs 7raTplBos pov 

(Athens, 1886), p. 139 . . . . . . 263 

22. 'AOqvcu, by HoXc/x^p. 'Ecm'a, 1890, ii. p. 174 . . 263 

23. Srcy/xat itoitjtlktjs dbvvafilas, by HpofteXeyyios. 'Ecm'a, 1890, ii. 

p. 157 . . . . . . . .264 

24. "Ovttpo, by Xpva-ofjLaXKrjs. Brighenti, p. 143 . . . 265 

25. MaTaiobogla, by "Eppovas. "Eppovas, Trjs Zcorjs (Athens, 1904), 

p. 56 . . . . . .265 

B. Prose ........ 266 

1. Xafiiva Xdyta, by Psichari. From To Tagtbt, fiov (Athens, 1888), 

p. 235 . . • 266 

2. Ta ovofiard pas, by 'E^raXuortyf. 'Ear/a, 1890, i. p. 42 . . 268 

3. 'H &a>Tia rrjs Xapas. UapapvBi 7rpa>ToxpovidTiKO } by Apoo-tvrjs. 

'Ecm'a, 1891, i. p. 9 . . . . . .270 

4. C H Bao-iXoirovXa kl 6 izapdXvTos, by Mdvos. 'Ear/a, 1893, i. p. 3 , 274 

5. 'H Bpva-L 1-779 Koprjs, by Xarfo7rovXo?. 'Ecm'a, 1893, i. p. 4 .275 

6. 'H Ne'er AiaOfjurj, Kara to MaBBalo k. 13, by 'A. IlaXX^s. From 

*H Nea AtaBrjKrj Kara to BariKavb xep6ypa(f)o p.€Ta<t>pao~p€vr) dirb 
top 'A IlaXX? (Liverpool, 1902), p. 32 ff. . . . 276 

7- e H (j)iXoXoyia pas, by K. HaXapas. From UaXapas, Ypdp.pa.Ta, i. 

(Athens, 1904), 119 ff. . . . • . .278 

III. SPECIMENS OF DIALECT. 

1. From Bova. Morosi, Archivio glottologico italiano, iv. (1878) 

p. 79 285 

2. From Calimera in the Terra d' Otranto. Comparetti, Saggi dei 

dialetti greci dell' Italia meridionale (Pisa, 1866), p. 76 . 286 

3. From the Maina. Author's copy .... 287 

a. MoipoXoyi from Kitta ..... 288 

&. MoipoXoyi from MiroXapioi ..... 288 

4. Aegina : 'O {Hao-iX4as tf Y7rvos. Thumb, MeXiTT) tr€p\rijs o~Tjp€piVTJs 

ev Aiylvjf XaXovpevrjs biaXcKrov. 'ABrjva, iii. (1891) p. 97 . 290 

5. Ios : Qtopedlvos. Author's copy . . . . .291 

6. Calymnos : MoipoXoyi. K. Dieterich, Sprache und Volksiiber- 

lieferungen der siidl. Sporaden (Vienna, 1908), col. 326 . 296 

7. KarpathQS. Zooypdfaios 'Kyav tJtoi p.vr)para ttjs iXX. dpxaiorrjTOS 

£a>vTa iv t<5 vvv £XXrjviK& Xa& (edited by the 'EXXrjv. $>iXo- 
XoyiKos SvXXoyos in Constantinople) i. (1891) p. 276, No. 13 . 297 

8. Cyprus. 'A. SaiccXXdpios, Ta Kvirpiaicd, ii. p. 64, No. 19 ^ . 297 

9. Chios : *0 XoXcfc, 6 (j>p4vipos tct 6 tydnos. H. Pernot, Etudes 

de linguistique neo-hellenique, i. (Paris, 1907) 161 ff. . 298 



CONTENTS xxxv 



10. Lesbos : 'I (Sacrkcs ex rcripareX'. P. Kretschmer, Der heutige 

lesbische Dialekt (Vienna, 1905), col. 544 . . , 300 

11. Velvendos in Macedonia : Ot rpe7s ovpjirjvts. M.7rovvTa>vas, Me- 

\4ty) Trepi rod y\<o<T(riKOv Idiayfiaros BeX/3evrov ('A/o^eta rrjs 
vearcpas eXKrjviKrjs yXaxrcrq?, i. pt. 2), p. 119 . . . 301 

] 2. Sardnda Klisies in Thrace : ILapapvBi rrjs npoyovrjs. 2r. B. ^aXr^s', 

OpaKLKd (Athens, 1905), p. 220 . . . . . 304 

13. From PontllS : a. To \eovrapi ko.1 apOwirov. 'O iv Ko)i/crrai/Tt- 

vovirokei 'EWtjvlkos &c\o\oyiKos SuXXoyo?, xiv. (1884) p. 291 . 306 

b. From the vicinity of Samsun ('A/uo-ds) : 'H Kara km 6 

nevTiKov. Author's copy .... 307 

c. From the vicinity of Tireboli : 'AXtnbv km apKovl 

Author's copy ...... 308 

14. Cappadocia : a, Fertek. Author's copy . 309 

b. Pharasa. ^apavridrjs 'Apx&aos, 'H Sivacros (Athens, 

1899), p. 137 . . . . . 310 

15. Zaconian. Deffner, Archiv fur mittel- und neugriechische 

Philologie, i. (Athens, 1880) p. 152. Another version of the 
same from Lada in Taygetos (Author's copy) . .311 



GLOSSARY . . .313 



APPENDIX, 

Bibliography ........ 365 

Modern Greek Writing Alphabet . . . .371 



PART FIRST. 



PHONETICS. 

§ 1. The Greeks use the ancient Greek characters and 
orthography as used by us in Greek printing. For purposes 
of writing, in addition to the forms which we customarily 
use, they employ others which approximate to the Latin 
running-character (see Modern Greek Writing Alphabet). 

For the Greek dialects of Lower Italy (villages in the Terra 
d* Otranto and in Bova) as well as for the Zaconian (a dialect spoken 
on the east side of the Peloponnesus between St. Andreas and 
Lenidi^ usually (especially in philological works) transcription in 
Latin characters is employed. These Latin (or phonetic) characters 
are only occasionally employed also in scientific works upon other 
dialects. 

§ 2. The present pronunciation of the Greek characters 
with their phonetic transcription is as follows : — 

a (a) = a (as in father). 

8 = (French) v, i.e. a labial (more correctly labio-dental) 
voiced spirant : fiaWco vdlo " I place, lay," Ppi^c* vr&yo " I 
moisten," cn-pa/3o9 stravds " wry, squinting." 

w (1) before palatal {dental) vowels (e, i) = y , i.e. a palatal 
voiced spirant (like German Jod): yeX & yeld "I laugh," 
yeiropas yitonas "neighbour," 7upo9 yiros "circle" Trr}ya[va> 
piyeno " I go," fidyepa? mdyeras " cook." 

(2) before guttural (velar) vowels (a, o, u) and before con- 

. sonants x = 3 (in grammars commonly represented b y <ih\ i.e. 

a guttural sounding spirant (like g in ich sage of some 



.,4 • HANDBOOK pP. t'HE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

German dialects, e.g. that of the Palatinate): yd\a Zdla 
(ghdla) " milk," yopdpi Zomdri " ass," yovpovvt Zuruni " pig " 
dyaircb a&apd " love," Xeyo) /43o " say," lirr\ya epfea " I went," 
yXaxrcra Zldsa " language," eyvoia %ria " care." 

(3) on 77 and 7#, t?. § 15. 

6 = cf (rfA\ a sonant interdental spirant like the English 
so-called soft £A, as in tfAett : e&p g^o " here," Soim cfcfacZi 
" tooth," Spo/no? drdmos " way, street" 

e = (medial) e. as in geL. 

_^==g 1 __sounding sibilant, like Fr. z, or (North) German s 
between two vowels (Bose), or z in zenith : %ov\evco zulivo " I 
envy," fiaty mazi " together, with." 

77 fa) = fr (as gg in_ ieetft mva$ minas " month," arjrccovco 
sikdno " I raise." 

= 1? (/#,) .unvQice d interdental spirant,, like the English 
u hard " th, as in thin^ Oafifievo^ Ipamdnos " buried " cnriOa 
sptya " spark." 

k (1) before guttural (velar) vowels ==& , i.e. like Fr. c or g# 
before guttural vowels, and almost like Germ, h in Kanne 
(only without breath) : fca\6$ hol ds " good," el/cova iJcona 
" images," a/covco alcuo " I hear." 

£2\-b q£or.&J L-i = Jc'JJcv\ a palatal stop aripro xirnating^the 
Germ. & in JK7irf (but more palatal %) : /gat fc's "and," 
gjcvK l sUili " dog," Koi^ov[iai k'imtime " I sleep," ircuSdici 
peddle i " child." 

X = L | 

^= m_ > or mouilU, v. § 30. 

y = ^ J 

g = fe (sometimes #2, 0. § 15). 

^= (medial) 0, as in not. 

7r = P. 

p = Tj . with the point of the tongue, aspirate (or also 
pronounced mouilU, § 30). 

o- = s (North Germ. ss) } i.e. alw ayR " v^pioaq-" ^ " gfrnrp" 
eveiT between ,tw.0L„yow.els^ (eav esi "thou"). For th e pro- 
nunciation of g as z 9 v. § .29...... .., 

t = t. 




ital}. — 
X (1) before the guttural vowels a, 0, u = & guttural voice- 



PHONETICS 



less spirant like ch in loch, or,_a _s_in Germ, ach, Joch : xdvco 
" I lose" € X co " I have/' e^ow " they have." 

(2 ) before the pala tal (dental) v owels e, i = palatal voiceless 
spirant x, soft as in Germ, ich, stechen: yatpco y Uro " IT 
rejoice," payaipi mafari " knife," %olpo$ %iros " pig," oyi 6%i 
" no, not." 

In cases where x hefore guttural vowels is to be pronounced 
palatal it is written ^t : e.g. axiovpa = dx'ura " straw." 

i /r = ps f somet imes fe; -v. § 15). 

Compound signs : 

ei. oi = ii^ eyeis e% is " thou hast," /^oZ/xz mira " fate." 

a6 = e (el: fiyaivce vyino " I go out." 

ov = ili fiovSi wtidi " ox." 

at>, ei; (971/) (1) before voiced sounds = 0^ gfl (w \ i.e. like 
aft, eft : 7rava> ydvo " I cease," aity?; ai?yf " dawn, ai//?jo W 
" to-morrow," Sovkevm duUvo " I work," fe^w 3^50 " I yoke," 
£eu/)G> ksivro " I know," ^upa ivra " I found." 

(2) before voiceless sounds (V, /e, t, <j>, y, a jr 9 g) : = &/, g/ 1 
^cftr e<j >) j. avTos aftd s " thisJ^jrevrw psdftis " liar." 

In the modern pronunciation the Spiritus asper Q, 
Spiritus lenis ('), and Iota subscriptum have no signification : 
60" the," 01 i " the " (pi.), aytos dyos " holy " (ayairo) aZapd 
" I love," €to5 <#os " year "), a^a efcma " song." 

On the diphthongs and i> 7^ (lk)> &> T0 *> T £ ,.y»__ § § ,,,8, 9, 
28 J171 35.„ 

§ 3. The modern Gra ek , v e rna cular (apaE&4 mm ' iIMrct,Ky 
^therefore has the following phonetic system : 

'"'..(«) Vowels :<<K(a, a)gfrjfo aQ,gXt, q, y, v y ei, ot)M(o, &>, 
w),®(ov). 



(^Diphthflngg : (Sp(a£, a?7, aei)(eijel, erj, eet, aa')^oy(oi*, 0*7, 
(oei), (mYow, out;) ; 0. §^ 



(c) Liquids :©(/3)(^(X)^W^0^(^)- 

(d) Nasals : f!n\ix)J^v)f^yy. 7/c, v. §§ 15, 33)(m7& J/*j>0> 

(e) S tops (mutes): 

Ga t ) &> 

On the mediae g 9 d, &, v. § 15. 



6 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 
(/) Spirants: 

/MO $(» 

(?) Doublejsounds :- 

1 . Apart fr om these sou nds, jhere_jexist Jri Jhe^yarious dialects ^ 
other soun ds, the most important of which will be mentioned in the 
following paragraphs. 

2. The fact that the modern Greek popular speech, though 
written according to the principles of a. Gk. orthography, has 
experienced an independent phonetic development, makes it im- 
possible in every case to force the m. Gk. form into the old Greek 
orthography; accordingly such transcriptions as TraA^os for 7raXtos 
■= old Greek iraXatos, jj for ol (fern.), /^accActas for ftacriXids, are due 
merely to the attempt to restore an external connection between the 
a. Gk. orthography and the m. Gk. form. Other orthographical 
transcriptions, like Tats -qfjuipais for tcs rjfxipcs, ct^a ypdif/rj for ypatytt, 
KOLTcuPaLva) for KaT€/3atvu), etc., have arisen through mistaken ideas 
as to the origin of the forms. On the who le^upjo, the present jio^ 
u niform ort hography obtains, and Vy en in philological circles we find 
the most opposite views (cp. the orthography of Psichari, Texts II. 
bTY). Hie principle that a m. Gk. form ought to be written accord- 
ing to its origin, presupposes a correct understanding of this origin, 
as, e.g., Noni. Ace. pi. pipes (v. § 81, n. 1) and comparatives like 
KaXvrepos (v. § 117), etc. Of course, when the source is obscure or 
doubtful, uniformity of orthography can be secured only after con- 
ventional fashion. The same holds true for forms where the 
principle given permits two equally justifiable spellings, e.g. /ca^Tw or 
kglvtm " I burn." In many cases (especially in writing dialect forms) 
the historic orthography utterly fails, which makes the use of 
auxiliary signs necessary (e.g. i, <r). 

§ 4. The syllable which bears„ the ...stress is,_marked \vith 
an acceniETacute j this acute chancres to grave v on the last 
syllable within the sentence, or circumflex^. These three signs 
have absolutely the same value in the present-day pronuncia- 
tion, the employment of the one or of the other of them being 
determined solely by the rules of accentuation in ancient 
Greek. 

At this point also the a. Gk. rules and m. Gk. forms often come 
into conflict, e.g. it may be disputed whether itan(e), " he was," should 
be written ^rav(e), in accordance with the ancient form rjro, or T/rav(c) 
according to the ancient rules of accent. 



PHONETIC CHANGE 7 

PHONETIC CHANGE. 

(a) Vowels and Diphthongs. 

§ 5. Modern Greek does not differentiate J ong and short 
vowels in the ancient j&r eek sen se. _ The vowels are of equal 
length under eq ual conditions of stress : the stressed "vowels 
(i.e. those which bear the accent of the word) are pronounced 
somewhat longer than the unstressed, that is, they correspond 
approximately to the stressed short vowels in German. 
vofMos "law" and vco/jlos (w^o?) "shoulder," pi<f>TO) "I throw" 
and Beixvo) " I show," Xi5*o? " wolf " and fiolpa " fate," \iya> 
" I say " and (f)rai(y)co " I am at fault " ; also yvcopi^co " I 
know " and vofxi^co " I believe," \iQdpi '* stone " and [xi^repa 
"mother," Xvirovfjuac "I lament" and Kot/xoOfMac "I sleep," 
<yepo$ " strong " and ircuSl " boy," are exactly alike as far as 
their stressed and their unstressed vowels are concerned. 

The a. Gk. distinction between long and short (w, o, rj y e) lias thus 
disappeared and given place to another principle— that of giving 
prominence to the accented syllable by stronger enunciation. ... In 
North, (jrk. trie contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables is 
greater than elsewhere (v. § 7, n. 1). 



-F 



§ 6. Medial vowels. Un stressed ^ O)efore a . p . Ja^raxe>^ 
fyrigg mo^tly_replaced _by [ an e : Kepi "candle," £epo? "dry," 
Oepio " animal," ciSepo " iron," 7r\epd)vco " I pay," ^eporepo^ 
(xeipoTepos) " worse," icepd {icvpia) " lady, Mrs." On the other 
hand, fiovrvpo " butter," rvpi " cheese," avprdpc " drawer." 

1. Spellings like $r)pos y o-K\rjpoc, 7r\rjpii>vu) are not really verna- 
cular so far as they do not present the change of unstressed e to i 
(discussed in § 7, n. 1). 

2. In the Pontic dialect the a. Gk. rj is for the most part repre- 
sented by e: — epOa "I came" = ^p0a, TreyaS " fountain " = TrrjydSi, 
e^e/ca "I permitted " = d^rJKa, Irpvirza-a — irpvirrja-a "I pierced." 

3. Isolated change of i to e; e.g. in Cyprian yevcu/ca = y vvoIkol 
" woman," and id(v) = p.rj(v) " not " (in prohibitions). 

e becomes o in ofr-o^a beside ^k[ia " lie," 7td/ia beside yepa 
" meal," yto(f)vpc beside j6(j>vpt " bridge," ryiofAifo beside yepl^c* 
" I fill " ; also dialectically ytSfia for yaifjba, atfia " blood." 

ou occurs often in an unaccented syllable where we should 
expect i (77, t, 1/) ; as, jAWo-rd/a (/jLvara^) " moustache," fiovarpl 



8 HANDBOOK OF THE MODEKN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(fivcrrpiov) " ladle," %ovpi%(0 and gupt^a " I shave" aovirui 
{<T7)7rid) " cuttle-fish," GToviriri (o-TVTTTrlov) " tow, oakum," 0ou- 
/u£a) (<j>T)fii£a)) " I praise," fot/Xevo) (f^Aeuw) " I envy," xpvaos 
(Texts III. 12) = ^pycro9, epxovfjuovv ( e j°X°w) "I came." 

4. In many dialects (chiefly in Zaconian, but also in Aegina, 
Megara, and Athens) the a. Gk. v and 01 are, as a rule, represented 
by ov : e.^. xjjop/Aoii/Acu "I sleep," o-ovko = o-t)/co "fig," crrcrouAog = 
<r/cvAo5 " dog," t&'pvAta = /coiAia " belly." 

In the neighbourhood of gutturals and labials unstressed 
(a. Gk.) o ((d) often becomes ov ; as, Kovhovvt " bell, " kov\~ 
\ovpt, " cracker, biscuit," kowttI " rudder," fou/u " broth," 7rov\cb 
" 1 sell," irovpvo and irwpvo " morning," <7kov\i]kl " worm " ; 
also in Italian loan-words : to fcovfjuavro " command," tcovfi- 
Traptdpto " I accompany," <p\ovpi (and <j>X<opi) " florin." 

5. The change of an o (w) to ov varies according to dialects. 
Even stressed o sometimes becomes on, as in the word ovAo? = oAos, 
especially frequent in the region of the Aegean. On -ov for -co in 
the end of a word, v. § 213, n. 3. 

6. In addition to the general Greek vowel system we find in the 
Pontic dialects also three modified vowels a, 6, v ( = a, o, u), which 
are for the most part a result of a fusion of j + a 9 o, u : Mfia = Sidfia 
"go," rot 7r€VT(,Kdpa = 7r£VTiKdpia "mice," AoVto = Aijcovco "I melt," 
cnre'AoV = o"7rrj\Lp(y) " cave," d)(ypa = ^d^tovpta (a^tovpa) " straw." The 
vowel d (Pontus and Cappadocia) occurs only in Turkish loan-words 
(e.g, KaordX^K " answer"). 

§ 7. An unstressed vowel after nasals and liquids drops 
out if the same vowel precedes : e.g. irapicaXoi (from irapaicaXto) 
" I request," atcopBo (from ajcopoSo) " leek, garlic," d/cXovOa) 
(from dicovXovdco) " I follow." Also the disappearance of the 
i in Kopfyrj (from icopvfyrj) "summit," irepirajcb (from irepi- 
7raTo5) " I walk," irep^oXt (from irepifioXi), " garden," 7re/3o-(, 
(from irepvat) " of last year," <Trnxepv6<i (from o-rjfjLepLPo?) " of 
the present day," etc., is apparently to be attributed to the 
same cause (if we posit older intermediate forms rising 
through assimilation *icopo<f>r) 3 *7repe7raTw). Cp. also the im- 
perative forms without e, <\>epTe> etc., § 217. To another 
category belong iicdTa-a (beside steadied) "I sat" down" 
<tk(£>vw (beside o-tjkcovco) " I raise," crape (beside acrdpt) 
" grain, corn." 

1. In the continental dialects (except in Attica and the Pelo- 
ponnesus), e.g. in Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace, as also 
in the northern islands of the Aegean Sea, the adjacent Asia Minor 



PHONETIC CHANGE 9 

coast, and in part of the Pontus region, i.e. in the so-called Northern 
Greek dialects, the vowel system has suffered a complete transforma- 
tion, in the extremest form of which {e.g. Velvendos, Lesbos) every 
unstressed e and o has become i and u respectively, every unstressed 
i or u has either disappeared or been considerably reduced : 

Tri8i=iirai$L "child," k6vtl/3lv = tKovreve "he approached," -nalviv 
= €7rayouv€ "he went," x at 'j° m — x at P €T0U "^ e rejoices," Tzipvd^i — 
7T€pva "passes by," e-jripvL (hraipve) "he took," (n = cre (unstressed!) 
" in, into," To-t ( = *oi) " and." 

KLpdi/xivovs = /ccoSejiteVos "acquired," ZSovkclv = eSo>/cav " they gave," 
ovpjxrjvis = 6pfxrjvi€<s " advice," <j>vrpovo-L = cfrvrpucrt " grew," ayovpd£ov 
"buy," tov X6yov = ro Xoyo "the word," irovs (unstressed !) = 7roW 
"how?" 

C^to-lv = (£)£r/T7]o-€v "he sought, asked," a<j>K€ = a^/ce "he 
allowed," IotXi = 2o-T€iXe "he sent," cr/coW = gyjkojvu) "I lift up," 
i<l>of3rjOKa = £<l>o/3ridr}Ka "I feared," va <£Xa£ = <f>vXd£ys "be on your 
guard," vvfr "bride," aKOfx = (xko/at; "still, yet," Xeovrdp = Xiovrdpt 
"lion," 7ryaS = ir-qydhi "fountain," t — tyj(v\ XayKev = XayKcvei "he 
jumps," va, ?ri0dV =7r€$dvrj "let him die." 

f/u = £ov/u "broth," KopTo-o-n-Xo = KopLT<T07rov\o "maid," 8Xc/3 c = 
SoiAevei "he works," tKcra = 7jKovo~a "I heard," crrdcr = crrao-ou 
"stop ! " ?raV = 7ravou "above," tov rcnfydX' t (Lesbos) or to kl^oXv olt 
(Pontus) = to Kc<j>dXi tov "his head." 

The modification of a preceding consonant through the t-sound 
holds throughout: e.g. ex' = ex€i, ey'v€=eyive, ovX' = oXr) or 0X01, 
IxtydX'vi = (i)fi.€ydXrjve " became great," S£,ovJ3dv'<s (Lesbos) = To-o7raV*;s 
"shepherd." 

Differences within a paradigm or stem arise through difference 
of accentuation: e.g. <j>ovvdt, = <f>wd&i "he calls," but <f>(Lva$i = 
€<£(uva£e aor. ; To-ipariX' " a little horn," rcreparov (Keparov) " horn " ; 
these differences may disappear by assimilation: e.g. irdyKavc for 
irayrJKave after pattern of -jrdyKa = 7rdyrjKa, "they went," £aXo-a/x. 
(Cappad.) for £aXt<ra/Ac "we wandered, missed our way," after £<xXo-a 
= €^aAto"a. 

Owing to such transformation the North. Greek forms often 
appear strikingly unfamiliar, especially if the consonants which 
come together also suffer alteration (v. § 37 n.). 

2. A phonetic phenomenon — the opposite of the dropping of 
vowels — i.e. the spontaneous development of a vowel between con- 
sonants, takes place in, e.g., Xa//.7ripos beside Xcc/attoo's "bright," 
IlaTivos = ITaT/A09, yovoY, more rarely ySt "mortar," <j>ovKapior<i> 
(Crete) = <^>/capto-r6> " I thank." From Yelvendos, cf. o-^it 1 = o-itlti, 
va /at] o-'Treps = va /at/ (T7r€iprj^ &o*tcuvov/ai — alo-rdvofxai, ov yafurpo^ovfju 
from 6 ya/A7r/>05 jjlov (but ov Trovov? fjL = 6 7r6vos fjiov) ; f rom Lesbos va 
fiao-Ta£iv from $ao~Ta£v (i.e. /Sao-Tafow), but also ypd<f>rn = ypd<f>row y 
ao-nr = ao-7rprj f etc., with syllabic n, r. 

§ 8. Diphthongs arise in m. Gk. from the coalition of 
originally separate vowels iQwrffivt is to be pronounced jji^om 
"nightingale," Ma7]jxivo<i kaiminos " unhappy," <£Xerjp$o-vvn 



10 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

ieimosini "alms," and similarly fioi&i (beside /36Sc } (3ov8t) 
" ox," pol^oK (ppoXoytov) " clock," dirXdl (irXdyt) " side." 
Here belong also tbe verbal forms treated in §§ 239 and 
252 pcoTdeis, etc., Xeey irqeyrp^ely a/o^vepetc. An e-sound 
combines with a preceding vowel to form a diphthong in airo? 
{ = a. Gk. ^r^?) " eagle." The diphthongs are of secondary 
origin in rfcuoapo? (or ydSapos) " ass," KeX$io(b (or /ceXaScb) 
" sing " (of birds), ^Hj^kvoa (or ^aSeua)) " I caress." Finally, 
diphthongs are to be found in words of foreign origin : yalrdvi 
" string, coid, > [jcaiKTO"r}<i " boatman," Xelfiovo " lemon," fiaifiov 
<l monkey," r&di}" tea." 

1. Also o- and e-sounds may form the consonantal part of a 
diphthong, e.g. in ttow "I go" (Texts III. 9 p*6) or a e rs "so" 
{Texts III. 13. c). 

2. A peculiar kind of diphthong is found in southern Maina (ef. 
Texts III. 3) — an i-sound generally consonantal (§ 9) being transferred 
{epenthesis) into the preceding syllable and combining with the 
vowel of that syllable: e.g. palra = /mrta "eyes," fiai&L = fia£€t "he 
puts," fjLuupi] = fuoptf, 7rot8a = ?roSta "apron," KovWompa KovWovpia 
"crackers," t&drjTcre = £8idj3r)Ke "he went," irauSd (jpeidd) — 7rai8ia 
" children," ttVvta (evfid) = Ivvid "nine," and <£ttSa = <£i&a "snakes." 
This phonetic principle is operative also between closely connected 
words, as : vol 8lop$<£><tov — va SuopOtixra) " let me mend." 

§ 9. Every i- or e-sound, which collides in the middle of a 
word with a succeeding velar sonant, loses its syllabic value 
and becomes consonantal (i.e. becomes a y = German Jod). 
The consonantal value of an i (t t tj, v, ec, oc) may be denoted 
by a M or w printed beneath (i, rj } y t §j, ov or t, <g, y, ej, oi), or 
by yt } yy etc. ; this, however, is not absolutely necessary, since 
the consonantal pronunciation is the rule in the pure 
vernacular : e.g. /3pa8ya%€i (or /3pa8vd£et,) vradydzi " the evening 
comes," ofiocd^o) (ofjuqcd^co) omydzo " I am like," Singio); " who- 
ever," aid^oLiac (aid&fiat) "I prepare myself, get ready," 
<j>T€tdv(o (<f>T6idvcp) " I make," <f>Tco^ia, " poverty," aarjfiegiAff 
"of silver" (adj.), I'o-tos "equal," Xioy^dpu (from Xeovrdpc) 
" lion" yevid (yeved) " race," 7raX^p9 (from iraXcuos) " ancient," 
Travtoftio? (wpaio?) " very beautiful." Such an i fuses with a 
preceding 7 to owe (y) sound : %qc&> dyos " holy," /3ajygj ^ya 
" wet-nurse," 7r\a7£a|a> playdzo " I go to sleep," yccopyos 
{ye&pyos) yorZds " farmer." 

In the initial syllable this ?/ (Germ. «7o<2 ) is usually written yt, yt 
{or yy) : Ytdvvrjs = 'Ioxxvi^s " John," yiarpos (tarpds) " physician," yvaXt, 



PHONETIC CHANGE 11 

(HdXiov) " glass," yt09 (vios) " son," ytoprfj (ioprrj) " feast." In some 
dialects also an i- (e-) sound, arising through the disappearance of a 
consonant, unites with the following vowel and becomes consonantal, 
e.g. Trrjawec (Tos) = Trrjyacvet, Vim = Xiyovv (Chios). 

The i is not protected even by the stress, the accent 
being pushed back ; as, dreXeicoTos " unceasing," BepkXitocra " I 
built," TTcdvco " I seize," ezrcaaa, Koirtd^co " I try," i/coTriaca, 
KovftevTia^co " I talk, chat," itcovfiivTiacra, Xycovco " I dissolve," 
eXycocra. 

Forms like eirXrjcrLacra, co^/Acioxra, creXctaxra are not really 
vernacular. 

All words, in which an originally stressed i or e pre- 
cedes the vowel forming the end-syllable, carry the accent 
regularly on the end-syllable : fiapeid fern, of fiapu? " heavy," 
+rraihid pi. of iraihi " child," %6/koi) gen. of x^P c " band," 6d 
vtlco " I shall drink " {fiirta) ; ifCfcXrjatd " church," /capSid 
" heart," fia™<i " a look," and numerous other ferns, in -id : 
<TKdXei6 " school," fjiayepeio " kitchen, cooking," x&pib " village," 
Trotov " who ? which ? " eX*a " olive-tree," ixrfXtd " apple-tree," 
and other names of trees and plants originally ending in -ea : 
0acriXid<z (fiaai\ia<;) " king," 7/na (ypaia) " old woman," ^09 
Oe'09), " young," 'OjS^d? (E/3paw) " Jew," ttXjo, tt^o, (ttX&j/) 
■" more." 

The retreat of the accent in dppwcrna "sickness," a^a/ma "weak- 
ness," opfirjveta "counsel," irpafjidreLa "goods," ^Tw^ta "poverty," 
-etc., is to be attributed to the analogy of substantives like aXrjOeta, 

]fC § 10. Words borrowed from the literary language or from 
Italian form an exception to the rule given in § 9 : e.g. dpfiovia 
"harmony," dvSpeios (in Eigas, but dvrpetd Texts I. a. 1), 
ftaaCXeia " kingdom," /Si/SXio " book," darem " witty," eviccupia 
" opportunity," KWfKpZia " comedy," voaoKOfjbeco " hospital," 
^iKoXoyta " literature," $iXta " friendship " (Velvendos), /3/o9 
{beside &09) " property " (Texts III. 5); ap^alcx; " old, ancient," 
i/eo9 " new " (vco? " young), cnyfiata " banner," wpalos 
" beautiful " ; — Ital. loan-words : e.g. Kovfxavrapia Commen- 
daria), [xirtpapia It. birr aria " beer-shop," Girera-apia speceria 
u apothecary's shop," aKafiTraftia " a kind of boat," and many 
such. 

1. The older forms in -Co, -£a, etc., have remained unchanged in 
many dialects (in the old city of Athens, Aegina, Cyme in Euboea, 



12 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Western Maina, Lower Italy, Gortynia in Pelopon., Zaconia, Pontus, 
Cappadocia), SO 7raioYa, pi. of 7rai8i " child," 7raAaTiov gen. of iraXdri 
"palace," /capoYa "heart," o-Koreivia (Cappad.) "darkness," <£coTict 
"light," 7rotos "who? which?" fiao-iXias "king," d£ivapca "cut with 
an axe," iXata "olive-tree," pyXta "apple-tree," 7rX£o "more," etc. 

2. The i (e) usually remains after a consonant + p, e.g. Kpvos 
" cold," K/)eas "flesh" (but to Kptaro), rpta (beside rpid) "three"; 
Otos (beside Otoi) comes from the ecclesiastical language. 

3. In some North. Greek dialects -ux and -%a (half vocalic i and §, 
not y) are still differentiated in the pronunciation as <£a>Tid, but 
fjurjXcd. 

4. In several dialects (e.g. in the region of the Aegean Sea and 
in Eastern Crete) i disappears after an cr (f, ^, £) : d£a for dfia, fern. 
" worthy," ypocra for ypdo-ia, pi. of ypdcri " piastre," vrjcrd for vrjcrtd, pi. 
of vy](tl "island," SiaKocra for StaKocria " 200," rpaKocres for TpiaKoo-ies 
"300" (/.), 7rXovo-os = 7rAovcrtos "rich." The loss of the i and € is 
universal in the following words : * awa (from criw-n-a), " keep 
silence," crayovi (criayoviov) "chin," a-dXt (aridXiov) "saliva," \pdOct 
(if/iaOo?) "straw"; also Ktpd (nvpa) "lady, woman" (Kvpia) ; 0copa> 
(tfcwpw) " I consider," xpw™ (xpeworaj) " I owe." 

5. Spirantic Jod (Eng. y) has become \k or ^ (*) m some dialects : 
e.g. (Velvendos) oV^os = 07roios, ret p,dr l ;( l a. = to, p-aria, (Crete), 7rcros 
= 7roto5. In several of the islands (e.^. Calymnos, Scyros, Nisyros) 
a cr or <r 2 develops after voiceless consonants, and £ or £ (I) after 
voiced consonants respectively : e.g. depc^cra = dSe'p^ia " brothers," 
7t<tos ■= 7roto5, crep^a = ^epta " hands," iraiyyidtp. = 7rat^vt8ta "sports," 
7rcrdi/a) = 7rtai/cu "I seize," Kapd/B^a — Kapdfiia "boats," avpt > o = avpio. 
In Velvendos it becomes a hard * l after <j>, 0, cr: tcOk'os = riroto^ 
Xovpd<t>K l a = Kwpdcfaia, etc. Note also from Chios (Texts III. 9) forms 
like plottera^ireioTepa "more," ippfasen = eiriacrev "he seized," dgo 
~ Svo " two," uudg'a — j^ov^ia " oxen." Finally, in the Cyprian dialect 
and kindred patois every i (except after sibilants, where t disappears) 
becomes k or /q, i.e. k' : Kvp/ca/cos = KupiaKOS, irepiaripKa = ireptcripia 
" doves," xiapKov = x^P-O* Tpi/cd (and Tpia), dX^/ceta = dA?J0€ia 
" truth," 7r/cotds = Trotds, ^ap/ctd from ^apTKtd = ^aprtd " cards." 

§11. When an end-vowel and an initial vowel come 
together a contraction (crasis) takes place : 

-a + a-, or o-, ^-, -e, i- becomes a 
-o + o-, u~> e- 9 i- becomes o 
~u + u~ t e- y i~ becomes u 
-e + e- y i- becomes e 
-i + i- becomes i ; 

or in reverse order, i.e. -o, -u, -e, -i + a- become a, etc. 

a is therefore the strongest vowel and swallows up all 

1 For Pontic a, o from ia, ip> v. § 6, n. 6. 2 Instead of ?/. 



PHONETIC CHANGE 1 Z 

the rest ; next in order comes o, then u, e, i : e.g. & aXXd^co = 6a 
a. " I shall change," 6d \w (e^w) " I shall have," air' ((Wo) 
avro " from this," r ovofia (to o.) " the name," to \riaav (to 
G'xriaav) " they built it," eyoJ '/xovva (tffiovva) " I was," eiV 
(etVat) o/JLopcf>7] " she is beautiful," ^a croi) Vfl (elirm) " let 
me tell you," 7roi) Vat (eZo-at) " where art thou ? " tou 'So>/ea 
(eScoKo) " I gave him," 7reW efi (irivTe) " five or six," ^50' 
&a? (rjpOe) one came," XetV et<eZvo<; (Xeliret) " that one (he) is 
absent," rt 'Se? (ti eloe?) " what did you see ? " 

1. In Northern Greek e is stronger than w, so if epxerai = irov 

2. In many parts t is not swallowed up by a (or o, u), but com- 
bines with the preceding vowel into a diphthong : vaJSto naido "that 
I may see," rojlSa toida " I saw it " ^ovdo-ai puj,se " where art thou 1 " 
Further, in several regions u + e unite to o : oTro^a = o7rov €X« " who 
has," o-oAcya — crov eAeya. Before velar vowels /cat retains the 
palatal pronunciation of the k: ki avrds "and he," and also loses 
its vowel before a following i : k* vcrrepa " and then." Moreover, the 
short words pi "me," ere "thee," usually lose their e before t: p. 1 
cTScg " thou sawest me " ; while, on the contrary, the article rj 61 retains 
its vowel : rjpff (vpQ*) V pwva " the mother came." 

3. Vowel contraction within a word takes place in general 
according to the same laws as in case of liaison of separate words : 
e.g. 7ra5 (7ras) from 7ray«s, Tpws from rpwycts, olkqv from a/covc, irdve 
from 7ra(y)ow€, Aerc from Aeyere, etc., 7rwpv6 (irovpvo) "morning," 
from *7Tp(ov6, i.e. 7rpo}'iv6v. (Similarly Pontic av — ay lov). 

§ 12. The initial unstressed vowel is subject to various 
mutations. 

(a) The dropping (aphaeresis) of an i and e, more rarely 
of an o or a : e.g. yovpuevos (rffovpbevos) " abbot," yecd (vyecd) 
" health," fiipa (fjfiipa) " day," 'fiiaos (a. Gk. rjfiio-v?) " half," 
7ra70) (a. Gk. virdyw) " I go," -^Xd? (a. Gk. v\jr7)X6<;) " high," 
'7<w and eyiu " I," 'S&> and eSci " here," ftp'to-tcw (evplo-fcoo) " I 
find," /cet and eVet " there," iceZvo<; and imlvos " that," pL7ropco 
(beside ip^iropoy and rjpLiropcb) " I can, am able," /jgjtw and ipcoTto 
" I ask," airepa (kairepa) " evening," (pfeapiaTO) (ev-)(aptGT&>) 
" I thank," 718/. (alyiSiov) " goat," plcltcovco (atpia) " I make 
bloody," S«> (from ovSiv) " not," Pontic '/ct (from ou**) " not/' 
X^yo? (0X4709) " little " /ittTt (ofi/juaTL) " eye," /ijXw (ojuXg)) " I 
speak," CT7T6TI. (oairiTt) " house," i/rapt (a. Gk. tydpiov) " fish," 
yaTToy (usually dyairco) " I love," 7ro fiaicpd (usually a7ro /i.) 
" from afar," ireOaLPO), 7ro6aiva> (diroBaivay) " I die," tou '^rt 
Velv. = the usual to a^rt " ear," Xa^ropi (Cappad.) = d\6xT€pa<; 
(Aegina) " cock." 



14 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Aphaeresis may even take place when the initial vowel is of 
secondary origin caused by the disappearance of a consonant : e.g. 
vaiKa (Capp.) = ywaiKa "woman" (cf. § 22). 

(b) Prothesis, thafc is, the prefixing of an a in most cases, 
more rarely another vowel : vefyako and dvefyako " cloud," irXdyi 
and dir\d(y)i " side," crrrjOi and dartjOc " breast," ^e/Xt and 
d%€i\i " lip," dftSeWa (/3Se\\a) " leech," fepv<f)d and d/cpv<pd 
" secretly," tcaprepco and dfcaprepco " I expect," Trepvco and 
direpvo) " I pass by," X^a/iovco and dX^crjiovoy I forget " 
{elimonizo in the Terra d' Otranto), d0eppco (Pontus) = Oappco 
" I believe," eau (cru) " thou," tot€? and eTOTe(v), Pontic aroVe 
" then, at that time," toDto? and 6toi)to? " this " (on ffkeirco 
and e)8Xe7ra), etc., c/: § 182, n. 2); tV/ao? (in patois tovaa and 
cvaa) " shadow." 

(c) Exchange of the initial vowel for another vowel : e, i 
are liable to be displaced by a or o ; o in most cases is dis- 
placed by a, while a seldom yields to any other vowel : avrepa 
(a. Gk. evTepa) " bowels," d\a<f)p6<; (i\a(f)p6<;) " light," a£a8e/j<£o9 
(e£aSe/)</>o?) " cousin," dirdvco (irdvto, eirdvoy) " above," a#e£ 
(Pontus) = e/cet " there," dpcoray ( = epcoTco, pcoTio), in Pontus 
also opoyrcb, dyydpi, and yydpi (a. Gk. lyyos) " track," diro^ovr] 
{yirofiovrj) " patience," ofiop<f)o<; (also €fiop<})0<;) " beautiful," 
0X T pfc ( or £X T P°s) " enemy," opjjLrjveta (epfirjveia) " counsel," 
opiriSa (epirlha) " hope," 0700 = e^oi " I," e'Si/co9 = usually &/eo? 
(l&i/co?) " own," eViVo) (usually oirlcrcD or 7tlg-co) " behind," 
dpfyavo? (opcpavos) "orphan," a^Ta7roSi (^Ta7roS^, from 
oicrairohiov) "polypus/'* beside /-tari (see above) also d/afidro; 
ovXos, usually 0X09 "whole"; euro? (Chios, Naxos, Crete, 
Ionic Islands) = avros " this." 

In the forms of the initial vowel there exists the greatest 
diversity in the different dialects. These forms are mostly due to 
an incorrect analysis of the close liaison of words according to § 11, 
especially in the union of the article and noun or va, #a + verb: 
e.g. TOfAjjiaTL is analysed into rb jx<xti (instead of to ojjLjxan), vaKaprcpQ) 
into v" aKapTtpC) (instead of va KapTepu), ravTepa into ra avrepa 
(instead of ra cvrcpa). 

(b)' Stops. - 

§ 13. The tenues 7r, k, t generally undergo no change. 
In some cases they have arisen from spirants (see § 18). On 
the other hand, two exceptionless phonetic laws have decreased 
the number of the tenues : 



PHONETIC CHANGE 15 

§ 14. (1) The combinations itt and kt have become <f>r 
and x T '• ( a * ^-) 7rT ^ as become <£t : </>Tap/u£b/z.cu (a. Gk. 
TTTdpvvfjLai), " sneeze," </>t6/do (irrepov) " wing," (pTco^o^ (7TT&;^d<?) 
" poor," darpd(j)Tei (d<TTpdirT€i) } " it lightens," e<£ra (e7rTa) 
" seven/' /cXecjyrrj^ (/cXeVrT;?) " thief," 7T6</>tg) (ttltttco) " I fall." 

(a. Gk.) kt = %r : x T ^ co ( KT ^ C0 ) " I build," yrviro* 
(ktvttg)) " I strike," dvovyro^ (avotfcro?) " open," Bd^rv\o<; 
(Sd/cTvkos) " finger," he'i^ras (from SeUvvfii) " I show," Styru 
(hiKTvov) " net," vvyra (vvl; vvktos) " night," o^t<o (oktco) 
" eight," <r^^T09 (a^^/eTo?) " fixed." 

1. 7tt, kt therefore are no longer to be found in a modern Greek 
word. cur to =-a7r6 to, etc., is a different matter; yet even in this 
case the pronunciation is often d<£' t6 ; so also, e.<7., ko^' to from 
%?(s) to, § 37. 

Whenever the spelling 7tt, kt (KaOpiirrrjs instead of Ka6p£<f>Tr}s 
"looking-glass," ajmi/a instead of d^Ttva "ray," etc.) occurs in 
vernacular texts it is merely a survival of the historic orthography , 
of the literary language, pronunciation being <£t, ^t. 

2. In the Greek of Lower Italy ^t and <£t have passed into </>t 
(Otranto) and o-t (Bova) respectively: ?w/jfa j^to, (but epetta = 
€7r€^)Ta !) ; es£a = €7rrd, n£s£a = ^a. 

§ 15. (2) The tenues after nasals become mediae, i.e. fiir, 
vr, y/c are pronounced like mb, nd, idg (w = w# in German 
Engel): dyKaXid^co angaVazo " I embrace," irpiytci7ra<; privgipas 
(Lat. princeps) " prince," Xdfnro) Z&m&o " I shine," dvrdfia 
anddma " together." The same sounds arise when a nasal 
and (a. Gk.) ft 7, 8 come together, so that jjl/3, 77 and z;S are 
pronounced like mb, 7?g, nd, preserving the ancient Greek 
mediae ; but it is better, except in the case of 77, to write 
fur, vr : KoXv/nircb (a. Gk. KoXvfiffco) " I swim," iyyi^co ewgizo 
" I touch," evretca 4ndeka (evBexa) " eleven," Bevrpo (SevSpov) 
dindro " tree." 

1. Spellings like koXu/x/Soj, SivSpov come from the literary language 
and are unintelligible. 

When, owing to the dropping of a vowel, the groups jultt, 
y/c (77), vt begin the word, they are pronounced almost exactly 
like pure voiced mediae, i.e. like North German or Eomanic 
b, g, d (or, more correctly, m b, n g, n d with reduced nasal) : 
inrpoard (ijj,wp6$) " forwards," fjiiraivco (efjuiratvco) " I go in," 
7701/4. {lyy ovt) " grandson," ytcpep,i%oiJLai " I hurl down, pre- 
cipitate (*e7/cp77/i[^]o^), vTpo-nr) (eprpoTrrj) "disgrace," vrvvojiai 
(from evhvvofiau) " I dress/ 



16 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

The change of tenues to mediae after a preceding nasal 
takes place also in the liaison of words, final -v uniting with 
the initial ir (i/r), k (£), t (tct) of a following word to mb 
(mbz), ng (vgz), nd (ndz) : tov irarepa = tombaUra " the father," 
tov -\fr6VT7j tombzefti " the liar," ryv rae7rrj tindztyi (ace.) "the 
pocket," ttjv Koupd^co twgurdzo " I weary her," $ev gipay 
dewgztro " I do not know,'* 8ev yfnjcfrw dembzifd " I care not," 
av tov irdpys andombdris " if you bring him/* Note also from 
Chios (Texts III. 9) (8)ev el(B)^yfhavel en iev gani "he saw 
nobody," (B)ev fjpKovrov 7r*d en Mcutom b^a " he came no more," 
fjfyvev raeivos ( = tcelvos;) ifien dzinos " that (man) fled." On 
the other hand, initial /3, 7, §, and y always remain spirants : 
ro(v) ftaaiXid^oty) 7^0, ttj(v) hoXta, rr](v) yvvalica (cf. § 33, 
n. 3). 

2. In many regions (e.g. several of the Cyclades, Lesbos, cf. also 
Texts III. 12) /X7r, y/c, vt, both when initial and when within a word, 
have become pure mediae : /X7ra/x7ra> has become bdbo> " grandmother," 
(e)/x7ro/3(o "lean," (e)boro, fayydpi "moon," <£e#api, Sovrt "tooth," 
<f(5^^, Koyra " near," /co£?a, avTpas " man," ddpas, dpa/3tovta£(ot>)rTai 
" they are betrothed,''* dppaft^vid^dau The same phonetic change 
extends even to loan-words (r/. e.#. fromlos Kovbdvia, Ital. compagnia 
"company," dpfxafiedo, Lat. armamentum "fleet," 7rada, Ital. banda 
"side"), and to word-liaison, cf from Ios to ga^i = Tov /ca</>€ 
"coffee," from Lesbos t gap§Ld = Tr)v /capSta (ace.) "the heart," d 
ga\a/jLv'd — ttjv KaAa/xvia, " the reed," <ra dov = o~dv tov (ace.) " as the " ; 
from Saranda Klisies /jltj dvx = pty tvxq "may it not happen," tt? 
go-eo-KKTOLv "they rent it." 

3. The softening of the initial syllable by the nasal of the pre- 
ceding final has sometimes resulted in the voiceless initial of a word 
becoming voiced, or a voiced initial becoming voiceless, i.e. there 
arose a 6 p.Tn<TTiKos from a to/a irurriicov, a /A7rc/x7rw (Crete) from 
tov 7re//.7rw, a govpevay " I shear " (Lesbos) from tov /coupevco, etc., or 
from rrj fjL7rdvTa a fj Trdvra " side" (Ios). 

4. The m. Gk. mediae are therefore inseparably connected with 
an originally preceding nasal, there being no other mediae except in 
loan-words. As the alphabet has no signs for b, d, g, 1 the corre- 
sponding sounds are represented in the numerous Turkish and 
Italian words by /a7t, vt, jk respectively : /*7reV> Turk, bei " Bey," 
fjLirdpKa " bark," vTeppevt, Turk, derven " defile, narrow pass," vTa^a 
"lady" (in cards), cre^Va?, Turk, sevda "love," avrto, Ital. adio 
" adieu," yKtaovpt% " Giaour," yKakepia " gallery," jxirdyKa " bank." 
So also Tkclit€ "Goethe," Mttck " Beck," and similar foreign names, 
although in such cases the educated Hellenise the form (TotOios 
Goethe, AdvTrjs Dante, etc.). 

1 Sometimes (in Constantinople, especially in Turkish newspapers printed in 
Greek characters) the signs /3, 7, 8 with a period underneath are employed. 



PHONETIC CHANGE 1? 

§ 16. In addition to the rules already stated, the tenues 
suffer phonetic transformation only in isolated cases and 
dialectically ; thus k has fallen out before % in {d^api (from 
£a/cxapi) " sugar," and aixalvofiat (from onfcxaivofiai) " I 
dislike," /e/3 becomes /3y, and kS becomes 78: fiydXXco 
(itcfiaXXco) " I take out," fiyaivco (sKpaivo)) " I go out/' 78^0) 
(e/c-Siyo)) " I undress," yhepvco (ifc-Bepco) " I flay." The 
combination <£™ becomes <j>tci in <f)fcvdpt (*TTTvdpiov) " shovel," 
and (j)tceiavco (beside <j>t€iuv<d) " I make." 

1. The disappearance of tenues in Chios (Texts 9), e.#. in aopdno 
= d7ro7ravw " from above," etilos — Itovtos "this," is due to dissimila- 
tion. The cause of the disappearance of the k in the same region 
in alocii— dXoya/a " little horse, " sendtii = vwtovki " chest," cannot be 
determined with certainty. 

2. The change of t to k (before i) is found in Zaconian and in 
Lesbos (also in Mesta on Chios): thus, (Zacon.) kafkidzie = KaroiKta, 
prfkixa^ liroTitp. (cf. Texts III. 15, n. 9. 2), x a, 'M = X a P T h similarly 
afenr/i=--a<f>evTYis "Mr., Sir," before mediae; (Lesbos) kcI^os = rei^os 
" wall," a<j)Ki = a<j>Ti " ear," /xaV = fxdn " eye," fxag-^X' = fxm TYjkt 
" handkerchief." In Zaconian also tv before i passes into k : e.g. kisu 
= 7tio*w " behind." > 

3. On Crete (and several other islands of the Aegean) r before 1 
becomes a spirant : to, /i,a#ia = Ta /x-arta, riOoios = tItolos, <TTpa&i(x>Tr)<; 
= or/oa-tojTTys. Similarly vtl becomes 81 : dvdStos — avdiTios 
" opposite," dpxoBcd = dpxovTtd " nobility, gentry." Cf. also 
■mdddia = fiaTia i Terra d' Otranto. 

4. In Pontus the initial group or becomes cr(o-) : <r(<r)b = <tto " in 
the, to the," adxrrj = cndxTrj "ashes." 

§ 17. The palatalising of a k before e and i (y), i.e. the 
change of Jce Id to ce ci, ce ci or ce ci (tot or tot tct) is widely 
spread (but only in dialects). 

This transition takes place in Pontus, Cappadocia, CJyjDnis^jCrGtej- 
on many islands of the Aegean (e.g. Lesbos, Amorgos, Naxos, Syra, 
Calymnos, Chios), in the dialect of the city of Athens, in Megara, 
Aegina, Cyme in Euboca, in many regions of the Peloponnesus (also 
in Zaconia and in the Maina), in Locris, Aetolia, Lower Italy ; thus, 
e.g. } T<j€<f)a\i — K€<t>d\i "head," raai (rirai) = /tat "and," Taatp6<s = 
xoLLpos "time," ro-ept — Kept "candle," To-epd = Kcpd (Kvpia) " woman," 
€T<ret (cTcret) — €*€? " there," rvziTOfxai = Ketrofxat " I lie," rav/ma — Kv/xa 
" wave," ra-vpara-Y) (Maina) = kvplolky} "Sunday," kotctwos (kotctlvos) 
= k6kkivos "red," kovt<tl = kovkl "bean," clkovt<t€ (Aegina) 3 pers. 
sing, of olkovkcl "I heard," <rrcri£a> = cr/af w (a-^i^to) "I split." In 
Tcrou/xai/Aai (Chios TcroLfXovfxat) = Koijaovpiat " I sleep," raovXia = KOiXtd 
"belly," &Tcrovf3a> — (TKvf3u> " I bow," 6-t&ovXl = ctkvXl "dog," and in 
other instances (e.g. on Aegina), the phonetic change before u is only 
apparent, because this u has arisen from an older &'-sound. This era 



13 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(ot<t) may become even acr (or <f), cf. e.g. /fyiWci "he finds" (Chios, 
Calymnos, and elsewhere) ; on cr, v. § 28 n. 

The media g (yy, jk) undergoes the same change : avr&Xos, i.e. 
d?ldzelos=ayyeXos " angel," avrQarpi = ay •klo'T pi " hook," crvd&vrjs 
(los) = crvyywrjs "relative"; or dz, thus avdzeXos, etc. (in Cos also 
avdycXos, etc.). 

In Cappadocia (Pharasa) k also becomes dl : e.g. adzeivos = iKtivos. 



(c) Spirants. 

§ 18. The spirants <p, x> @ have a tendency to pass into 
tenues (7r, k, t) after a preceding s (or after another voiceless 
spirant). This is most generally the case with 0, which 
becomes t after every cr, </>,%: aio-Tavojiat (from alaQdvq\iai) 
" I perceive," iyeXdaTTjKa aor. pass. " I was laughed at," 
ecrfirjo-Trj/ce " it was extinguished " (from iyeXdaOrjKa, ia/St]- 
(T07)K€ y but, e.g., iTijjLr)dr)ica " I was honoured), <j>rdvco (from 
<j)9dv(o) " I overtake," (i)\€VT€po$ (from iXevOepos) " free," 
€<ypd<j)T7)K€ " it was written," e^Tpo? (from i^Opo^) " enemy," 
icf>vXd^T7jKa " I guarded." 

1. The spelling with (iXevOcpos, iyeXdcrOrjKa, etc.) is historical, 
that is, it has no value for the present pronunciation. 

Similarly % becomes tc after <r and regularly also after / : 
aatcrjfAo*; (aV^7/yLto<?) " ugly," /jlogko? (/-io'ct^os) " musk, per- 
fume," cr/a£a> (a^l^co) " I split," aicoivi {a^oivi) " rope," 
afcoXeto (cr^oXecov) " school " ; evfcaptaTCt) (ev^apia-Tto) " I 
thank," Kaufcovfiai, (fcav^ovfjLat) " I boast," ev/covfiai (ev^ou- 
pal) " I pray," eu*;>7 (e^%^) " prayer." 

2. The same holds true for the spelling ax (°"X € ^° V > crxoXaomKos) 
as for crO. 

3. The change of pO into pr is fairly wide-spread, especially in 
Eastern Greek: frequently r}pTa = r)p6a, "I came," 6pr6<; = dp66s 
" straight." Less frequently px becomes pK (e.g. in Cyprus, 1 Rhodes, 
Calymnos, Samos, Chios): tpKovjAai^ fyxopcu "I come," ap/o} = dpx 7 / 
" beginning." 

<£ after cr becomes 7r only in some dialects. 

4. Thus in Pontus, Cyzicus, and Icarus: e.g. acnraXi£<D = o-<f>aXvo> 
"I lock," cnrd^o) = o-<£afa> " I kill," (Tiriyyu = crtjyiyyo) "I press," cnrivTOva 
= crcjievSovYJ " sling." 

5. The variations (rpi^ia, Opiif/co, etc.) arising from the a. Gk. law 
of dissimilation of aspirates are not found in in. Gk., 0p€</>o> eflpci^a, 
Tpex<o erpc^a, or survive only in some rare cases, like tTtOrjKa (a. Gk. 

1 More correctly rk\ 



PHONETIC CHANGE 19 

iriOrjv) from Oiruy " I place," iTd<f>rjKa (a. Gk. hd^v) from Odftu) "1 
bury,*' irpdcf)7]Ka (a. Gk. irpdcfarjv) from Opecjxo " I bring up, educate." 
Cf. § 205, I. 3, n. 3, and § 207. 

§ 19. The combination fs (frequently for 5s, vs) changes 
uniformly to ps (yfr) : iSovXeua-a (aor. of SovXevco " I work ") 
becomes £8ovXey}ra, eiravaa (iravto " I cease ") eTrayfra, etc- 
Xavaa (/cXai(y)co " I weep ") eicXayjra, and so forth (c/; aorist- 
formation, § 201, I. 1). Similarly, Aey^ha^'EXevai?, rf 
fcd^jn (fcavcns) " burning heat " ; cf. also fcdrae = Ka6(t)<Te 
" sit down " (imperat.) and (Turk.) fiira^ from ^7ra^;(T)o-e? 
" garden." 

1. In Lower Italy (Terra d' Otranto) exactly the opposite has 
occurred, \f/ becoming fs: e.g. afsilo = di/oyAos "high," na Udfso = 
vol kXohj/q) (from KA.a«i)). 

2. The form di-os (i\ § 136, n. 3) has not arisen from the more 
usual a{>T05 through the dropping of /, but corresponds to an a. Gk. 
form dro's. 

§ 20. 6 sometimes becomes %: xXifiepos, ^Xt^/zeVo?, 
"afflicted," %Xfyt "affliction" (beside OXifiepos, etc.), Tra^vl 
(from iradvi) "manger"; 6 has become cf> in dptyvrjTo? 
( = av-apl6fjt,r}To<i) "innumerable," ard^vt] (from o-rddfjLrj) " rule 
(line)." 

1 . In the dialect of the Terra d' Otranto, initial becomes t, in 
the middle of a word between vowels becomes s: Ulo = 6iXoi "I 
wish," tdnato = Odvaros " death," lisdri = XiOdpc "stone," pesameno — 
7rc^aju./AeVos "dead." In Eastern Greek also t stands for {cf va 
Xa-Tu) for x a 6<*>, Texts III. 13. c, and ar/)a)7ros for adpayn-os, Texts III. 
1 4. a), ar instead of 6 is especially characteristic of Zaconian, e.g. 
crept = #e/3os " summer," siliko = OyjXvkos " female." 

2. In isolated cases Sd (Velvendos), x» (Pontus), d (Chios) = the 
regular #d, further evvd (Cyprus) = Ocv(v)d (particles to form future 
tense). 

§ 21. In Zaconian, in Cyprus, South -Western Asia Minor, on 
several of the Aegean Islands (e.g. Crete, Amorgos, Cos, Calymnos,- 
Astypalaea), in the Pontic (as also in the Cappadocian) dialects, x 
before e and i becomes s (<r) or even $ (<r) : v£pi = x*P l "hand," 
o-ajxwvas = x €L l JL " )va s " winter," ccreis = fcx €ts " thou hast," ecreTc = ex^rc 
"you have." Sometimes (e.g. in Calymnos) this cr passes into <r: 
o-ipc, ccrct, o<7t = oxt "not," vva-a = vvxia "nails, claws." In Bova, x 
before velar sonants is pronounced aspirated h (lih') } before palatal h 
(7i,«) j h = x is also found occasionally elsewhere. 

§ 22. Among the voiced spirants (/3, 7, S), 7 especially 
shows a widely spread tendency to disappear between vowels, 
and sometimes even in the initial syllable. This disappear- 



20 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

ance of intervocalic 7 (3 and y) is found in the most diverse 
regions (in Epirus, Peloponnesus, Macedonia, in the islands 
from Cyprus to Asia Minor) : e.g. Xe'co and Xeya) " I speak/' 
(imperf. eXea and e\e<ya), Tra(y)alv(o Trr}(y)a[vco ird{y)(o " I go," 
Tp(b(y)co aor. €cj>a(y)a " I eat," \o(y)apui%(o u I reckon," 
<pv\d(y)co " I guard," po\6(y)c " clock," aa(y)ira " arrow," 
(pa(<y)r]T6 " eating," avWo(y)ov/jLat, " I consider," 7ri\a(y)o 
" sea," (o)7u'(y)o? " few," fie(y)d\o? " great," a(7)a7rw " I love," 
e(7)w " I " ; eXo^a = yeXota (Naxos), ip/fa) = yvpt^co " I seek," 
vvalfca = yvvaifca " woman." The 7 is omitted most frequently 
in the first-mentioned verbs. 

The combination 7^ (71/) has become one simple sound y 
( = 7 before 0, -i). This sign is therefore employed to repre- 
sent a y before velar sonants : ycofii^co — yefil^co " I fill," 
ytofia — yefia " repast," yto^vpc = yefyvpi, yiapa<;, Turk yara 
'.' wound." Of. also § 9. 

The omission of ft is usual in Siddko? — hid$o\o<$ " devil." 

The regular omission not only of the 7 but also of the j3 and 8 
(rarely of 0) is a marked peculiarity of the South-Eastern Gk. 
dialects, i.e. of Cyprus, Rhodes, Calymnos, and the neighbouring 
islands, but is not confined to these dialects: <j>oov pat = c^ofSovjjLai 
"I fear," Kaoupas = /ca/2ovpas " crab," 7rcpi(/?)dAt "garden," a€p(f>6<> = 
dSep^os "brother," ya(S)apos "ass," 01 (S)ai(S)€Ka "the twelve," 
6pm'(8)a "hope," 7ra(S)apt — 7ro(S)apt "foot," va <!)(ro> = va 8(ocraj "that 
I may (let me) give," €(v) = 8eV "not." Of. also a and etW, § 20, 
n. 2. In the Terra d' Otranto the dropping of intervocalic (and initial) 
consonants obtains to a still larger extent (e.g. toa = Tore, 2>oa = -jrore ; 
0, 4 = to, ty](v) ) steo = o-Te'/cto). 

In Chios, side by side with the complete dropping of y, (3, 8 we 
find also a mere reduction : e.#. va J 'eXaa-a>/x€ from yeAto " I laugh," 
6 *aaiXh " the king," ( v )ov8i " ox," Ka v a\\£va " horse-manure," ya (t apos 
"ass," etc. Texts III. 9. 

§ 23. On the other hand, 7 has been inserted between 
vowels: e.g. d(y)epa$ "air" (Chios d-epas), #€(7)0? "God," 
dfcov(y)co " I hear," icai(y)(o " I burn," Kkai(y)w " I weep," 
<f>Tal(y)a> " I am at fault " ; arycopi " boy " (from a. Gk. aoopos) 
is quite common. 

This phenomenon is found on the whole mainland, the Ionic 
Islands, the Cyclades, Crete, Chios, and Lesbos. Moreover, almost 
in the entire region of the Aegean as well as in Crete and Cyprus 
a y is inserted between v and a vowel: 7rurT€vy<i> = 7rtcrrei;a> "I 
believe," xopevyw "I dance," Kofiyu "I cut," pdfiyu> "I sew," rpifiya) 
" I rub," Trapao-Ktvyri " Friday," /Jyayye'Ato "gospel." The verbs in 



PHONETIC CHANGE 21 

-evo) end, in the Terra d' Otranto, in -So (pisteo " I believe"), in Bova 
in -egno (plateguo "I speak"), in Zaconian in -erdgu (dulerdgu "I 
work "). 

In some dialects a 7 is prefixed even to the initial 
vocalic syllable : yaX\ia = alfia " blood," yeprjpio^ = eprjfxos 
" empty," yiSios = tSios " like, the same " ; cf. especially Texts 
III. 1 2 (y€t7T6 — 6L7T6, yvarepa — varepa, yovXos = o\o9, etc.). 

Often a 7 develops before *> in the words avyvefyo = 
<tvvv€(J)o " cloud," eyvoia = evvoia " care," dyvdvria — avdvrta 
"" opposite," rvpayvco = rvpavvay " I oppress." 

§ 24. 7 and v (/3, u) regularly disappear before /a : 
fjLakafxa (from fjudXayfia) " gold," aafidpc (from aayfidptov) 
u pack-saddle," irXeLievos (from irXeyfiivos) of irXiKco " I 
twist, plait," 7rvifiivo<; from 7rviyco " I drown," irpafia (from 
wpayfia) " thing," ipcore/jLevos (from ipcorevoi) " beloved," da/u,a 
" wonder," Oafidfa " I wonder " (from 6av/ia, dav^d^a)), 
KafLevos (from tcav/xevos, /ca/a), /cdfico) " burnt," /-taye/ieVo? 
(/jLayevco) " bewitched," pe/*a (pev/xa) " brook." 

1. Usually TrpajjLfjia, KafL/xivos, etc., are written with /iju. In this 
case, however, those dialects which actually possess double con- 
sonants (§ 36 n.) recognise only one ju. in the pronunciation (except 
with two ft/x in Chios). Spellings 7rpay/ia, 7rA.€y/xei/os, pev//.a, etc., 
come from the literary language, unless the -y^u,- in the continental 
dialects. 

2. v disappears before p only in £ epw beside feupo) " I know " ; 
otherwise the v remains : aXcvpi "flour," evpl<rK<D (da evpta) "I rind," 
jxavpos "black," etc. Before v, v has become fx; cf. Xafivo) (a. Gk. 
iXavvw) "I row," livovxos (cwoi^os) "castrated, eunuch." 

§ 25. S has disappeared before y (1) in ytd = htd 
" through, on account of " (yiarl " why ? " = &a ti) ; but 
SiaXeyo) "I choose," &a/3afa> "I read," Siafiaivco "I pass 
over," Byo " two," 8yoafio<; " jasmine," etc. 

§ 26. In the dialect of Cyprus we find 8 and y treated in a 
manner analogous to the deaspiration of (x> <£) given in § 18, the 
groups py, pS becoming p/c, pr f and /3y, /?8, y8 becoming fix, /3t, jt : 
apKaTr}? — ipydTrjs "worker," ap/cvpd? = dpyvpos "silver," 7r<pTLKiv = 
TrepSt/ca "partridge," avKov=avyo "egg," ft kollvvo) = fiyaiviD "I go 
out," ipTOfid$a = (i)l38ofid&a "week," yripvm = yUpvu "I flay." On 
Rhodes and the neighbouring islands only py, p8, and fty undergo 
this change ; otherwise (e.g. in Chios and Calymnos) this phonetic 
movement has usually attacked only pg and ftg, though the second 
sound is also found partially or wholly voiceless ; cf figdXXu " he 
takes out," iricrrevgai "I believe," papgoXXos = /xaptdA.05 "sly," 



22 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

<j>ev*€t "he departs," avgd and ailed "eggs," Tiupgts and Tid)pKi<; = 
Tewpytos, apgdrrjs and apKdrrjs = apydrrjs. 

In Terra d* Otr. 8 is pronounced as d (analogous to t for 0, § 20 ? 
n. 1) ; there and in Bova y (3) is pronounced g before the vowels 
e and L 

§ 27. The palatal y (y) has become in the Maina dialect a I, £e. 
a voiced palatal sibilant: e.#. Cv~7V "earth," 40/xaros = yefxdro^ 
(yio/Auros) " full," IIava£ia = IlavUyia, fia^eptra-rj = fxayepiKrj "kitchen." 
Even the secondary y ^ n 7"* from Sta, rtarv>ys from 'Iwdwrjs, etc. 
(e/. § 9), undergoes the' same change (£a, Zdvvrjs), For other changes 
to which the spirant y is liable, v. § 10, n. 5. 

§ 28. In many parts the sibilants cr and f are pro- 
nounced with the front palate (s) (that is, dorsal) instead of 
with the tongue-tip ; often a (£) becomes a kind of sA-sound 
(s, z, $, I). This pronunciation is found over the whole 
Greek-speaking territory, most frequently before i {e.g. eUoat 
"twenty") and before c (ficcry 6fcd = fjucri) otca). The latter 
(i) sometimes disappears (rpa/cocra — Tpcatcocna "300," ypoaa 
— ypoata " piastres" v. § 10, n. 4). s for s before consonants 
is very rare (e.g. &kv\o<; for aicvkos " dog " in Pontus, cno 
Sitltl " in the house," icacnpo " fortress " in Maina, fioa/cos — 
fioa^o? " perfume " in Taygetos), while ks, ps, ts (for £, yfr, t<t) 
are found wherever a is sounded &. Texts III. 3 and 15 
(Maina and Lada in Taygetos) afford characteristic examples 
of the extension of this pronunciation of the cr and f to all 
other combinations. 

For 3 (I) from x> v - § 21. In some dialects in which k is 
palatalised to 6 (§ 17), e.g. in Bova and Cyprus, sc becomes s, as 
ad-rjfjLos from acr/c^/xos "ugly," orvkos from gtkuAos "dog," etc. In 
Kar pathos and some of the neighbouring islands (also Chios) we 
find the transition from crcr or <rt to rcr : e.g. yXioTo-a — yXwcrcra, vqra-d 
= vrjcrid; the transition from £ to dt, (e.g. izaidtp — 7rai£w) is more 
widely spread. 

§ 29. Before a voiced consonant (/3, 7, p, v) a- is pro- 
nounced like f (z), that is, voiced : c/S^vco zvino " I extinguish," 
7rpo<7/jL€vcD prozmdno " await," o-fMuyco zmiZo " I join, unite." 
Similarly with close liaison of words : Trotbs fxiraiveL pyoz 
bdni, Tot>$ fieyaXovs tuz meZdlus, a? Xey az lei, »<? Scoo-p az ddsi. 

1. Otherwise the cr is subject to few mutations ; sometimes it 
disappears between vowels if the next syllable contains a <r, as, e.g., 
in Velvendos (cr^ov/ocis — ervxeopeor^s), Bova (lypd<^(rai—€ypd\pacn) i 
Chios (vol 7r\ep(tiY}<; = va 7r\e ptDcrrjs), Lesbos (8pd?/cra = 8pdo-«ra), Pontus 
(®avats = 'A6avd<ns). In Lower Italy (also in Zaconian) the dropping 
of the final -s is a common phonetic law: teo = 6e6s "God," mdstora 



PHONETIC CHANGE 23 

= /jiaoTopag " master," yeldi = yeAaeis "thou laughest." In avrp^js] 
£wun-cre[s] from the Maina (Texts III. 3) and 6 paciXlv va . . . = 6 
Qao-iXh va, €va[?] <£peVi/i09, etc., from Chios (Texts III. 9) -s has dis- 
appeared before a following z or semi- vowel. Final -s may disappear 
also through dissimilation; cf. e.g. occasionally 6 7raTepa[s] p.as or 
(Chios) AwAAo T<rai = Ao>Aos rcral (i.e. kcu), va rov 7rap??[s] roral . . ., 
7roAAoi{s] f eVovg, (Ios) to-?} SWAa[Y] tct^s. Otherwise the s is every- 
where phonetically retained, apparent exceptions (as, e.g.,, in ^ 7rdAi = 
a. Gk. 7rdAts) being explained as new forms of declension. 

(d) Liquids and Nasals. 

§ 30. />, X, i; before a 2/ (*) become rnouill^ (/, V, n): 
yptd 7 > r , (y)d " old woman," ^Xto? il\y)os " sun," Xtovrdpi 
V{y)ondari " lion," ewta en(y)d " nine," aarjfjLevtos asimdnos 
" of silver." In many dialects between /-i and t a ^ is in- 
serted, though very often not written : /^a mnd = /ua " one," 
6/jLvotd^a) omh&zo " I resemble," Kakafxvid " reed," irordfjLPia 
" rivers." 

§ 31. Before a consonant X regularly becomes p: ejj. 
a$€p<f>6<; from dSeA^o'? " brother," epntSa ( = e'A7rtSa) " hope/' 
'ApfiavLrr)? " Albanian," %)0a from ??X0a " I came," x^P fCoy / JLa 
{^clXkos:) " metal pot," ftapiievos = fiaXfjiivos, pass. ptcp. of 
pd\\(o " I put," arepveo (usually areXvco) " I send," fiopTa, 
Ital. voto (also ftoXtTa). 

1. r- and Z-sounds are very liable to metathesis, £e. to change 
their position within a word: apOu-ros from a6pnyjro<5 "man," 
Kpoi;o-ei;a> from Kov/xrevco " I commit piracy, live by robbery," irptfcds 
and vriKpos "bitter," trovpvdpt from irpivdpi "(holly) oak," vrovpvo 
from 7rp(j)v6 "early," o-epviKos from dpcrewKos "male," dpfxiya) from 
afjcepyo) ctju-eAya), "I milk," aSe^Ae from aSeA^e "brother" (voc. 
Pontus), or d8picj>L for aS4p<f>L (Ionic Islands), <TKop<}>a and o-Kp6<f>a 
" sow." Metathesis is rarer with other sounds. If two ?*-sounds 
occur in a word, one of them usually converts to A through dis- 
similation : dAerpi (a. Gk. dporpov) " plow," yXrjyopa from yprjyopa 
"quickly," KpiOdpi and KXiBdpi "barley," 7raXe$vpi and irapaQvpt 
"window," irepurrepL and 7reAicrT€pi "dove," 7rX6)prj from irputpa 
"poop (deck)," <£Ae/3dpis from *<£p€/?api9, the latter again through 
transposition from <£e/?pdpts "February." We find disappearance 
of A through dissimilation in 6Ad*epas = a. Gk. 6 XokXtjpo? " entire," 
cjxtvtXa = Ital. flanella. Noteworthy is the disappearance of the p in 
the word x°vo-d9 — xpwosy Texts III. 12. 

2. In the dialect of the Sphaciotes, Cretan mountaineers, A 
before velar vowels becomes a peculiar kind of r (cerebral r), which is 
spoken with the front edge of the tongue in a curved position: 
appos dros = aAAos, /capos karos — KCtAd?, cj>Lpo$ firos — <j>i Aos, Odpawa 
]>drasa = 0dXa<r<ra. A sibilant r — Czech, r is found in Scyros 



34 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(written x*P* LZ= X*P L )- ^ n Lower Italy intervocalic X has become 
a (cerebral) dd : dddo = a\\o$, poddi = ttoXv, ndichedda = *St/ce'AAa 

( = iSl/oJ). 

§ 32. In ttXlo, irXtd "more" X is very frequently ex- 
pelled : TTLO, TTLCL. 

In the dialect of Samothrace X and p completely drop out : aoyo 
= aXoyo "horse," rut = rupi " cheese " T€ts = T/oet9 "three," ex CT<u = 
€pX €7al "comes," ^coio = ^coptd "village." Before a, o } u, X is 
dropped also in Zaconian, in Naxos and Cappadocia (Pharasa) : e.g. 
ea — lXa "come," kuidi — kXovSl, kXov@l "cage," 6da<rcra = OdKaacra 
" sea," £vo = $vXov " wood." 

§ 33. Modern Greek has three nasals, //., z>, and v ( = n 
in Germ. Enhcl). The last occurs (as in German) only before 
/s-sounds (k, g) aud is written with 7 (cf. also § 15). 

The (a. Gk.) nasals have disappeared before the spirants 
</>> 0> % : ^</>?? from vvpfai " bride," TreOepos from 7rev6ep6<; 
" father-in-law," aOpcoiros from avdpayiros " man," a#09 from 
avdos " flower," av^copco from o-vy^copco " I pardon," ctc/u^tcW 
from o-fayxTos, afyiyicTos " bound " " fastened." 

1. Likewise before cr in KtocrTavTivos, Koxjt^s, etc. (Const antimis), 
before £ and \]/ in ecrc/>tfa, aor. of crc/>iyya) " I press," cxci^a from 7T€/>i7ra) 
" I send " (usually cn-cAi/to). 

2. Forms or spelling like ai/0os, avOpiairo^y crvyx^p^, crvyxpovos, 
<rvpL<f>Q)vos are due generally to the literary language, nevertheless vB has 
remained unchanged dialectically (in the North), as avOos, avOpu-n-os. 

3. Original fifi, yy, v$ are treated differently, v. § 15. The nasal 
disappears before the voiced spirant only in words which have 
forced their way in from the literary language and also before initial 
ft, y (3, y) $ (§ 15) ; as crv/3ao-i from Grvpfiaa-is " agreement," crvyvpCC^ 
from <rvyyvpi£o), " I arrange, prepare," <rv&cu (crwSea)) " I bind," klBvvos 
(klvSvvos) " danger " ; spellings like ctu/a/ScuVci belong to the literary 
language. 

4. v also is sometimes, like p, changed by dissimilation to X 
(e.g. /AcXtyyt for /A€wyyi = a. Gk. p.rjvty£ "temple (of head)," TrXep.ovt 
= a. Gk. irvtvfjLuv, "lung"), or, like cr, is completely suppressed (thus 
in Chios Kaevas or /cavcas = /cavcVas "anybody," Kaovv — Kavovv "they 
do," and similarly kcuo, /cacts, etc.). 

§ 34. Final -v is usually only pronounced in such words 
as are closely connected with the following word, and only 
when the following word begins with a vowel or with /c, 7r, t, 

f, y\t, rcr, and these sounds then (according to § 15) become 

g, Z>, d (gz y bz, dz) ; the v itself becoming n and m before g 
and b. The forms which retain the final -v under these 
conditions are especially the definite and the indefinite 



PHONETIC CHANGE . 25 

article, the conjunctive pronoun of the 3rd pers. (§ 136), the 
particles Biv " not," av " if," irpiv " before," adv " as, like," 
orav " when " : e.g. rbv adpcowo " the man," but to <j>l\o " the 
friend," ttjv ttlo-tc " the faith," but rt) yvvatfca " the woman," 
evav ipydrrj "one (or a) workman," eva fiavikid "a king," 
rrjv elBa " I saw her," t^ @\€7T(o " I see her," Bev gepco (in 
Lesbos, however, and other North Greek dialects, Be gepco, 
etc.) " I don't know," Be 0i\co " I will not," av %7* " if thou 
hast," a 0€\y<; " if thou wiliest," irplv epdrj " before he comes," 
Trpl 4>vyrj " before he flees," aav Trarepa? " like a father," era 
fidvva " like a mother." The pronouns auTo? and to£to<? 
" this," and etceivo? " that," together with adjectives, rarely 
retain their -v in connection with a substantive, the adjectives 
retaining it only when the substantive begins with a vowel : 
rovrov rbv %evo or tovtt) ttj (fiopd, rbv tcaXbv ddpeoTro or rbv 
/ca\b d0pco7ro ; but note irokvv icaipb " long time," irbaov 
tcaipbv " how long ? " 

1. Even under other circumstances the final -v is sometimes re- 
tained, especially if it is protected by rival forms in -ve (-va) ; cf. 
\olw6v " now, therefore," KaV(e) or *dVa " at least, even if," evai/(c) 
" one, a," toi/(c) T>yj/(e) " him, her," €K€U'ov(a) " that (one)," Troiov(a) 
"whom," aAAov(e) " another," reo xpov&v(i) " of the years," and other 
genitives ; also the verbal forms ^cpovi^), Z<f>epav and tyipave " they 
Drought," (c)Ka^ovTav and (e^/cafldrave "he sat," 7^iovv(a) "I was," 
ipx6fiovv(a) " I came," va tSow(€) "that they may see " (beside €^>€pa, 
cKdOovTa, tpxovpov, etc.). But before spirants one has a choice 
between, e.g., toVc (t^c) ^AeVw "I see him (her)," icfripave fti/Skio 
" they brought a book," or rrj ^AeVo), €$epa fiiftXio. 

2. Following the model of &4v and 8c "not," we may also use 
jxrjv beside /xt; "not" (prohibitive) and vdv beside vd "in order 
that" : e.g. va fxrjv olkovcto) "in order that I may not hear," va prjv 
irdpr]<s "do not take," vav to 4>epy "in order that he may bring it." 

3. In consequence of mistaken separation of words the final -v 
was sometimes carried over to the following word, and thus many 
words have received a " prothetic " v ; as, voikokvpls " master of 
house" (fr. ot/cos), v^Aios = tJAios "sun," vvttvos = vwvos "sleep," vovpd 
"tail," NiKapia "Island of Icarus," vrj — vy = fj — y\ "either . . . or," 
vi\a (Texts III. 15, Lada) = ela " come." Of. also § 15, n. 3. 

4. In some dialects (Cyprus, Khodes, Chios, Naxos, and other 
islands of the Aegean, Pontus) the final -v has throughout (and 
especially in the absolute final syllable) maintained its place (or has 
only been reduced without disappearing), and has often been carried 
over to other forms where, properly speaking, it does not belong; 
thus, e.g., not only ace. fjpipav, fiavvav, KOpy]v, dSepcftov, tovtov, ^wptov, 
yvvcuKav, fla<n\idv, ftpverw, neuter <j>v\\ov } amrtv, 1 and 3 pi. fjaropovfiev, 
pLTTopovvw, 3rd sing. (tJTrrjpcv, c)8aA,€v, but also ovo/xav = oVo/ta, wpafxav = 



26 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Trptt/xa, crro/xav = oto/aci, r; vvaiKav tov = fj y/xvatfca tov, ra 7rat8ta^ rou 
— ra 7ratSta tov, egeftrjv "he went out" (a. Gk. iiiftrj). When the 
nasal is so conspicuous in the final syllable, it often affects, as might 
be expected, the following initial syllable ; cf e.g. rj^vtv dlzivos (i.e. 
towos, /cetvos) " that one went away," (8)ev rjpKovTOjj, b^d (i.e. iryx) 
"he came no more," and so forth, Texts III. 9. 

In Chios, Karpathos, and in kindred dialect?, together with the 
Cyprian, 1 the final -v is assimilated to the following initial before all 
sounds except vowels and 7r, t, k : cf e.g. from Texts III. 6. 8. 9 
^llo.cj> <j>opdv = fjLta(v) <j>opdv y t6<(> cfaipu) = t6(v) <£epto, eva^ ^apKw/x-a — 
€vav ^., to/3 fia<Ti\idv = rov /?., rJToi iefidro = rjrov yefidro, ccr cr ^X €L ~ 
Scv cr €X ct > T V V a vhrjiJL /jlov = rqv avXrjv fiov, rj&ovX *\rjviT(rd = yjctovv 
(e\)\rjviKud. Assimilation to k, 7r, t may be found in Karpathos 
(e.g. olt to Ka/xovv = av to ac.). In the dialects of Cyprus and Chios the 
-v disappears when the following word begins with f, i/r or with 
another consonantal group the first part of which is not ir y k, t. 
The -v disappears in Chios also in the absolute final syllable (i.e. 
before a pause in the sentence) provided an -c does not intrude (cf 
€kovv€v-€ " he moved," o-wtoviv-z " chest," Texts III. 9). 

(e) Compound and Double Consonants. 

§ 35. The composite or compound consonants are %(ks), ra, 
yfr (ps), which under certain conditions (after nasals) become 
voiced (gz> dz, bz) y v. § 15. Corresponding to the pronunciation 
of a = s given in § 28, there are also the sounds Jcs, ts, ps. 

1. f and if/ correspond to the a. Gk. sounds, while to- and t£ (vt£) 
are of later origin, to-, in addition to the to- (dz) arising dialectically 
from k (jk) (v. § 17), sometimes takes the place of an ancient r (before 
i), e.g. AcX^arcrtSa "clematis," peTcrivrj "resin" (a. Gk. prjTivrj), or a 
<r(cr), e.g. kotovcjh (Kocrcrvcfaos) " blackbird," To-w7ra£a> (usually crw7ratva)) 
" I am silent " ; cf. also § 28 note. The transition from the sound tl 
to to-i occurs more frequently in the Pontic and Cappadocian dialect. 
to- (t£) is the result also of the throwing together of t and o- in 
eKOLTvc — €Ka#icr€, tot} = t^s (v. §55, n. 1), TtVorct (e.g. Crete) from 
Ti7roTLs. Many words with to- (to-) or r£ (T^ = dz) have come in 
through borrowing (from Turkish or Italian); as, To-a/a£u> "I smash," 
To-ifjLTrix) "I prick," KapoTo-a "carriage," irero-L "leather," /ca^cr^? 
"keeper of a caf6," (i/)r£a/ju "mosque," Tcravafidp (Pontus) "animal," 
To-oTravry? (Lesbos) dzovfidvs "shepherd." 

t£ is often written for to; although pronounced to-. 

2. In the Terra d' Otranto f has become <£cr (^) : edifse = e8€i£e " he 
showed," fsero = £ep<x> " I know " (cf also Texts III. 2) ; in Bova £ and 
\j/ have become dz: dzilo = £v\o "wood," dzomi xj/tafjit "bread." 

3. Other compound consonants occur only dialectically : Zaconian, 
Cyprian, and the neighbouring South-Eastern dialects possess Jc, p, f 
respectively *x> tt</>, tO, i.e. tenues followed by an aspirate or spirant, 
as (Zac.) akliu dcncds "bag," thenu oraiW "rise up," tho = \ to, phiru 

1 Cf also 2va\ Xeovrdp, iaKuvve/j, pe, Texts III. 13. a (Pontus). 



PHONETIC CHANGE 27 

<nretpa> " I sow," (fr. Calymnos) XaAc^os = Xolkkos " pit," a-airda = 
craytrTa "arrow," Ka7r<jf>a = Ka7T7ra, ^ arOr}(XL {i.e. avOrjcns) "flowering, 
bloom," (fr. Chios) Ko/chaXa "bone," 7riVha "pitch," Kowha "cup." 

§ 36. Double consonants (tt, /3/3, aa, X\, z/i/, pp, etc.) ara 

merely orthographical in the ordinary language, i.e. they are 

(as also in English or German) simplified in the pronunciation 

and have only the value of the single consonants ; thus Kpefi- 

' fidn = krevdti, jXcoaaa = Z^sa t aXko? &los, Oappco Ipard, etc. 

The original pronunciation of "lengthened" or double consonants 
(as in the German dialects of Switzerland) is found- still in Lower 
Italy, in the South-Eastern Greek dialects (Cyprus, Khodes, Kar- 
pathos, Icarus, and also Chios), and in the interior of Asia Minor 
{Cappadocia), and that not only in words with double consonants 
from the a. Gk. or taken over from another language, like kokklvos 
"red," xdvvm "I lose," a\\o<s "another," reWcpa "four," /ca7reXXo = 
Ital. capello "hat," a-airra = Lat. sagitta "arrow," o-clkkovWl "little 
bag," yXakro-a " language," but also as the result of later assimilation : 
xafjLfjbivos — Kavfxivos "wretched," 7r€TT€ = 7revTe, £a666s = $a(v)66<; 
"fair" (colour), a6Qp(D7ro<i = a(v)0puy7ro<s "man," vv<}><f>y} = vv{ix)<^r) 
*' bride," o-vxx^P^ — a-v(y)x^p(o "I forgive" (cf. also § 33), to<£ cj*t\o 
(§ 34, n. 4), etc. Along with the preservation of ancient double con- 
sonants the South-Eastern Greek dialects afford examples of the 
spontaneous doubling of originally single consonants both in initial 
and middle syllables : e.g. (from Chios) 7r^drTepa, errpwyai/c " they 
ate," hgb rrpid "two or three," awn-iZi "pear," /?pe'xx ct "it rains," 
7rpdo-(nvo<; "green," xaXct££i "hail," to t£ovf*i "broth," TraXXt "again," 
Avvoiyix) "I open," pifxi "but." The conditions governing such 
doubling of consonants have not yet been explained. In part of 
the Greek-speaking territory the lengthened explosives are aspirated, 
m. § 35, n. 3. 

§ 37. In modern Greek the general tendency is toward 
the simplification of original consonant combinations. Apart 
from the phenomena already given in the last paragraph and 
•elsewhere (§§ 16, 24, 28 n., 32, 33), mention should be made 
here of the frequent expulsion of one consonant out of a three- 
consonant group : e.g. e^eyfra (fr. I£iev£a), fc6<f> to (fr. «o^[e] to), 
y}r€VTr]$ (a. Gr. yfrevcnT}*;), /3tcre^To? " leap-year, unlucky year " 
{Lat. bisextus), %evka (fr. &vy\a). This expulsion, however, is 
arrested, especially when the third consonant is p (e^T/oo?, 

<JTpaTl(dT7)S. 

A fresh massing of consonants is restricted to the North. Greek 
dialects as a result of extensive vowel syncope. See examples, § 7, 
note 1. The consonants which come together in this way often 
undergo a change facilitating the enunciation. In Yelvendos a 



2S HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

dental creeps in between Z, n> and a following s, a Z> between jjl and \ : 
yetTovTarcris = yctroj/icro-e? "neighbouring women," yivvrariv = yevvrjaw 
"gave birth," tfe'Ars = 64\eis, /xjrAia = fxrjXid, or a consonant is thrown 

OUt : 60-AtV = €(TT€l\eV, 7TaVTp€VKlV = 7ra.VTpZVT7)K€Vy KOVCTKt = OLKOVCTTYjKe, 

kO&p 1 — KpiOdpi, &ir v = an ttjv, or there takes place a partial assimila- 
tion to one of the sounds : 6k6s — Si/cos, c^/ceVrp = fiovKevrpi " prick for 
oxen," €</>;(€ = e</)uye ; c/. also oarey = e^vcrey, and xj/rj = if/vx?} (Pontus). 



(/) On Accent 

§ 38fThe_accent usually stands over one of the last three- 
syllables^ examples like eiriaae, ifipdSvao-e, ydiBapos forming 
no exception, since i (y) counts as a consonant, and al a 
diphthong. From the standpoint of modern Greek the exact 
position of the accent within the last three syllables cannot be 
reduced to fixed rules ; it is, generally speaking, governed by 
the ancient Greek rules of accent, from which modern Greek 
varies only in particulars. v Thefourth last syllable can carry^J^^ 
the accent only when a secondary element is attached to the- 
end of the word, or where a syllable is accented after the 
model of analogous forms : rjirat^eve, eXeyeve (Naxos) beside- 
r/7ratfe(^), eXeye{y), e\eyav{e) ; eyeKLOfiovv{a), ep^ovfietrra (on 
analogy of ep^ovfjuovv, epxovaouv) ; e<£aya/xe (analogy of €<j)aya, 
etc.). As a rule, in such case a secondary accent is given : 
eXeyeve, eXeyave, e^ayajie, ep^ovfiearay ipftouaaarbve. On the- 
accent signs, cf. § 4. 

1. The a. Gk. tKree-syllable law is thus still operative in m. Gk., 
but the force of the long ultimate has been obliterated (the difference 
between long and short being no longer maintained). Consequently 
forms like fu'Aivos gen. £vXwov ace. pi. gvkwovs from £vXivo<s may be 
uniformly accented £vXivov £vXivovs, or 7rAovo-tos fern. 7rXovoria as 
wXova-ios TrXovcria, or e/ca^ero "he sat" eKaOofxrjv or iKaOero Iko.0o- 
fiovv. This tendency has made itself specially felt in inflexion : note- 
aOp&iroi for a0po)7roi (and other substantives of similar formation) 
after the model of a6punru>(v) aOpunrov<s } eKdfxav (beside eKa/xav) after 
eKapxifxe iKafjLCTty or vice VCSd KovXOcra/JL (Cappad.) = aKXavOrjo-a/xe, " we- 
followed," after the sing. KovXOcra = (a)KXov67](ra ; a^/ca, e^pa (beside 
a<f>rJKa, eTrrjpa) after e8o)tfa, t6r)Ka, e8e<ra, eSeipaj carciAa, etc. Even the 
accent of individual words has been changed after the model of others ;. 
as, a06<; a. Gr. ai/0os " flower " after Kap7rds " fruit," jjlovos " single " 
after SlttXos " double." Moreover, when adjectives are turned into 
substantives the accent is thrown back (after a. Gk. model TXavKos 
— yAau/cds) as Adpurpos (proper name) from Xafx-rrpos " bright," XaAeW 
(place in Crete) from xaA«ros, arrd^r-q " ashes " = orctKTr/ (sc. T£<£pa), 
J3pd$v "evening" from ftpaSvs. As far as phonetics are concerned, 



PHONETIC CHANGE 29 

the accent has suffered alteration only through the phenomena 
treated in § 9. 

2. The modern Greek accent may generally be termed expiratory 
or stress, though the musical element is not quite absent. 

§ 39. Some smal l words have no accent of their own 
(though written with accent in many cases), but lean for 
accent on the preceding or foUowipg LJg&lds*.. Such enclitics 
'and proclitics are t"Ke~iorms of the conjunctive pronoun 
(§§ 134— 136), whether they stand before or after the word to 
which they refer, the forms of the article, the prepositions, 
the particles vd and da, the conjunctions teal, " and," fid " but. }> 
Words which carry an accent on the ultimate or penultimate 
receive the enclitic without any change, those accented on the 
third last take on with the enclitic a second accent on the 
ultimate, as ta iraihid jjlov " my children," rj fidwa gov " thy 
mother," crrelXe fiov " send me," ra cnriria tov " his houses," 
t dpfiard fias " our weapons," etc. 

1. Here also the three-syllable law is valid with this modification, 
that the properispomena are treated as paroxytones; thus 8ovA.o? o-as 
"your servant," cTSa rove "I saw him" (usually tov cI8a). The pro- 
clitics, except 6, y, ol (and «s), are generally written with an accent. 
Note also that the proclitic Ivra "what" (§ 152, n. 2) moves its 
accent to the end in cases like Ivrd 'dekt va Kdfxrj " what is he to 
do 1 " Ivrd '<£rai€ Keivrj " what was she guilty of ? " 

2. The principle of enclitics is carried much further in the 
dialects. In Cyprus the verb becomes enclitic after the negative 
or after adverbs, the noun after its adjective and (in the voc.) after 
the exclamations I, ov, w, a, /3p4: e.g. c//, 7rapira.Tu = 8«v TrtpiraTu "he 
does not go," fyes rjprafxtv "we came yesterday," /ca\o$ ira-iras "a 
good priest" (7ra7ras), Iol^vty} "ho, Mr. !" (a^evrqs), fipe B8okcl "ho, 
Eudocia " (BSoxta). 



PART SECOND. 



MORPHOLOGY. 

INFLEXION OF NOUNS. 
Use of the Forms. 

§ 40. Modern Greek differentiates three genders (mascu- 
line, feminine, and neuter) and tivo numbers (singular and 
plural). No trace of the dual has survived. When the 
subject is a neuter plural the verb is not in the singular (as 
in a. Gk.) but in the plural. A construction Kara avvecriv is 
permitted : e.g. to '/nadav 6 #007x09 " the world ( = people) 
learned it." In most cases the gender is clearly determined 
by the grammatical form (nom. sing.). The natural dis- 
tinction of sex in animal life is expressed either through the 
use of different words or by the formation of a feminine from 
the masculine stem : e.g. fiovSc " ox " — dyeXdBa " cow," aXoyo 
"horse " — (f>opd$a " mare," rpdyos " he-goat" — yiba " she-goat," 
or YaTO? — ydra " cat," ckvXo? " dog " — aicvka " bitch," irpo- 
fiaro " wether " — Trpoftariva " ewe." For the male animal a 
neuter form is frequently used (which is also mostly the 
common designation of the species), as ravpl " bull," (3ov8t 
" ox," art " stallion " (aXoyo " horse "), icpidpi " ram " (cf. also" 
djcopt " boy "). 

1. Although 7rat8t "child" and Koptro-i "maiden" (beside 
Koirikaf.) are neuter, the use of neuter diminutives (like Marieclien or 
a. Gk. AeovTiov) is quite restricted, forms like £a(v)6ov\a dim. of 
"fair," fjiavvovXa dim. of "mother," 'EAei/iWa dim, of "Helen," 
Maptyw dim. of "Mary" being much more usual. Also the wife or 
daughter of a man is correctly designated either by the genitive or 
by a feminine form of the masculine : e.g. Kvpa Uavayiwrr] or 
HamytoiTatva "Mrs. Panavotis," navA^Saiya "Mrs. IlatA?]?," 

so 



MORPHOLOGY 31 

'AyyeXtW (uncommon) " Mrs. Angel is." Note also rj 7ra?raSta (from 
7ra7ra?) " clergyman's wife." 

When some other female relationship — not a man's wife — is to 
be expressed with reference to the masculine the suffix -taro-a is 
usually employed : e.g. yetTovKro-a "neighbour woman" fr. yetrovas, 
fidyio-o-a " witch " from jxaiyos, vqo-wTiucra " a woman from the islands " 
fr. vtjo-kottjs, Mavidri<rcra "woman of Maina" (but Hvpiavrj "woman 
from Syra" fr. Svptavos). 

2. In Icarus the plural of geographical names is employed in a 
peculiar fashion to designate the particular parts or the neighbour- 
hood of a locality, as r}7rrjyev eis ras 'Ava/roAas " he went into the 
different regions of Asia Minor," Tra/xev Kara, tovs 'EvBrj\ov<s " we 
went into the vicinity of EvS^Xos." Of. also § 103. 

§ 41. Modern Greek has only three cases, nominative, 
genitive, and accusative. These are, however, not always 
formally differentiated from one another, since the ace. 
(usually without -v) and the nom. in the sing, and pi. of the 
fern, and neut. nouns are, always phonetically alike, and in th<r 
pi. of inascs. (with the exception of o-stems) the ace. and nom. 
coincide ; also the gen. and ace. sing, of mascs. (again with 
the exception of o-stems) are the same. The masc. o-stems 
best maintain the different cases, furnishing a separate form 
also for the vocative, which is in all other stems identical in 
the sing, with the ace. without -z>, in the pi. with the nom. 

1. The ace. sing, is clearly distinguished only where it retains its 
-r, or where this is secured by a vocalic addition (rf § 34). On the 
other hand, through the dropping of -? (§ 29 n.) in the Greek of 
Lower Italy the decay of cases has advanced further than elsewhere. 
Even in masculines in -os, partial decay of nom. and ace. is found 
(Pontus, Aeg. Sea). 

2. The dative has entirely disappeared from the vernacular 
language; at the most it is found only in formal phrases taken 
from the literary or ecclesiastical language ; as $€$ So£a " thank God," 
ivevqvra rot? efcaro " 90 per cent.," tgxWi (whence also tovtis) 
"really." On the syntactical substitution of gen. ace. or eh ('?, <r£) 
for the dative case, cf. §54. 

3. The gen. pi. is not very frequently used — sometimes limited 
to statements of measure, dates, or particular expressions; cf. also 
§ 44, n. 2. 

§ 41a. Modern Greek having largely retained the power of 
forming substantival compounds, we find several varieties of com- 
pounds in which substantival elements form part. 

1. Substantival compounds : 

(a) Dvandva-formations : e.g. fxax<upo7r€powo "knife and fork," 
avTpoyvvo " man and wife, married couple," ywat/coVaiSa " wives 
and children." 

(b) "Where a substantive is more precisely determined by an 



32 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

adjective: e.g. yepovTOKoptro-o "old maid," Ka\6ypta "nun" (properly 
" a good aged woman "), KaKOKatptd " bad weather." Note especially 
the combinations with 7raAio-, used in a bad sense : e.g. 7raAta(v)0pw7ros 
" a good-for-nothing fellow," 7raAioywaiKa " a common woman," 
7raAto7rcu8o "dirty rascal," -n-aXiocnriTo " wretched hut," and so forth. 

(c) Where a substantive is more precisely determined by another 
substantive either in apposition or in any other casual connection ; 
as KajjLapocjypvSi "eyebrow" (properly "arch-brow"), cf. also 6 Kvp 
©oSo)/oo5, etc., §§ 63, 64 ; voiKo-Kvpis or crmro-voLKOKvpLg "master of the 
house," /3ao-iAo7rcu8o "royal child," f)\iof3acri\cfxa "sunset," kXc^to- 
7roA.€/>ios "war with K lefts or bandits," ir€rp6ro7ro^ "stony place," 
avtjJLOjAvXos " windmill," KpefifiaTOKafAtpa " sleeping-room." Forma- 
tions are rare in which the last element is a verbal noun with no 

.independent existence, cf. e.g. Kavrr)Xavdcj>T7]9 "candle-lighter, 
sacristan" (fr. dva<^>Tw "I light"). 

(d) Where a verbal stem supplies, somewhat like a participle, 
the more precise determination of a substantive : e.g. (faovo-KoOaXao-cnd 
" stormy sea " (fr. <£ovo-kgWw " swell ' ). 

2. Adjectival compounds : 

(a) Where the final adjective is more precisely determined by 
another adjective (numeral) or by a substantive ; as jjlolvpok6kklvo<; 
"dark red," oXdvoixros " quite open," cvKoXomaaros "easily caught," 
SckclSittAos "tenfold," poSokokkwos "rose red," /xap/Aapoxricr/AcVos 
"built of marble/' atflcpoTrAao-Tos "formed of air." Note also 
a£iayairr}To<; "amiable," a&ocnrovSucrTos "worthy to strive after."' 

(b) Where the final substantive is more precisely determined by 
an adjective (a numeral) or by another substantive ; as, KaXo/capSo? 
"good-hearted," kolXvtvxos "fortunate," fiaptiofxoipos "having bad 
luck, unfortunate," fxavpo/jidTrjg "black-eyed/' TpiKojifxaroq "con- 
sisting of three pieces/' criScpoKapSos " hard-hearted." Such 
adjectives may again be made substantives : e.g. rptavrd^yXXo " thirty 
leaved flower," i.e. "rose." 

(c) Where a verbal stem forms the first element (as in 1. d) : e.g. 
Tptfjioxepys " with trembling hand." 

§ 42. The nominative, when placed at the beginning of a 
sentence, may be used to designate the psychological subject 
even when the construction of the sentence in itself requires 
another case form, thus usually in instances like 6 teuvrjyos, 
aav t ctKovae, ttoXv tov tca/eo(pdvr) " the huntsman, when he 
heard it, it vexed him much," to iratBl to fcarj/jbivo arb 
Bpofio tov *p9e <tto vov teal \eet " on the way it came to the 
poor child's mind and it speaks " ; but sometimes even 
eW<? xcopLaTT)';, iiriOave to iraihi tov " a peasant's child died " 
(lit. " a peasant (nom.), his child died "). 

The predicative nom. is very common and is not confined 
merely to verbs of the copula class, like ytvofxai, otckw, /jtcVto, etc. ; 
cf. eyw FpaiKos y€vvrj6rjKa "a Greek I was born," KepSc/z-cVos Oa 



MORPHOLOGY 33 

/fyw "I will come off gaining (gain thereby)," 6 ira.TpntiTio-p.os SI 
<l>Tdv€i novo? " patriotism alone suffices not," TrpofidXXu avayvwpio~pL€vo 
to epyo "acknowledged is the work" (lit. " appears acknowledged"), 
iXevQtpos 6 K\£<f>T7]<s £fj k iXeuOepos Tr^Oaivet " free lives the Kleft and 
free he dies," oXoiva ^zcrTorepos fayyofioXovaz 6 fjXtos " ever warmer 
shone the sun," rpi\€L xp vo ~° & 0L T ° V€ P° " as a golden serpent flows 
the water," o-n-ovBd^t ytarpos " he studies medicine " (lit, " he studies 
a doctor"). 

§ 43. In its attributive use the nom. has considerably 
enlarged its scope by replacing, by way of apposition, an 
explanatory or partitive gen. : e.g. to ovopua <j>i\o\oyla " the 
name philology," eirvpl o-tvdirc " a mustard seed," jjliol ttoBlol 
X&pa " an apron (full of) earth," eva iroTi]pi vepo "a glass of 
water," eva ^evydpi irairovTaia " a pair of shoes," fiia otcd 
fcpaal " one oka of wine," fieydXo TrXijdos Tovp/cot " a great 
multitude of Turks," fxia Zetcapia y^povia " ten (a decade of) 
years." This nom., of course, participates in the construction 
of the word to which it relates ; cf. /3\iirtD j^XmSe? koct/io 
" I see thousands of people." 

The use of the nom. in comparisons with crdv (in Pontus apov) 
" as " has been considerably reduced ; the object compared 
regularly appears in the ace. if it is a personal pronoun or is 
accompanied by the definite article : e.g. to Trp6<ru>ir6 tov lyivz &av 
Tr/ </>ama " his countenance became like fire," to pLo.yovX6.Ki eXapaj/e 
o-ttv tt)v avyy " the cheek shone like the dawn," p,avpa (j>opovo~e to 
<f>Twx<> o-av ipieva "the poor (child) wore a black garment, as did I," 
— but vrvvtrai era Xopftos " he dresses like a lord," iri<j>Tei <rav aif/vxps 
" he falls as if dead," <f>Kapio-T7]pL€vo<; crav wtos "pleased as he." 

§ 44. Although the use of the genitive on the one hand 
has been extended as a substitute for the ancient dat. (§ 54), 
on the other it has been reduced in favour of other means of 
expression. Its losses are chiefly in the adverbial and 
ablatival usage, for which the ace. (§§ 49, 50) or ace. plus 
preposition (§§ 161, 162) have been substituted. Moreover, 
the explanatory gen. and the gen. of content or measure have 
given place to apposition (§ 43), the partitive gen. (except 
in particular phrases like nrore /xov "never"), the gen. of 
material, and the gen. of comparison have all been ousted by 
prepositions. It is for the gen. pi. that most frequently other 
methods of expression are employed (cf. § 41, n. 3). For 
survivals of the gen. with prepositions, v. § 158. 

1. Ancient usages occur especially in Cyprus : e.g. adnominal 
yci/oTica 7w ycvaiKtov " a queenly woman," o-fcAa/2os ttJs o-/cA.a./?ias 



34 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

" a vile slave, " 7rov iropTa ttjs iropras " from door to door," Skvo cf>opU 
rrjs rjfjiepov " twice daily " ; adverbal with verbs of motion : e.g. 
iraatvvoi tov ~6pov " I go (on) the journey " (and similarly KaXXtKifiKa) 
tov x TY l v °v " I r ^ e the mule," 8*iaj3cui>a> tt}? 7ro'pTas " I go through 
the door,"ft7ratVw tov x^pKov " I come up to (into) the village ") ; also 
to designate cause or occasion : e.g. ixj/o^rjo-ev T179 ttcivcls " he perished of 
hunger " (found also elsewhere), a^ovXipKu rfjs ywat/cas tov " he is 
jealous of his wife " (f^Aoxo with gen. also elsewhere), ZXovOyv tov 
KXafxdrov "I bathed because of tears, in tears." 

2. In North. Gk. dialects (e.g. Thessaly, Macedonia) the gen. has 
all but disappeared (cf. § 41, n. 3), i.e. the prep, airo has largely 1 ousted 
it (v. § 161, 6, n. 1). 

§ 45. (1) The adnominal gen. may be employed as the 
equivalent of the ancient objective gen. : e.g. t) crvWoyrj tov 
Koafiov " meditation on the world," r) a^eai tov fiaatXea 
(III. 4) "the relation to the king." It is the rule in state- 
ments of age, time, and measure, like Ko-ireka Sefcdgi xpcvcov 
" a girl of sixteen years," evas TrapdXvTos C09 zikogi yjpovwv 
u a palsied man about twenty years of age," icprd fxepoyv far) 
"a life of seven days," ctkolvl Setca 7r^(w "a rope ten cubits 
long." 

1. Note specially the pregnant construction in ttjv elxes SwSe/ca 
XpovCjv (I. a. 11) " thou hadst her (the daughter) as twelve years old," 
i.e. "during twelve years " (while adverbial definitions of time stand 
in the ace). 

2. The expression ri Xoyrjs " of what sort ? " " what kind of ? " is 
quite stereotyped ; as, tl A. rpayovhi " what (what kind of a) song " 1 

3. Even the complement of an adj. stands in the gen. : e.g. avrj£- 
€pos tov Koa/jLov " ignorant of the world/' acfrofios tov Oeov " having no 
fear of God" ; also (in Cyprus) aVpaxTos tyjs aydirqs "inexperienced 
in love," appwo-Tos ttjs 7rvpefi9 "sick of fever." 

This gen. is found dialectically (Cyprus) in quite ancient manner 
as the complement of a pass, participle : e.g. ^a-q^lvov tov ctkovXovklov 
"eaten by the worms," a-Korojfiivos t^s SovXeias "killed by work." „. 

4. A gen. qualitatis occurs in expressions like <f>6p€p.a tt}s /AoSas 
"a garment a la inode" x a P™ T0V ypa^t/xaros "writing paper^" 
crapoVAA.es tov kovtlov " canned sardines." 

§ 46. (2) The possessive gen. is noteworthy in instances 
like o-tov KovfjLTrdpov "at the house of a godfather," iirffye 
<7tov TiavvT) " he went to Yanni," Tpe^et <rri}9 ixdvvas tov " he 
hurries to his mother," thus corresponding to a. Gk. (iv 
' AiSov) ; also for saints' days ; as, e.g., t' dyiov BacrCXeiov 
"on Saint B.'s Day," avpio elvai tov Mix a V^ ' Ap-^ayyekov , 
" to-morrow will be Michaelmas." 

The possessive gen. may also be predicative ; as, iroiavov 



MORPHOLOGY 35 

elvai " to whom does it beloog ? " to ttcllZI elvat rov ftacrCXea 
"Tirvov "the child belongs to King Sleep," to fitfiXco elvat 
rov <pi\ov fiov " the book is my friend's" (cf. § 143). 

The predicative usage of (1) and (2) has extended beyond its 
original bounds in particular (or dialectical) phrases : e.g. clvai rrj^ 
floras "it is the fashion," ecvat rov o-kowlov kcll rov iraXovKtov "he 
is a gallows-bird," clvcll tov ctkotcujuov " he is death's," eTcrat rov virvov 
(in Cyprus) " thou art deep in sleep," etftat rfjs Oipjxrjs " I am (still) 
feverish," to rpayovSc tv rov KXa/xdrov, rov avayeXaa jjloltov " the song 
makes one weep, laugh." This gen. is not confined only to the verb 
elfjiaL : e.g. vrvverac t^s fxoSas " he dresses in fashion," Karavrrjo-e rrjs 
jjlo&ols " it became fashionable," tov Oavdrov ire^ru " he falls down 
as dead," fxeydX-q appcoo-Tta fjJ eppt£e rov Oavdrov (I. a. 11) "severe 
sickness brought me nigh to death," rov e/ca/xc tov dXanov " he salted 
him " = " he pommelled him thoroughly." 

§ 47. (3) The a. Gk. gen. as the complement of a verb 
survives only dialectically. 

Cf Texts III. 7 (KarpathOs) aKovcri jjlov " hear me," rrj<s Xveprjs 
Od ttjs VoX^cr/jLovTJo-aj " I will forget the maiden," rrjs Koprjs 8e £cxaw<a 
"I forget not the girl" beside tyjk Koprj vd ^xdo-rjs "forget the girl." 
In Cyprus this gen. accompanies various verbs : e.g. Xrjo-fiovto " forget," 
dSOvfiovfjiaL " remember," d/covca " hear," juvpi^Ofjiat " smell (of)," eyyi'£a> 
" touch," v<*6t» " understand," yeXS> " deride." Cf. also § 44, n. 1. 

§ 48. (4) The gen. may be absolute and serve for adverbial 
expressions : e.g. a> tov OdpLaros " oh ! the miracle 1 " rov xpovov " next 
year," rov kcxkov " in vain," /.uas K07ravia<s " with one blow," /jiovo/uas 
"all at once," fiovoxpovov "in the same year," KovroXoyrjs "in a 
word." 

§ 49. The accusative is (1) the object case in the widest 
sense, replacing very frequently the a. Gk. gen. and dat. 
Apart from § 54, note the ace. construction with the follow- 
ing verbs : dtcXovdco " follow," d/covco " obey," ^vycovco 
" approach," /3iyXt£a) " keep watch," d t rravrSy > dvrajxcovco, 
avTucpvfa " meet," ^xcopi^w (also mid.) " I separate (myself) 
from " (6 eva<5 rov aXXo hev rj^e^copi^e), gefavyco " escape," 
7rpo(j>rdvQ) " overtake," fiorjOco " help," iroXefiw " fight " (or with 
fie), Trio-revo) " believe (somebody or something)," Trpoa/cvvco 
" humble myself before," " do honour to," eXew " give alms," 
GirXa'xyi^opLai " pity," Xvrrovfiat " deplore " ; o-vXXoyeUfiac 
(avXXoyi^oiJLac) " think upon," evypiiai " pray," %aip<o " rejoice 
over," " enjoy" (or with yid), Oa/jbd^ofiai " wonder at" (or with 
(jid and a7ro) fiapeUfiai " am tired of," Karairidvofiat " under-* 
take." Note also that many verbs are used both as transitives 
and as intransitives, v. § 176. A locality or place affected 



36 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

by a verb of motion may * stand in ace. : e.g. iccnefiaive raov 
fcdfnrov? (I. a. 8) " he came down through the fields," yvpiae 
fiovvd koI XayrcdSca " he wandered over mountain and valley," 
irepaae Xoyyov<; teal Kaparov^ " he marched through forest and 
field," t?5? BdXacraas ra KVfJbara rpe^co " over the billows of 
the sea I hasten " ; cf. also § 51. 

How an originally passive or reflexive verb may through a 
peculiar development in meaning take the ace. as object may be 
seen in o-Te^av^vopiai, lit. "I am garlanded" (a ceremony at the 
celebration of a wedding in the church, and consequently) = " I 
marry " ; thus, e.g., rrjv o-Te^aviDverat " he marries her." 

§ 50. (2) A double accusative is very common — being 
carried sometimes beyond a. Gk. usage. 

(a) Ace. of the object + predicative ace. : e.g. e^ovve 
crrevrj rrj fyavraaia " they have little power of imagination," 
vd '^77? to 6eo fiot'ideia " have God as helper," Se a e^w ttXio 
Iitjt avdpcoTTo /JL7]T€ koI iraXXiqtcdpi " I consider thee no longer 
either man or pallicar" oXa pohiva rd /3\€7rco " I see every- 
thing rosy," Xev vpoaTv^V T V yX&crcra tov Xaov " they call 
the language of the people ordinary," ae %epco tl/jlio dOpwiro 
" 1 know you to be an honourable man," tyvXXovs evopu^e tU 
Tcretcovpies " he regarded the axe-blows as fleas," tov irtdvet 
$1X0 " he makes him a friend," 8eXet vd irdpg rfj Ovyarepa 
tov fiaaiXid yvvalica " he wishes to secure the daughter of 
the king for wife," tov efiyaXav (or efyavepwaav) -^revTrj u they 
proved him a liar," e^tcziaae to gttlti tov Xapurpo " he made 
his house magnificent," tov efcajiav fiacriXid " they made him 
king," to Kavet fiaXa/na " he makes it into gold," or, " he 
makes gold out of it," lvtcl vd Kapug too~cl ypoaa " what will 
he do with so much money ? " to Kavco SovXetd " I make it my 
work (task)," " I apply myself to it," Sevco SepudTia to GTapi 
" I « bind the corn into sheaves," TpiavTafyvXXa Ta TrXeicco 
Kopcove? " I weave roses into garlands." 

The prep, yta is also used instead of the predicative ace. : e.g. I^w 
tovs fipdxovs yta Kpefi/SdrL "I have the rocks for a bed," beside e^* 
tovs Xoyyovs crvvrpcxfria " I have the forests as comrades," tyjv i^rjTrjcre 
yta ywauca " he sought her for wife," tov KXatyw yta iredapivo " I 
lament him as dead." 

(b) Ace. of the whole + ace. of the part affected (rare) ; as, 
tov fcevTpmae to hdyrvXo €v dyicaddia " a small thorn pricked 
him in the finger." 



MORPHOLOGY 37 

(c) Ace. of the person (or the object) + ace. of the thing : 
e.g. with the verbs paOaivco "teach, learn," pcoro) "inquire 
about, ask for," varepco, arepevco " deprive of," yept^co {ytopl^oy) 
" fill with," (fyoprcovco " load with," Tayl^co " feed with," ttot'i^oh 
" cause to drink," x°P T( *& " satisfy one (or myself)," and even 
aayLTes pe fiapels " thou hittest me with arrows " ; note also rt 
pe deket? " what do you want with me, of me ? " 

1. When the verb is changed into a passive (which is rare, v. 
§ 175), then the double aces, become in (a) double noms. and in (c) 
nom. and ace: e.g. TrtdaTrjKav <j>i\oi "they became (were made) 
friends," but tov vttvo tov crrepeverat "he is deprived of his sleep," 
r] ap*Aa elvai yto/xar>; if/upi "the cupboard is filled with bread," 
<j>opT(xip,evo<s cf>\ovpid " laden with florins." 

2. In (c) the accusatives of the thing have to some extent taken 
the place of the a. Gk. gen. or dat. ; also for the ace. the prep, diro or 
pi offers an alternative ; as, yiopoio-ev (or yipicrzv) to cnriTi euro yvvaiKts 
" the house was full of women," ol potpes ty\v ci^ave irpocKio-u p oA.es 
rts opopfats " the fates had endowed her with every charm." 

§ 51. (3) An ace. of content occurs : e.g. in Koiparai vttvo 
fiadv " he sleeps soundly (deep sleep)," ra ^Tatto " I am to 
blame for it," Tpfyovv /3po%r) ra Mtcpva " the tears flow in 
streams," pueXt rpe^ovv ra pdQia gov " thy eyes drop honey," 
ard^ei to %i^to rrj? £g)t)9 " he distils the fluid of life " = " he is 
in the prime of life," Xiftavih pvpi^ei^ " thou are fragrant with 
incense," fiyaivoj ((3yd£(o) TrepiTraro " I go out (take out) for a 
walk, I go walking," tcdOopbat aTavpoirohi " I sit with my legs 
crossed," iraipvoj ayicaXia " I take to an embrace, embrace." 
A local ace. has developed directly from such usages : e.g. 
67rr}yav Kwr\yi " they went hunting (to the chase)," irdpe 
airiri " we are going home," to iraipvei airtT dov (TEXTS III. 
12) " he takes it; home " ; analogous also elpai gttvti " I am at 
home " (beside arb <F7rm). It is impossible to draw a hard 
and fast distinction between the usage of (1) and that of (3). 

Note also the following phrases : — yia\b ycaXb 7ry)yaivovp€ " we 
are going along the beach," appevL^ovfie aKprj aKprj " we are sailing 
close along the coast,' Tr^p-ira™ to flowb fiovvo "I wander over 
mountain and valley," 7rcp7raTu> tov to?xo toT^o " I am walking along 
the wall." 

§ 52. (4) The adverbial use of the ace. (v. § 122 f.) is 
not confined merely to stereotyped forms of the neut. sing, or 
neut. pi. ; it is used also freely in other constructions — to 
designate 'point of time and duration of time, extent and distance 



38 HANDBOOK OF THE MODEEN GREEK VERNACULAR 

in space, price, measure, and sometimes manner : e.g. fita pcepa 
" one day," {eKeivrj) rrj vvyra " in the (that) night," to irovpvo 
" early in the morning," pna KvpiaKT) nrpusi " early one Sunday," 
tov iraXib Kaipo " in the good old days," rh irpoaXke? (sc. 
fiepes) "lately," "recently," roaov Kaipo " for such a long 
time," Too-e? <£ope? (/3o\e<?) *' so many times," heKairevre /z-epe? 
" during a fortnight," T/>et<? xpovov? " for three years " (note 
T/5. ^. €L%afjL€ va y€\do~ov/jL€ " we had wo£ laughed for three 
years," etc., w. p. 101), to aavihi elvai rpeis 7i*^e? /xa/cpv " the 
board is three cubits long " (also aaviBi r. ir. fi. " a board 
three cubits long "), to Kacrpo elvai rpei? wpe? {rpla jjulXlo) 
pLdKpeia air to x<&pio " the fort is distant three hours (miles) 
from the village," Se/ea <£ope<?, yjikia jiepdhta 6fiop(j;vT€p7) " ten 
times, a thousand times more fair," to /3i/3\io koo-ti&i (aff/fet) 
rpels Spa^/Lte? " the book costs (is worth) three drachmae," 
iroao to irovkeh " for how much do you sell it ? " to iraipvco 
Sub Spax/jues " I take it for two drachmae," to irXepcovco 
irevrjVTa Xefyra " I (am willing to) pay 5 centimes for it," 
aid (i)fjLQpcf)id "in the nicest way," payaT (III. 13. c) " in 
peace, quietly," X070 to \6yo "word for word," i.e. "little by 
little, gradually." 

§ 53. (5) Note also the following isolated usages : rbv Karjfxivo 
" the poor (fellow) ! " (exclamation of pity), tov Karepydpt " the 
scoundrel!" tov Kvp ®68opo "behold Mr. Th. !" /caAws tov "a 
welcome for him," dvaOefxd tov?, avdOefxa cVeVa " curse upon them, 
upon thee !" va fxe or yia jx,e "here I am," va rov(e) (beside va tos) 
"here he is," va ttjv 'Apttrj o-ov "there is thine A.'* (beside va 6 
Xapos), voire (v. § 218, n. 2) Ivav irapa "there take your one para." 
Cf. also vava vava to ytov^c fiov in the cradle song, and pa to Oeo 
"by God." 

§ 54. Gen. and ace. compete for the function of the 
indirect or dat. object 

(a) The gen. is most commonly used both of the noun and 
the pronoun ; as, eBcoKe tt}? puKprjs to j pap, pea "he gave the 
letter to the little (girl)," tov Xdpov KaicofydvT) "it vexed 
Charon," rj xtfpa &v T y$ npiitei " widowhood becomes her 
not," /caKo etcafie? tov iracScov " thon didst injury to the boy," 
toO tcdfiav Toae? Tvipipiovies " they treated him so formally," 
o-ov cfxova^e Xoyia /catcd "he addressed bad words to you" 
(but (f)(ovd%(o " I call to " takes ace.) ; eZ7re t?5? fidwas tov 
" he told his mother," fMoa-TeiXe 6 0i6$ " God commissioned 



MORPHOLOGY 39 

me," Toy Kovvrpaardpei " he resists him," t dpaeviKov tov 
6t]Xvkou jvpc^ec " the man turns to his wife" tov dirXdivave 
tcl x*P ta " tne y stretched out their hands to him," tov 
%afioye\a " he smiles at him." Note also the gen. for dat., 
particularly with dicXovOa) " follow," tcovreva) " approach " (cf. 
§ 49), 0vfi%(o "remind (one of something)"; also with 
XaXevco, jvpi^co, tyro) " beg, request," e.g. crov forco ttj %dpi 
" I beseech your favour," avro irov p,ov ^aXe^/re? elvat, iroXv 
fieyako (Texts I. d. 2) " what you requested of me is very 
considerable " (also ^aXeuo) cltto). 

1. The gen. may also represent an ancient Dat. ethicus or Dat. 
commodi (incommodi) : e.g. 6 fjXuos Se <rov rrjv d&€ (Texts I. a. 11) 
"the sun saw her not for thee" vd aov k tpx^rai 6 </>i'Aos crov 
"behold, there comes for you your friend," o~ov 6£Xa> ano^a &£kol 
Space's "I want 10 drachmae more from you" (properly "at your 
expense "). 

2. The following examples will show how the gen. has succeeded 
to the place of the dat. : nape rovv ttXovo-uhv to. cfaXovpid (Texts I. a. 
8) "take the money of the rich " (i.e. "from the rich "), reVota po'Sa 
/cat tov Xa/oov kolvovv 6p.opcf>a tol o-rqO ia "such roses make fair even 
Charon's breast " (breast to Charon), pov iriavtT y avairvoy] " my 
breathing stops," yta <rov "thy health,"— "health to thee" (and 
analogously also aXXot tov "woe to him," x a pd o"<*s " joy to you"). 

(b) The ace. is not capriciously used as the equivalent 
of the gen., but forms a marked characteristic of the Northern 
dialects and of Pontus, cf. III. 1 1 (Velvendos, Maced.) : e.g. 
avrov tovv ehovicav aXX 1 \xvia yvalica " they gave him another 
wife" tov iraalv 1 ttj yvacKa r fi he brings it to his wife," ttj 
ryvaitea <r tepvepo va jjltjv irfj^ " tell thy wife no secret " ; 1 from 
III. 12 (Thrace) /xk yelwe "he said to me" III. 10 (Lesbos) 
tov etcave Ttblx "he gave him command," III. 13 (Pontus): 
e.g. elirev to XeovTap tov irdphov " said the lion to the cat," 
GTpwvv utov to %vXov " they give him a cudgelling." 

The gen. therefore is to be regarded as the normal usage. 
Neither are gen. and ace. commonly confused by the best writers 
either in prose or in poetry. Thus in our texts the writers B^AapSs, 
~BaXa(i)pLT7]s, Hapao~xos, HoAc/xt;?, ApocrtV^s, MdVos, HaXafxas, 
c E<j)TaXLu>Tr}s, UdXXrjs use the gen. ; while, on the other hand, 
both ^ovto-os (of Constantinople), the Thessalian Prjyas 4>€pcuo9, 
ZaXaKojo-ras (of Epirus), and tyvxdpvjs use the ace. In general these 
writers appear to be guided by the usage of their home, still the 
Epirote ZaActKwoTas — in contrast to the Epirotes BrjXapas and 

1 ZfcXiipai/ d /JcuriXtd. rob tt\1 (III. 11) is therefore to be translated " they stole 
the king's hen." 



40 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

BaXawptrT/s — uses the ace. in his tales from Epirus (Texts I. d. 1, 2, 
3). On the other hand, writers from Northern Greece also employ 
the gen. — apparently because of the usage of the majority ; cf. e.g. 
"SovTcros, Texts II. a. 9, /jlov iridvtT r) avatrvorj " my (to me) breathing 
stops," beside r) yXucrcra jaov fik SeWai "my tongue is (to me) 
shackled." 

(c) The prep. *9 {ere, eh) may be used in place of the 
datival gen. or ace. : thus the Texts I. a. 8, 1, d. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 
in addition to the gen., give rarer examples also of *9 : e.g. eScorce 
rr) fiovXa <tto iraihi " he gave the boy the signet-ring," elire 
gtov irarepa rov " he said to his father " ; or even a mixture 
of construction, as va pur) xpovo-ras ere ifkovcrio, (^ra^bv va 
fjurj Sai>et y £#9 x (I. b. 7) "be not debtor to a rich man, lend not 
to a poor man." Even the higher literature employs '? as 
well as gen. or ace. : e.g. ri uxpeXel arb %evo " what use is 
it to the foreigner ? " (Paraschos), x a P^ ere T ^ ftifiXia era? 
cttovs 'givovs " you give your books to foreigners " (Psichari), 
aXXolfiovo arrj Xvyeprj " alas, for the maiden ! " (Chadzopulos). 

1. It is a noteworthy fact that the writers who employ the ace. 
of the pronoun for the dat. apparently avoid the ace. of a noun, i.e. 
they prefer '?. In the case of the pronoun, \ is used only with the 
fuller forms (§ 134 ff.) : e.g. cr* avrbv x/owotoj (I. d. 2) " to him I am 
debtor," avrb 8ev elvat tlttotc cr Ifxiva (I. d. 2) "that does not matter 
to me." 

2. The verb (6)/Aoia£o> "I am like, resemble," may be construed 
with the gen. or the ace, with the preps. \ or /*€, or with <rdv 
(e/i.oiao"€ r) /?ao"iA.eta rail/ ovpavuiV crav avOpiDiros (TEXTS II. b. 6) " the 
kingdom of heaven is like' a man "). With the nom. this verb 
means "appear," e.g. fjLotd&i rptXXos "he appears to be crazy." 

Article. 

§ 55. Forms of the Definite Article ; 

Singular. 

rj the to the 

tt}<? of the tov of the 

Tr)(y) the to the 

Plural. 
ol (rj) the tcl the 

to)(v) of the 
T69 (raU), rh (t?)?, toU) ra the 

On final -v, v. § 34; sometimes an e is attached {rove, rrjve, 
rebve). The forms in brackets are only orthographical ly 



Nom. 


o the 


Gen. 


rov of the 


Ace. 


to(v) the 


Nom. 


ol the 


Gen. 




Ace. 


tov9 the 







Sing. 




Plur. 




m. 


f. 


n. 


m. f. 


Nom. 


— 


— 


-r- 


rcrt (tctoi) rcrt 


Gen. 


— 


rcrij (t£?/) 





_ — 


Ace. 


— 


— 





ro-ovfs), rcrl (tctoi) rcrt 



MORPHOLOGY 41 

different ; tls is now more common than re?. The dat. is 
replaced by gen. or ace. and also by the prepositional 
combinations, in sing. crrb{v) <7T7)(v) otto, in pi. arrow, ares 
(o-rl?), <7TCL (cf. § 54). 

1. In the Ionic islands, in Epirus, Crete and other Aegean 
islands the following initial tct- forms are to he found : — 



n. 



The forms to-?7 = t?)<; and tcti = tis are most common, the others 
being much rarer. 

2. ov for 6, tov(v) for t6v ; r l d L and v (f r. t l v) = r-q(v) ; t or d l 
and d = tov ; ts = t^>, tovs (in Velvendos, Lesbos) — the forms being 
governed by the phonetic laws of the Northern Greek (§ 7, n. 1). 
Initial r drops out in Lower Italy : o — ro, i = Trj(v). In the Pontic 
dialect, cttov, arr^v), otto, etc., become cro, <rrj, etc ; cf. § 16, n. 4. 

3. The a. Gk. form at (e) is still found in Lower Italy (Otr.) 
for masc. as well as fern. : the ace. pi. /. Vas (beside rls) still 
survives in Chios. The more important new dialectic formations in 
addition to those given in n. 1 and 2 are 1 = 6 in Northern Gk., 
e.g. Velvendos, Saranda Klisi^s, and Lesbos, ti = to9 in Saranda 
KlisieX tI = tov, ttJs, twv, tovs, tis in Pontus, tovj/==tu>v in Cephalonia 
and. the Maina, tis also for ace. pi. m. in Karpathos, Saranda 
Klisies. 

4. Some dialects have reduced the forms of the article to very 
small dimensions : thus (in Cappad. and also in Pontus) to is used 
for nom. and ace. sing., t<x for nom. and ace. pi. of all genders. 

§ 56. The Indefinite Article is identical with the 
numeral "one," v. § 128. 

Only in Cappadocia (or rather Pharasa) the indef. art. has a ; 
special form d or (before vowels and explosives, v. Texts III. 14. b) 
dv for was " one." The origin of this form is obscure — possibly due 
to a transformation of ha (*uva). 

§ 57. The Definite Article is placed before proper names 
of all kinds and before geographical names (countries, islands, 
cities, mountains, rivers), also before names of months and 
days : eg. 6 Tidvvris " John " (pi. oi Tidwihes " people with the 
name ' John ' "), rj Mapia (pi. oi Maples), 6 Aid/cos (well-known 
hero of Greek liberty), 6 Aapf3tvos, 6 (/cup) Ad&pos " (Mr.) 
L." 6 'AXrj 7raaas " Ali Pasha," r/ Me\Tro/j,evr) (the Muse), 6 
6 los " God," 6 Xp lottos ; r) EvpcoTri], rf Tepfxavia, 6 Mop ids , ol 
'IvhUs, v KprjTT), 7] Xlo, oi Wapis, rj TLoXi (Constantinople), 



42 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

)) 'AOtjva, 6 /edfiiro? tov MapaOwva " the plains of M.," to 
yto(f>vpt tt)<? "Apras " the bridge of A." 6 "OXvfnros, 6 
EvpcoTds ; 6 'AirpiXis, tf irapaa-fcevrj " Friday," to crdfifiaTO 
" Saturday." 

1. Indeclinable expressions may also receive the article : e.g. /jlI 
to avpto "with to-morrow," to dve/?a koX Karifta (imperat., v. § 218, 
n. 2) "the going up and down," tol o£u> "the outside." On sub- 
ordinate clauses with the art., v. §§ 266, 1 n., and 269 n. 

The art. is always repeated when an adjectival or 
substantival attribute follows a substantive with the def. art. ; 
it is also usually repeated (almost always before names) when 
the articulated attribute precedes the word to which it refers : 
e.g. 6 Boptas 6 irayco/xevos " the icy Boreas," r\ &pa r) (bpicrfiivr] 
" the hour appointed," crro Se^l ykpi to yv/xvo " in the naked 
right hand," 6 /carjfievos 6 Tidvvy)<$ " poor J.," rj fcarj/jLevrj r) 
fioaKoirovXa " the wretched shepherdess," to kcuco to /jlcitl 
" the evil look," to, fiafcpiva t aaTpa " the distant stars," 
to, 7ro\Xa to, Sdfcpva " the copious tears," to aXXo to ttovXc 
" the other bird " (Texts L d. 1 beside oi aXXoi yiarpoi 
" the other physicians "), <TTa eprjfia t<z £ eva " in the 
desert foreign land," rj cr/cvXa r] icepa aov " the bitch, thy 
mother" (I. a. 16), 6 fiaaiXU? (^"Tttvos "King H." Note 
iyco 6 fcarj/jLevo? " I wretched man," iaels oi avTpeicofievoi " you 
braves," to iroTr)pi to vepo " the glass of water," to acuctcovXi 
to fiapyaptTcipi "the little bag of pearls" (cf. § 43). 

2. As a consequence of this rule the' gen. never stands between 
the art. and substantive; for exx. v. § 294. 

§ 58. The indef. art. is not employed with predicates, e.g. 
elfiat, repfiavts "I am a German," Sep elaat, *xpiaTiavo% "you 
are not a Christian," to iracSl elvat Stfed aov " the child is 
thine," rpcutcds Oava ireOalvco "a Greek I will die," ae i-epco 
Tifico dOpwTTo " I esteem thee as an honorable man " tov 
€Xe<yav Ad^apo " they called him L.," tov e/cafiav ftaaiXid 
" they made him king." 

1. Kather unusual is cT/xat eras AopSo? (Texts I. d. 5) "I am a 
lord"; but the def. art. maybe employed with the predicate: e.g. 
€l/jloli 6 OavaTos "I am death," elfiat 6 Tidwrjs "I am J." 

2. It may be remarked that in general the indef. art. is used 
more sparingly than, e.g., in German : compare the beginning of II. 
b. 4, or, e.g., ex €t wp<uo q-xiti " he has a beautiful house," €^" ficydKrj 
fjLVTrj "he has a large nose," ttJs jxavvovXas crov rj ev;^ va vai yta 



MORPHOLOGY 43 

6v\axr6 (tov "thy mother's blessing be a protection for thee," <I>to}xov 
va fxrj havutfls "do not lend to a poor man," o-ro ^ept /?ao-ra 
ao-TpoirtXtKL (II. a. 14) "in his hand he holds a lightning-flash," 6 
X/oto-ros €(£r€iacr€ KokvTtpo 7rpa/xa (I. d. 6) " Christ made a better 
thing," a\\r} <j>opd "another time," dWrj <f>opto-id (I. d. 1) "another 
garment." In such cases, however, the indef. art. is not impossible. 

Substantive. 

§ 59. The most convenient method of classification of 
the declension of substantives is according to their gender. 
In this way similar forms may be best reduced to uniform 
groups or declensions. All the masculines fall again into 
two sub-groups according as the nom. (and ace.) pi. ends in 
-ol (ace. -ovs) or -e?. All the feminines have -e? in the nom. 
(and ace.) pi. The neuters in the nom. (and ace.) pi. end in 
-a (more rarely in -rj). According as the sing, and pi. are 
parisyllabic or non-parisyllabic there are further subdivisions. 

In all the paradigms two case-endings have the same method of 
formation, viz. the ace. sing, and the gen. pi. — the former being 
identical with the vowel-stem (± v), the latter always ending in -o)(v). 
On final -v, cf. § 34 ; in the following paradigms this -v is omitted in 
the noun, as it occurs only dialectically in the two cases in question. 
The gen. pi. on the mainland frequently ends in cove, especially if 
the (o is accented (^Ae^T-cuve). 

§ 60. The following declensions are accordingly to be 
differentiated : 

I. Masculine Nouns, 

a. in -0?, Nom. pi. -ot, 

b. in -a? (-a?), -is (-779, -779, -t?), -e9 (-69), -0O9, 

parisyllabic : pi. -69, 
non-parisyllabic : pi. -Se9. 

II. Feminine Nouns, 
in -a, -i (-??, -i), -0 (co), -ov, -e, 

parisyllabic : pi. -69, 
non-parisyllabic : pi. -Se9. 

III. Neuters. 

a. in -0(1/), -lo(v) [-10(1/)], -1 (-t), 
parisyllabic : pi. -a, 
(non-parisyllabic : pi. -/a, -to). 



44 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

b. in -09, 

parisylldbic : pi. -rj (ia), 
(non-parisyllabic : pi. -to). 

c. in -o -/xo(v), -a<?, 

non-parisyllabic : pi. -ra. 





Piirisy liable. 


Non-parisyllabic. 


Norn. PL 


I. Masculine-! 


-OS 


— 


Norn, -oi 


1 

II. Feminine 


-as, -is 
-a, -i, (-<?) 


-ds, -is, -is, -es, -us 
-a, -i } -it, -6 


r -69, -0£9 


/ 


-o, -?/tf (-fo), -^ 


{-i -o) 


-a, -ia (-ra) 


III. Neuter * - 


-OS 


i-os) 


-7] -ia (-ra) 


I 


(-mo) 


-a, -mo, -as 


-ra 



The forms in brackets are rarer than the others. 

I. Masculine Nouns. 
A. Norn. PI. -oi. 
§ 61. Endings. 

Singular. " Plural. 

Nom. -09 -oi 

Gen. -ov . -<o(v) 

Ace. -°( v ) " ou? 

Voc. -e -oi 

]STom. <£t\o9 " friend," e^T/509 " enemy/' c^'Xot ^rpot 
Gen. (pikou i^Tpou cf)l\co(v) ixrpa)(v) 

Ace. <£t'\o ^T/30 <pi\ov$ i^rpov<i 

Yoc. <£/\e ^X T P^ fyikoi i%Tpol 

Similarly are declined, e.g., Kafxiro^ " field," X07709 " forest," 
inrapovos " baron," gkvXos " dog," aSep(f)6<; " brother," yiarpos 
" physician," fcvvrjyo? " hunter," \a7c9 " hare," ovpavos 
" heaven " ; also verbal substantives in -^o's (y\vr(0fi6<; 
" deliverance "), diminutives in -a«:o9 (avOpwiraicos " /iom- 
munculus" " little man," also proper names like IlerpaKo^), 



MORPHOLOGY 45 

patronymics in -7roi/\o? 1 (ArjfiTjTpa/coTrovXos " Son of Dimi- 
tracis"), and augmentatives in -apoq (traihapo^ "bigger 

boy"). 

Proparoxytones like ayyeXo? "angel," aveiios "wind," 
aOpcD-rros " man," aTrccrroXos " apostle," €/j,7ropo$ " merchant," 
Sdo-fcaXos " teacher," TrdXe/zo? " war," avvrpo^o^ " companion," 
undergo change of accent — in the sing, they are usually 
proparoxytone, in the pi. paroxytone ; thus, a0pcoTro<; aOpcoirov 
dOpcoiro — adpamot adpcoircoty) adp(o7rov<; } Baa/coXo? — Sacr/cdXoi, 
ave/jLos — dve/jLot, avvrpojios — avvrpocftoc. This rule, however, 
is not quite general ; sometimes in the gen. sing, the ancient 
accentuation (dvefiov) is retained, while in the pi. d(v)0pco7roc 
may be found. 

§ 62. Notes on the several cases. Instead of the voc. 
in -€, some proper names or appellatives (NT/co?, HeV/30?, 
XprjGTos, At,dico$) used as such form a voc. in -o : Nlrco, flerpo, 
etc. ; also Xovarpo for Xovarpos " shoeblack." To 0eo?, 0i6<? 
" God," voc. (0ee and) 01 In Pontic d'Se^Xe " brother ! " 
(usually dhepfyk). — xpovos "year" gives gen. pi. xpovco(v€) 
beside %po vco ; so also TEXTS III. 3, aOpunr&ve from d0poyiro$ t 
On the plural-formation X0705 \6yta, etc., v. §§ 96, 100, n. 1. 

1. In some dialects, especially in" the Aegean region, in the North. 
Gk. dialects, and in Asia Minor the nom. pi. is employed also for the 
ace. : e.g. to-1 <£iAoc = tous <j>t\ovs (Thera, Tos), tovs d#pci>7roi, and other 
exx. In Cappadocia the cases of the pi. have generally fallen into 
desuetude: e.g. (Texts III. 14. b) nom. ol \vr£oi "the wolves," gen. 
tov Avt£oi, ace. Tot Xvrtpt. Pontic has advanced farther on a way of its 
own ; ef. the following paradigms, in which those forms are bracketed 
that are required merely according to the North. Gk. vowel laws, or 
that correspond to the common Gk. forms : 

S. Nom. a0pu)7ros 2 <£i'Aos 2 dScA<£o's 2 dAcTroV 2 

6 aOpdiirov, a6p<oirov z 6 <£i'Aov 3 6 d<$€A<£6V 3 6 dA€7roV 3 
Gen. T y adpuiirt (t a0p(x>7r) 4 tl <J)lXovo<s r olScX^l (t dA€7rov) 

(t dScA^ov) 
(to <j>lXqv) (tov dSeAc^oV) (tov aXtirov) 
(ol cf>i\) t aSeXfjie t aXeirov&Z 

(ol a\€7TOt) 
tl <£iAiaii> r d8cA<£iaiv 
(tI <£i'Ats) t dScA^e t aXtirov^'i 

(t aXeirovs) 

1 Literally " youth," " son " ( = Lat. pullus), but treated as a suffix. 

2 Without the definite article. 
8 With the definite article. 
4 On the other hand, tI dtaKaKovbs from 6 5£<rKa\ov " teacher." 

4 



Ace. 


(tov aOpiHTTOv) 


PL Nom. 


(ol a0p(X>7T y 




aOpdur) 


Gen. 


T aQptDTritoV 


Ace. 


(t a6p(J}TT%) 



46 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

2. In Scyros the nom. sing, both of substantives and adjectives 
ends in -€? (ace. -e) : e.g. irXdravcs = 7rA.arai/os " plane-tree," avdAare? = 
avdXaTos "saltless, stale," Pares = fidros "bramble-bush," ao-rrpzs 
"white," ya/nirpes "son in-law," ypa/x/xcVcs "written," icaAc? "good." 
But all appellatives in -os do not take this transformation. 

§ 63. Some nouns that according to their inflection 
should belong to this category are indeclinable when they 
precede a proper name as a title. Such are tcvpios " Mr.," 
yepos " old man," ayios " saint," KcnreTavios " captain," 
" leader " ; thus, 6 Kvp Aa^apos, 6 yepo-Ko\oKOTpd)V7i<; " the 
aged K." 6 r 'A(y)i-Ttdvvr}<; > 6 fcairerav Nt/cyras, etc. 

1. The masculines in -os correspond exactly to the same a. Gk. 
declension. Many of the ancient examples have indeed been 
replaced by diminutives in -i (§ 97), some have also partially fallen 
into the following group (§ 66 n.) ; while, on the other hand, this 
declension in -os (in addition to loan-words) has been somewhat 
enriched by words like yepos, etc., § 65, n. 1. 

2. Of the a. Gk. formations the contracted nouns, the so-called 
Attic declension, and the feminine o-stems have disappeared. A 
fragment of the contracted class (v. also adjectives) is still to hand in 
vov<s "mind," "intellect," ace. vov(v)> pi. vov&es: gen. sing, voos and 
nom. pi. vocs are not really vernacular. 1 The other ancient contracted 
forms have been replaced by new words : e.g. ttAovs by ra^lSi. \ay6s 
"hare" = a. Gk. Aaytos, is inflected like any other masc. 

The old feminines were ^supplanted in various ways: 

(a) they became masc. : e.g. 6 -n-Xdravos " plane-tree," 6 t/kx<£o? 
"grave" ; 

(b) they remained fern., but dropped the -s and passed over into 
another declension : e.g. rj ^a/xo " Samos" ; v. § 87 ; 

(c) they became neut. in -o(v) (to fido-avo "agony"), or -09 
(to Spoaos " dew ") ; cf. §§ 92, 99 f. ; 

(d) they became fem. in -a (irapOiva " maiden," KaixrjXa " camel "), 
or were otherwise transformed by the addition of a fem. ending : 
rj 7rAaravta " plane-tree," Spoo-td " dew," dpKovCa "she-bear"; 

(e) or supplanted by the diminutive forms : dfiviXi " vine," 
vrjo-i " island," oa/?Si " staff" ; or 

(/) were replaced by other words: Spo/xos for 600s "way," 
Ixovottot " path " for rj droaTrds, aooaio-Tia " sickness " for jj vdo-09. 

All the other forms do not belong to the common tongue ; the 
old forms are still to be found sometimes, but only dialectical ly ; v. 
§ 87, n. 1. The same word may occur in different modifications : 
7rAaTavog, 7rA.aravta, irXardvL. 

B. Nom. PI, -69. 

§ 64. The stem vowels are : a } i (t, ij), e (e), u (ov), which 
unite with the terminations in the following manner : 

1 More commonly rk (xvakb. " brain," rb Ke<pd\t " head." 



MORPHOLOGY. 47 

Parisyllabic. Non-parisyllabic, 

Singular. 
Nom. -a, -i-, -e- y -u- s 
Gen. -a, -i, -e, -u 
Ace. -a- -i-, -e-, -u- (n). 

Plural. 
Noui. -es "J in place -a-, -t-, -e-, -u- des 
Gen. -<?(?t) J- of the -a, -i, -e f -it- do(n) 
Ace. -es J stem-vowel -a-, -£-, -#-, -u- des. 

Analogous to the usage cited in § 63, there are indeclinable 
forms of iraira^ " priest," and x aT £fc " pilgrim " : e.g. 6 iraira- 
drifflrpi?" Priest (Father) D.," d xari^-Kcocrra? "Pilgrim K." 



Parisyllabic. 




65. d yipovTas "old man." 
Singular. 


Plural. 


Nom. yepovras 
Gen. ykpovia 
Ace. (Voc.) yepovra 


yipovres 

ry€pOVT<0 

yepovres. 



The following are similarly declined : a(y)ipa<; " air," " wind," 
aidepas " ether," apyowrax " ruler," " prince," yeirovas 
" neighbour," epuras " love," /cXrjTfjpas " constable," iraripa^ 
"" father," <f>v\a/ca<; " watchman," yeiii&va*; " winter " — that is, 
practically all barytones in -a9. 

1. This class had its origin in the a. Gk. masc. consonant stems 
(or so-called 3rd decl.). Out of the old ace. sing. yepovra(i/) a new 
nom. (yepovras) and gen. (yepoira) were formed corresponding to 
kXc^tt^s kXI^ttj (§ 68), etc. Q u ite mechanically stated, the rule for 
this formation is : — the a. Gk. masculines of the 3rd decl. form 
their nom. sing, by attaching a -s to the ace. sing. ; yet all the a. Gk. 
nouns have not been re-modelled in this fashion, yepos "old man" 
and Xapos " Charon " being found at least equally frequent along- 
side of yipovTas Xa'povTas, 6 apxos " the leader " alongside apxovras, 
and SpaKos always for a. Gk. SpaKiov (a monster frequently met with 
in fable). Cf. also ?8pos "sweat" (iSpais) beside t8prwas, and 6 
Trpoecrrds "president" (borrowed from the literary language). 1 The 
inflexion is the same as for §i\o% \ but note voc. yepo, Xdpo (beside 
Xdpe), Spa.™ (beside SpaKc). The consonantal decl. has been very 
frequently ousted by the creation of diminutives in -t (v. § 97), 
which are often employed side by side with the other forms : ao-repi 
(do-Tcpas) "star," 0€pC "animal," kovSovvl "bell," o-kovXtjki (and 

1 The word 6 irapu(v) " the one present" — also from the literary language — 
Temains indeclinable : 6, i), rb irapdj. 



48 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

crK«>\ V Ka<s) "worm," SoVrt "tooth," muSi "child," "boy," "fellow"; 
XiovTapi " lion," -jro&dpi "foot" beside the rarer iroSt and TroSas (as 
in Otranto). Other words have been ousted by entirely new ones, 
as a. Gk. kv<dv by o-kvXl (or ovcvAos) " dog." 

2. The a. Gr. paradigm vcavias, ra/u'as, etc., has as such dis- 
appeared or is no longer distinguishable from KXrjTfjpas. 

3. 7r€vr)T<t)v for TrwqTiDv, Texts I. a. 7 (Cephalonia). 

§ 66. The paradigm just given frequently shows a 
transition in the gen. sing, and nom. and ace. pi. into the 
decl. of masculines in -09. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. ye'nova? " neighbour '* yeirovoi 

Gen. yeirovov yecrovco 

Ace. yetTova tyetrovovs. 

Similarly : /eopatca?, fyvXatta'?, apxpvTas, and others. 

Note the change of accent — especially in the gen. sing. 

Many masculines in -09 have taken on in the nom. sing, the- 
ending -as ; as, eyyovas " grandson " = fyyovos, tpLiropa^ (and ep.7ropos) 
"merchant," K&povpas "crab" (a. Gr. /ca/?€tpos), /xayepas "cook" 
(a. Gr. /Aayetpos). These are declined like yetrovas (nom. pi. also* 
accented thus : c/ATropot, Kafiovpoi). 

§ 67. Some irregularities : avrpa? " man," fj,f}va$ " month "" 
(pi. iirjves and firjvot) have aVTpo){v) y /jlt)vo)(v) in the gen. pi. ;. 
these nouns and Trarepas "father" have also occasionally in 
the gen. sing, avrpos (and avrpov)> /jli)vo<; (and iatjvov), irarpo^ 
(alongside tov avrpa, fifjva, nrarepa). 

On the other hand, fr. iraripas, gen. pi. iw irarlp^v). On the- 
occasional transition into the non-parisyllabic class, v. § 73. 

§ 68. o *\e>T779 "robber/' "Kleft." 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. /c\i(f)T7}^ K\€(f>T€<; 

Gen. K\icf>T7} /c\€cf>rco(v€) 

Ace. fc\€(f)Tr} ^Xe0T€9. 

Similarly : hiafiajT)? " traveller," ipydrrj^ " worker," KaOpefyrr)? 
" mirror," fjLadrjTi]? " pupil," /jbovpTaTT)? " renegade," vavrrjs 
" sailor," ttoXlt^ " citizen," irpo^TT}^ " prophet," pd^rrj^- 
" tailor," ^t/<7T7?9 " mason," yfrevrr}? " liar," and all the proper 
names in -7779 denoting place of origin ; as, Mopmri)?, J?7reT- 
criu)TT)$, Xlcott)?, Mavidrt]?, etc. 

Many have secondary forms like the non-parisyllabics ; t? fc 
§ 7G. 



MORPHOLOGY 49 

1. This class represents the a. Gk. masculines in --qs of the 1st 
decl. (note gen. pi.), all of which, so far as they have at all survived, 
may be declined according to this paradigm. 

2. Such occasional forms as a voc. in -a or a nom. pi. in -at 
arise out of the literary or ecclesiastical language ; thus, SeWora 
fr. Seo-'iroTTj's "bishop," "priest" (Texts I. a. 19), or ipaartTexraL 
"amateurs," "dilettanti" (Texts II. b. 7). 

§ 69. A decl. corresponding to that of yelrovas (§ 66) is 
rather uncommon : fidaropi]^ (beside fidaropa^) " master " is 
thus declined : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. fjidcrTopT)*; fidaropoi, fiaaropoi 

(and /jLctarope^) 
Gen. fxaaropov (and fid(7Topov y fxdaropa) fxacrropay 
Ace. fidaroprj fiacrTopovs. 

Similarly, nom. ace. pi. fc\i(f>Toi y Texts III. 14. b. 

Non-parisyllabics. 
§ 70. 6 7r<27ra9 "priest." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. iraira^ iramdhz*; 

Gen. Trcnra nrairdhoy 

Ace. (Voc.) Traira 7ra7raSe?. 

Similarly, all words in -a? with accent on the final : e.g. 

icefyakas " blockhead," Kocnciva? " sieve - maker," fivkmva^ 

" miller," (payas " eater," " gourmand," tyapa? " fisher," ^w^a? 

" baker n ; and especially numerous (Turkish) loan-words : 

dya? "Aga," a/upas "commander-in-chief," "ameer," fcavya? 

" quarrel," fiirovTaXas " thickhead," ovras " room," irapa? 

" para " (coin), pi. also " money," irao-a? " Pasha," aovytd^ 

" pen-knife." 

1. The (a. Gk. especially Hellenistic) suffix -as is very produc- 
tive, partly to express certain bodily peculiarities : K€<f>d\a " big- 
head," Ke<£<xAas "big-headed," x e & L "lip," x et ^ s "thick-lipped"; 
and partly to designate a trade or calling : afxa$a " carriage," a/*a£as 
"driver," "cabman," ydXa "milk," yaXaras "milkman," koctklvo 
" sieve," Kocr/cti/as "sieve-maker," TrdVAw/Aa "bedcover," 7ra7rAw//,aTas 
"manufacturer of or dealer in bedcovers." 

2. There is also a plural irapdhia " money," from napas, Texts 
III. 9. 

§ 71. Nouns in (-td<; -eds) are generally declined accord- 
ing to the last paradigm: e.g. fiaaiXid? "king," Bopid? 
"north wind," <f>ovid<; "murderer," ;^a?v/aa? "blacksmith." 



50 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

But instead of ffaaiXeds, etc., some dialects show fiacrikem 
(gen. and ace. tov, to fiaaikia) and plural : 

Nom. /3ao-t\et'Se? 

Gen. {3aaikeihw(y) 

Ace. ftaaikuhes. 

1. Note that the form pao-ikw is not confined to the dialects 
mentioned in § 10, n. 1 ; it is found, e.g., also in Ios, and is a 
favourite in the written vernacular (e.g. avyypa<f>eas in Palamas). 

2. Nouns in -tag (except Boptas) have arisen from the a. Gk. 
nouns in -evs, in the same way in which yepovras has come from 
yipuyv ; -cas passing into -tag, according to § 9. A gen. /SacrtAiois ( = 
a. Gk. /iWiAews) for the usual /foo-iAta (/3ao-tAe'a) is of rare occur- 
rence. The pi. ol /SacrtAets comes from the literary language. 

3. In place of such -ea<? substantives, forms in -es occur in Lesbos, 
Chios, in W. Crete, and other parts of the Aegean (e.g. Icarus), and 
also in Saranda Klisies : e.g. fiacriXes for /jacrtAeas, 6 <f>ov4s for <j>ovias> 
gen. and ace. /WtAc, etc. 

§ 72. A transition into the o-decl., analogous to yelrova? 
ryeirovot,, is rather uncommon : 

(yovioc) ryov(i)ol " parents " 
(yovico) yovico 
(yoviovs) yoviovs. 
Here belongs the sing. yovto? " father " (a. Gk. yovevs, yoveh). 
Family names in -a? regularly form their pi. in -aloi 
(•€ol): rpi/3a<; — TpijBaloi "family of the Griva," ' AvhpovTo~a$ 
— AvSpovraaioi, T£a/3iWa$ — T^afteXKaloi. 

§73. Sometimes even barytones in -a 9 form non- pan- 
sy Uabic plurals in -iSes or -aSe9 ; thus, regularly, %d%a^ 
" laugher," %«%*Se? and yd<TKa<$ " gaper," irairaTpkya^ 
" shallow fellow," " swaggerer " ; rarely Trarepd&es and 
TrarepiBes, dipa<? depiSes, Kaftovpa? KafiovpdSes, apyovra-i 
dpxovrdSes, etc. 

§ 74. x*t$$ " pilgrim," 'Apd-ir^ " Arabian," " Moor," 
" negro." 

Singular. Plural. 

# Xom. xar%ri$ * Apamr\<$ ^aT^Se? 'Apache? 

Gen. X aT & * Apdirt) ^ar^Sa) 'ApdirriSa) 

Acc. X ar %*l ' Apdirt] ^artySe? 'Apaches. 

Similarly, Turkish and other loan-words in -779 (-779) : e.g. 
Ka<f>€T%r)$ " keeper of a coffee-house," fzovcrrepr]^ " customer," 
7ra7roL'Tcrf/9 " cobbler," Te^e/cerf?}? " tinker," and other names of 



MORPHOLOGY 5 1 

occupations in -t^?; fte&pys "Vizier," fiavdftrjs "green- 
grocer," fnratcuXrjs " shopkeeper," fxire^ " Bey," T<roirdvrj<; 
" shepherd," ^afjbd\7j<; "porter." uTrapinriepr)*; (Ital.) "barber," 
fixdfirj? (Alban.), Vlamis " brother in a feud." 

1. Note the North. Gk. forms nom. sing, bipbips "barber," gen. 
and ace. btpbipj nom. pi. bipbipSes (Lesbos). 

2. vreXrj " brave " (Texts I. a. 9), a nom. without -s, is the un- 
altered Turkish form deli; atop "Mr.," "Sir" (Texts III. 5), the 
unaltered Ital. sior{e\ the Grecianised decl. being 6 <Ti6pyjs (o-io/hs), 

TOl) (TiOpTJ. 

§ 75. The nouns in -ts differ merely orthographically 
(from the last in -t}?) : e.g. KapafioicvpLS " owner of a ship," 
" captain." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. tcapafSoKvpis Kapa/3o/cvpt8e$ 

Gen. Kapafiotcvpi Kapa^otcvptBco 

Acc. KapafioKvpi KapaftofcvpiSe?. 

Similarly, voitcofcvpts " master of a house " and the nomina 
agentis in -apt?, like jSap/eapt? " boatman," KaftaXkapis " horse- 
man," Kvvrjyapis " huntsman," fiaKeXkdpis " butcher," 
iT€p(c)l3o\dpi<; " gardener " ; and also names of persons, like 
Bacrbkv; " Basilius," ruopyt,? " George," Tp^yopi^ ; diminutives 
in -ouXi?, like dvrpov\i$ " little (poor) man " ; family names 
(diminutives) in -dfcis, like Xar£i§a/a9, Tiavvapdtcis, as well as 
all other names of persons and of families in -ts : Tidwris, 
"John," Mai^oX^?, "Emmanuel," M^aX???" Michael," QoScopij^ 
" Theodore," Kcoaravrr]<; " Constantine," IlepLKXrjs, STecfcavijs, 
TpiKOV7T7j<; y AeXrjyidvvr}?, Apa*yovjJL7)<;; thus the plurals 
rid)p<yt8e$j Tidvvrihe*;, JJepackrjhes, Tpitcov7rr)§e<;. The comic 
formation ot TroaoiralpviBes " the bribe-seekers," is a pi. from 
the expression iroao iralpve^ ; " how much will you take ? " 

1. The spelling fluctuates between -is and -rjs ; in the pi. -t'Scs 
(-iScs) is sometimes uniformly written in all words (thus also 
Xar^t^es, s Apa7n8cs, etc.). 

2. Words in -is are transformations from the a. Gk. in -to? 
(Kvpts =. Ku'pios, riwpyts = Teoipyios), the number of which has been 
considerably increased by the Lat. suffix -apis (-arius). Cf. the 
neuters in -i, § 95 ; but while the latter (in -i) have in all the cases 
except nom. and acc. sing, been faithful to the o-decl., the masculines 
in -is have entirely deserted on the analogy of the other substantives 
in -is. Genitives in -ov, like Kvpcs Kvpov, Mai's (Maiys) " May," Maiov 
or Ma'Lov, are rare — the names of the months Tevvdpts, OAc/Sapis, 
Maoris, 'A^rpiAts, etc., usually follow the paradigm given. The words 



52 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

in -apt? still preserve (beside -tSes) also the old form in the pi. ; thus, 
KafiaWdpoi (fr. -apioi), and so KafiaWdpw, Ka/3aXX.dpovs. The termina- 
tions -apis and -apos are interchangeable in KovpcrdptSj pi. KovpcrapiSes 
beside Kovpo-dpos, pi. Kovpadpot ( = Ital. corsaro " pirate "). 

§ 76. Many parisyllabic substantives belonging to the 
category of § 68 take beside the pi. in -e? also a pi. in -dSe? 
or -rjSe? : 

A. ftovkevrrj*; " delegate " — ftovkevrdhes 
SiKaart]^ "judge" — Si/cdo-TciSe? 
Sov\€vtt]<; " worker " — SoiAeuraSe? 
6epL<TTi)<; " reaper," — depiGrdSes 
KpiTTjs " judge " — Kpirahes 

fj,a07iTrj$ " pupil," " apprentice " — fiaOrjrdBe^ 
iroir)Tr)<i " poet " — TrotyWiBes 
7rou\r)Ti]<; " vendor " — irovXijTaSe^ 
irpaixarevTrj^ " merchant " — irpa/jLarevrdSe^ 
rpayovSiar^ " singer," " poet " — rpayovhiardhe^ 
%opevT7]<; " dancer " — %op€vrd$e<;. 

B. a<f)evTr)<; " Mr.," " father " J — dfavrdhes d^evTrjSes 
SeGT7roT7;5 " bishop," " priest "— Se<77roTaSe9 SecrTror^Se? 
fc\e<j)Tr)<; " kleft " — k\€<j>T7)$€<; 

pd(j>Tr]<; " tailor " — pa^raSe? pdcftTrjSes 
y}rd\Tr]$ " singer " — yfraXTaBe'i ^raX-r^Se? 
^tiVt^? " mason " — ^TiaTaSrj(; ^TtcrT^Se? 
XCopiaTr)? " peasant," " boor " — ^oypLaTTjSe^. 

Many popular writers manifest a propensity for generalising this 
type (especially A), and so extend it even to new formations : e.#. 
d€poK07ravt(m;s, pi. -KOTravioraSes " one who beats the air, swaggerer." 

§ 77. icaj>h "coffee." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. teases feacfriSes 

Gen. /ca<f)€ Kacj)€$G) 

Ace. /ea$e /ea^eSe?. 

So also (mostly Turkish) loan-words : learifyh " velvet," 
tca^eves "coffee-house," fiaxpovries (Turk, coin), fieve^h 
" violet," fiivapi? " minaret/ re^e/ee? " tin," ^tSe? " vermicelli" 

On /focriAcs, v. § 71, n. 3. 



MORPHOLOGY 53 

§ 78. Kovres "Count." 

Singular. > Plural. 

Nona. Kovres k6vtl&€$ 

Gen. KOVT6 KOVTlho) 

ACC. KOVT€ KQVTlhe<$. 

Thus also Italian loan-words like Kov/navrdvre^ " com- 
mander," \efidvT€<$ " east wind, 5 ' and irovevre^ " west wind." 

§ 79. Trainrovs " grandfather." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. irannrov^ irairiTovhe^ 

Gen. iraiTTrov Trairirovhto 

Ace. iraTTirov Trainrovhes. 

Apart from this word and vovs (with the pi. vovSes 
beside voes, v. § 63, n. 2) the vernacular tongue supplies no 
other example. 

Cf. however (the ace.) Kojxd-ov, Texts III. 14. a (Cappad.) = 
Turk. Tcomsii " neighbour." 

II. Feminine Nouns. 

§ 80. The stem vowels are : a, i (77, 1, v), e (e), (0, w), u 
(ov) ; the declension, apart from the nom. and gen. sing., is 
identical with that of the masculines under I. b. 

Parisyllabic. Non-parisyllabic. 

(-a, -i) {-a, -i, -e, -it) 

Singular. ' ■ ' 

Nom. -a, -i, -e, -0, -u 
Gen. -&-, -i-, -e- f -0-, -it- s 
Ace. -a-, -i-, -e-, -0-, -it- (n). 

Plural. 

Nom. -es 1 in place -a-, -e-, -u- des 

Gen. -o(n)y of the -a- } -e-, -u- do(n) 

Ace. -es J stem vowel -a-, -e- } -u- des. 

Parisyllabic. 
§ 81. Kaphid " heart," fiepa " day," Bakaaaa " sea." 

Singular. 

Nom. icaphia fiipa OdXacra-a 

Gen. fcapSia? fiepas 9d\aaaa<; 

Ace. KapZid fiepa ddXaaaa. 



54 HANDBOOK OF THE MO DEUX GREEK VERNACULAR 

Plural. 

Nom. fcapSUs yttepe? OdXaaae^ 

Gen. /capSi&fve) pbepoiiye) 8aXaaao)(ve) 

Ace. KapZth fiepes 0dXacrcre<? t 

An extraordinary number of substantives follow this 
paradigm : e.g. — 

(1) ypid "old woman," <f>opd " time " (in enumeration, Fr. 
fois), /cepd "lady" (when used as a title indecl. § 63), 
ryXaxrera " tongue," " language," Boga " glory," SovXa " maid- 
servant," fiolpa " fate," " goddess of destiny," irerpa " stone," 
" rock," ffwWa " spark," rpxnra " hole," <5/oa " hour," " time," 
" o'clock." 

(2) Substantives with suffixes: 

(a) Abstract nouns in -(e)ta, and particularly in -id — 
the latter partly of ancient origin and partly modern 
derivatives from apellatives, mostly employed only to 
designate a property or sphere of activity ; also names of 
trees rarely feminines from the same stem as the masculine : 
e.g. dXrjOeca " truth," dppcocrrta " sickness," arevo^dypia " per- 
plexity " (cf. § 9), dfjLaprcd " sin," fiaycd " magic," 6 flopped 
" beauty," <f>coTid " light," " fire," irapa^evid " peculiarity," 
dpyovTid " rank," " nobility," fieXovid " stitch of a needle," 
Kavovid " cannon-shot," fiarid " glance," nrerpid " stone- throw," 
tcovraXid " spoonful," vvyrid " night-time," yjpovid " (course 
of) a year," irpcorofiayid "1st May," "May-day," prjXid 
"apple-tree," rpiavra(j>vXXid "rose-bush,", irairahtd " wife of 
the clergyman." 

(&) Nomina actionis in -crm ; as, TrepTrarrjcnd " walking," 
" running," dfypovTiad " carelessness." 

(c) Abstract nouns in -t\a, -ovpa, -fidpa : e.#. fiavpiXa 
" black cloud," %vvlXa " sour taste," o-tcorovpa " bother," 
Kovra/judpa " stupidity," o-rpaficDfidpa " blindness," " blinding." 
For the numeral nouns in -apta, #. § 133. 

(c£) Fern, nouns in -Tp(i)a, -aiva, -tva, -icr<ra : e.#. pd<f>Tp(i)a 
"woman tailor," x°P € vTp(i)a "ballet-girl"; c/., further, § 40. 

(e) Augmentatives in -a/m : e.<7. /ivrdpa " big nose." 

(/) Diminutives in -a#a (rare), -/ro-a, -ovXa: e.g. fiajudfca 
" little mother," 'EXevircra, irerptraa " small stone," craiTiTca 
" little arrow," fxawovXa " little mother," fiapicovXa " small 
boat"; on ^oaKoirovXa "shepherdess," c/. § 61. 



MORPHOLOGY 55 

(3) Ital. ' (Lat.) and other loan-words: dpdSa "row," 
fiovXa " signet-ring," <ydra " cat," Kafiapa " room," Kapnrdva 
" bell," /ca7ra " cloak," KoireXa " girl," fcovfievra " conversa- 
tion," " talk," TropTo, " gate," " door," aajLTa " arrow," aicdXa 
" staircase," arpdra " street." 

1. Most of the nouns named in 1 and 2 correspond to the a. Gk. 
fern mines of the 1st decl. and are inflected like them. In m. Gk* 
those nouns ending in -a (in addition to those under 3) have been 
often enriched, partly at the expense of those in -rj (e.g. SorAa 
"maid" for SovXr), ToiAov7ra = roXvirr} "coil," "roll," xcXawa = ^eXwvrj 
"tortoise"), partly by the formation of new words or new suffixes, 
cf. <TKv\a " bitch," irapQiva (cf § 63, n. 2), 7] rpiXXa " madness " fr. 
rpeAAos "mad," ^ v4npa " rigid death" fr. vtKpos "dead," fj £epa 
" mainland " fr. £epo<s "dry," ^ 7riKpa "sorrow" fr. Tri/cpos "bitter," 
7} yXvKa " sweetness " fr. yXuKos, 17 KXdxpa " weeping " fr. kA.cug> ; and, 
lastly, by augmentatives like K€<f>dXa "big head," tcovrdXa "soup- 
spoon," and the substantatives in -dpa, -tro-a, -ovXa, etc. The nom. 
and ace. pi. in -es has been taken over from the old consonant decl. 
(§ 83). V_^ 

2. In the dialects mentioned in § 10, n. 1, the productive suffix 
-id takes the form -to, or -e'a. In all other cases -ia comes from the 
literary language, as, app.ovia " harmony," Suo-KoAta " difficulty," <£iAia 
"friendship"; or also from the Ital., as KovixavTapca name of a fine 
wine ; v. § 10. 

For -€ = -€a as in jxrjX* — firjXea (pLrjXid), cf § 71, n. 3. 

3. In some dialects (Chios, Icarus, Pontus) the ace. pi. has still 
preserved the ancient ending -as; cf. //,epas, Texts La. 22 ; Svo cj>opds, 
Texts III. 13. a. When such an ace. occurs in the poets it is merely 
an intruder from the literary language. 

In Xorth. Gk. (§ 7, n. 1) we find the ending -is for -cs: e.g. 
ovpjxrjvi's = opfjirjveus (Velv.). 

§ 82. The accent of the nom. sing, is carried through all 
the cases except the gen. pi., which usually bears the accent 
on the final (as in a. Gk.) ; thus, jXcoaaa ryXco<raa> y irerpa 
irerpco, rpvira rpvira), copa &>pw, /3aatXL<raa ftaaiXto-aa), 
fieXurca fxeXtorcroi), tcd/xapa tcafjiapG), aatra aalrco ; but also 
irdiria " duck " 7ra7Ttw, aXr)6eia aXr}6eito } yeiropiaaa <y6ir6- 
vio-aco, fedfxapa fcd/iapco. Many genitive plurals have fallen 
entirely into desuetude (cf. § 41, n. 3). 

§ 83. V ipiriSa "hope." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ipTriBa ip7rl&€$ 

Gen. ipTriSa? ipiriBco 

Ace. ipirtSa ipTriSes. 



56 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

So also : ifiSofjudSa " week," i^rj/neptSa " newspaper," 
9vyaT€pa "daughter," firjripa "mother," opviBa "hen," 
irarplha "fatherland," irephuca "partridge," ara^iha "raisin," 
cfrpovTiSa " care," fyrepovya " wing," etc. (mostly paroxytones), 
\afiiraZa " candlestick," and the abstract nouns in -aha ; as, 
XajuLrrpciSa " brightness," voarifidZa " pleasant taste," irpaaivdha 
" green(ness) " (of fields, etc.), i^virvdha " wakefulness." 

This group is descended from the a. Gk. feminine consonant 
stems (known as 3rd decl.). A new nom. and gen. have been 
formed from the ace. sing, on analogy of x™P a X^P a ^ X^P a ( v )y or — 
stated in other words — the ace. sing, minus -v became a nom., which 
was then treated exactly as a noun of the n-decl.; cf. § 65, n. 1. The 
nom. (ace.) pi. -cs remained and was transferred also to the ancient 
a-decl., § 81. But even here all the nouns have not been remodelled 
in the same fashion : the a. Gk. abstract nouns in -t^s, -t^tos, in 
addition to this new form (rj tStoT^ra "likeness," fj 71-010x77x0, 
"quality"), have also another more vernacular in -ttj; thus, 17 vlottj 1 
"youth," OeoTvj "divinity," avOp^iroTT} "humanity." Moreover, 
many ferns, (especially those in -civ) have been replaced by diminu- 
tives in -1 ; as, to oltj^ovl " nightingale"," aevTovt " linen-towel," xcXtSoVt 
"swallow," x t0 ' VL "snow," x*P L "hand," /cW>t "key." Other nouns 
have been completely ousted by new words : e.g. a. Gk. pis by puvrrf 
"nose," k\ijjl(l£ by a-Kaka. "stair." 

§ 84. Note the accent of the gen. pi., in which this para- 
digm differs from the preceding. Only a few dissyllables 
and rj yvvaL/ca " woman " (which on historical grounds belong, 
here, not to § 81, v, preceding n.), give -w(z>) in the gen. pi. 
These are 77 vvyra " night," TrXdica " plate," " slab," <r<j)r)/ca 
" wasp," <j>\e/3a " vein," <j>\6yd " flame," yr\va " goose," and so 
gen. pi. w^rco^), <yvvaiK(b(v) t etc. 

Cf. § 67. Here also an a. Gk. phenomenon has been preserved ; 
even yet one may occasionally come upon the ancient gen. sing, in 
-os : e.g. yvratKos, vvxtos (usually yvvcuKas, vvj^ras). Sometimes the 
accentuation on the final extends its scope further than can be 
historically justified; as, €f3$ofm&G)(ve) alongside ifi$ojj,a.8u) t fr. 
£f38ofxd8a " week." 

Forms like 17 €KA.a/x,7rooT?7S, irarpky 7raTpi'8o9, ra$ ^ctpas, etc., in the 
poets belong to the language of literature. 

§ 85. vv(f>r) "bride," dSepcprj "sister" 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. vv(pr] dhepj>rj vv$€<; dSepcfres 

Gen. vv<pr]<; dSepffi? vv<j)(x)(v€) dBepfficofa) 

Ace. pvcf>7j dhepfyrj vv(p€$ dSe/x/>e?. 

1 Or even — quite commonly — r& vl&to.. 



MORPHOLOGY 57 

So also: yvoap/t) "opinion," ^earr) "warmth," /copy "girl," 
/jlvtt] "nose," (nayif) "ashes," avairvor) "breath" avyy 
" dawn," TrXrjyij " wound," <f>covy " voice," ^rvxv " soul " ; and 
abstract nouns in -avvrj ; as, yXyyopoavvrj " swiftness," KaKoavvr) 
"goodness." 

This class corresponds to the a. Gk. 1st decl; in -rj. Note the 
indeclinable fj yrjs " the earth," gen. rfjs 777s, ace. tyj yrjs (beside rj 
7V> TV* yy*> T V 7V)« The transition of nouns in -a into the -rj class 
(as Kajxaprj, Texts III. 15, Lada, or irkiaprj for irpwpa) is uncommon. 

§ 86. 97 fipvai "fountain," Ovfxrjat "remembrance." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. fipvcri, dvfirjcn /8/)u<re?, dv/jurjaes 

Gen. @pvcri<? } 0vp,r](7i<; [ftpverco] 

Ace. f3pv<7L, Oufirjac /Sphere?, QvfLrjaes. 

So also : yvaxu " understanding," Svcrt " sunset," £eai 
" heat," /co^6 " edge (of a knife)," xpiac " judgment," o-^t 
" countenance ," 7rio-Tt " faith," 7ro\i " city " (usually applied 
to Constantinople), irpa^i " action," payi " back," " ridge (of a 
mountain)," %^P C " charm," " grace," aXaxn " capture," avot^t 
" spring " airofyact, " decision," K^X a P L " sugar," Kairirapi 
" caper-bush," TTaparyprja-L " observation," " notice," avveihyat 
" conscience." 

The gen. pi. of this paradigm is very little in use in 
the language of the present day (c/. § 41, n. 3). Forms 
of this kind (Ppvaco, irpa^co, etc.) are more common on the 
S. Sporades. There is a gen. pi. Kairnrapai fr. /edmrapi. 

1. This paradigm is formally identical with the preceding, only 
historically different. It embraces the ancient barytones in -is 
(7roAt5, TrdAeous), whichhave passed into the class of the 1st decl. femi- 
nines in -->/, so that they may be also spelled rj 7r6\r}, rj a.7r6<f>acry 3 etc. 
Moreover, many of these appellatives come from the literary language. 
to 7iavr}yvpi (also 7rava[y\vpi) "ecclesiastical popular feast " = a. Gk. y 
7rav>Jyvpt9, has become neuter; to (f>t8i "snake" = a. Gk. 6 o^>t?, has 
enlarged itself by a suffix. 

Forms like fj <f>v<ns or nom. ace. pi. Ac'fcis, found in the poets 
and authors, have been taken from the literary language. 

2. Even the a. Gk. nouns in -us have been subjected to the same 
remodelling; thus, rj th^u "cubit," rj pairv "rape," " turnip." 

7r7)\V 7Tr))(€S 

irfjxvs 7ny^w (frequent) 

7rr}x v ?r^X €S * 

A. Gk. 6 (Tra\v<i " ear " (of oats, etc.) became to o-tol^v (ao-Taxv), y 
6<t>pv$ "eyebrow" to cfrpvSt; 6 Spvs rov 8pv to Spv "oak," is rare, 



58 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

?7 fieXaviSid being the word commonly in use. Similarly, words like 
jjlvSj ays, (SoTpvs, t;(0vs, 7r£\eKvs have been ousted by others (t6 
ttqvtlkl " mouse," x<>t/305 " pig," to a-Ta^vXt, " grapes," to \f/dpt " fish," 
to To-LKovpi [fr. Lat. securis] " axe," and so forth). 

3. The a. Gk. diphthong stems ypavs and vavs have disappeared, 
17 yptd (i.e. a. Gk. ypata) "the old woman," being used for the 
former, and to Kapdfii " ship," for the ' latter, to fiov&i " ox " 
(dycAaSa " cow") for 6, 17 /3ovs. 

§ 87. rj ^dfio a Samos," $pocrco, Mapiyco, female names. 

Singular. 

Nom. SdfMo $p6o~co } Maptyco 

Gen. XafAO? $p6o-co$, Mapiyw 

Ace. Scifio $po<ra), Maptyco. 

So also many geographical names (esp. islands), female 
and pet names ; as, KopOo " Corinth," Kvirpo, MrfXo, Nto 
" Ios," Tldrtvo « Patmos," P6Bo } Tfjvo, Xlq " Chios " ; $ AyaO<o, 
'Apyvpco, 'EXeyfcco, Karly/cco, XdlSco, Xpvaoo, and a few 
appellatives : rj af3vo-ao " abyss," rj akvao " chain," 77 d^ifio 
" sand," 77 irapdhetcro " paradise," 77 fiiOoSo " method." The 
pi. is rarely used, yet a pi. ot fiiOoSes may be formed for the 
word 97 jj,e0o&o taken from the literary language. 

1. The paradigm is a transformation of the a. Gk. fern, o-stems, 
though the majority of the appellatives have been remodelled other- 
wise, v. § 63, n. 2 ; 7rapd8ciaro<s was originally masc. In some dialects 
(Rhodes, Chios, Scyros, Pontus) the old forms are still to be found 
(esp. in geographical names): rj v A//,7r€Aos, rj 'E/iopyos ( = 'A.), rj 
Kv7r/oo5, Tj Sa/Jto? ; r/ afjLjxos " sand," y Sp6a-o<s " dew." 

The names of some islands have been remodelled on the fashion 
of -n-XaTavos: TrXaravid; thus, "NiKapid "Icarus," 'A£ia (also v A£a) 
"Naxos." 

2. The a. ^Gk. forms fj r/^w, rj Ae^oS, rj cuo\os, 17 ^ws (cws), etc., have 
been replaced by new words : dvTiXaXid "echo," Ac^ovo-a "pregnant 
woman," vTpoirr) " shame," avyq x a p°^yv " dawn," etc. 

Non-'parisyllabics. 
§ 88. 37 aXe7roO (a\w7roi), a\oU7ro{)) "fox." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. aXeirov dXeirovhe^ 

Gen. a\e7ro0? aXe7roi5So) 

ACC. a\€7T0i) aX€7TOl5S6?. 

Similarly : fiatfiov " monkey," *y\coo-<rov " gossip," fiv\covov 
11 miller's wife," virvapov " sleeper " (fem.), <f>ayov " gourmand," 



MORPHOLOGY 59 

-yjrapov " fisher woman," tya/nov " baker's wife," and other fern, 
designations parallel to the masc. in -a? of § 70. 

1. These feminines are rarely declined like the parisyllabics, i.e. 
in the pi. : 

Nom. aXoinrc? (also dA.ov7res) 
Gen. aXov7ro)(v) 
Ace. aXoviris. 

2. The paradigm aXcn-ov has arisen from the a. Gk. (Ionic) 
suffix -<o, which is especially prominent in abbreviated names, and 
already played an important part in Hellenistic Gk. 

§ 89. vevi "mother." 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. vevk veveSe? 

Gen. vevh veviBco 

Ace. veve veveSes. 

Similarly, Turkish words like fiakiBi " Sultan's mother," 
'E/Mvi, $a,T/A€. This paradigm is a special m. Gk. formation. 

§ 90. As the nouns enumerated in § 76 have non- 
parisyllabic secondary plurals, so many feminine nouns in -a 
and -7) have a pi. in -aSe? (rarely -?;8e?) : 

icepd " wife" " Mrs." — KepaZe<; 
fidvva " mother " — /zazWSe? 
XVP a " widow " — ^rjpdhe^ 
dBeptpy " sister " — aSep^aSe? 
Kopfyr) " summit " — fcopcfxiSe? 
vv(pr) " bride " — vv(f>dSe$ 
/uLajjifjLT] " midwife " — //.a/z/^Se?. 

?; oica (measure = civ. 1 quart) always d/edSe?. 



III. Neuter Nouns. 
A. In -o(i>), -t-ofv), -t. 

§ 91. Tabular view of the terminations: 

Parisyllabics. (Non-parisyllabics). 





Singular. 




Nom. Ace. -o(n) 




-i, -i-(n) 


Gen. -u 




-i-u = y± 



60 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Plural. 
Norn. Ace. -a -i-a, -i-a = -ya, -yd 

Gen. -o(n) -io = -yd. 

Some non-parisyllabics in -o with a pi. in -ata also belong 
here; v. § 94. 

Parisyllabics. 
§ 92. In -o(v): %vXo "wood," ftovvo "mountain." 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Ace. %vXo fiovvo %vXa fiovva 

Gen. ijvXov fiovvov fjvXo) /3ovvu)(v). 

Similarly : Bevrpo " tree," icaireXo " hat/' tcovfidvro " command," 
/t?}\o " apple," vepo " water," irdaao " step," pov-^p or pi. 
poir^a "clothes," <£repo "wing," "feather," <£u\Ao "leaf"; 
also the nouns in -t/eo like fiavafiifco " greengrocery," 
fi7rafcdXcfco "retail-shop" (fr. paydays, fnrafcdXji?), and in 
-dhtfco like TtanrovTadhiKo " cobbler's shop " (fr. 7ra7rovro-^?), 
and other such (c/l § 114 n.). The accent of the gen. 
fluctuates in proparoxytones like aAoyo "horse," fiovrvpo 
" butter," KOKfeaXo " bone," XouXouSo " flower," Trpoo-coiro 
" face," " person," etc. ; thus, dXoyov and dX6yov y fiovrvpov and 

The compound neuters like avrpoyvvo " married couple," 
dpxovTocnriTo " lordly house," " noble family," 7raXjto7rcuSo 
" street-arab," and similar (v. § 41, a), also fiaa-iXoTrovXo 
"king's son," etc. (cf. "§ 61), usually maintain the accent of 
the nom. (thus gen. iraXtoiraihov). 

1. Dialects which maintain the -r ephelkiidicon sometimes show 
this also in the pi. (ra pdyovXav = to, fidyovXa " cheeks " ) ; c/~. 
§ 34, n. 4. 

2. Alongside to £aio, etc., "animal," there is found the inflexion 

TO £w, TOV fot), TO, £a, TW £<0. 

§ 93. The nouns in -io y -io t and io are declined accord- 
ing to the preceding paradigms ; such exx. belong here : 
/3aaiX€to " kingdom," adXio " saliva," Kairr)Xei6 " retail-store," 
aKoXeio " school," aroLxeto " spirit," " ghost," ppio " village," 
QiftXio " book." Nouns like fti/SXio or voao/cofielo " hospital," 
or such as eiKovoardato "shrine" ("place for images"), or 
avfifiovXto " counsel," and drfMoirXoco " steamer," are ??io^ 
savants. 



MORPHOLOGY 6 1 

Non-parisylla bics. 1 
§ 94. The neuters in -o(v) beside the regular pi. in -a occasion- 
ally form their pi. after the model of the neuters given under C: 
aXoyara for aXoya, ovetpara for oveipa, 7r/oocr(07rara for 7rp6cro)Tra, 

§ 95. In -i or -/: to fidn "eye," to iraihi "child." 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Ace. fiaTC iratZi pbdrta iratSid 

Gen. fiartov iraihiov fjLaria>(ve) iraihto){ve). 

The words coming under this paradigm are exceedingly 
numerous : 

(a) In - 1, 

(1) uSepfo " brother," darj^t " silver," yiofyvpi " bridge," 
KaXotcaipi " summer," fcapdfit, " ship," /cepdai " cherry," teetydXi 
" head," Kopircn " maid," XovXot/St " flower," iiayaipi " knife," 
iraiyvlhi " game," irakXrjKdpt, "palUcdr, brave fellow," irapap,v6i 
" tale," " myth," Trordfxc " river," po\6yt, (d>po\6yiov) " clock," 
"watch," rajf/cu "pair," "mate," TpayovSt "song," Tpairefy 
" table," f a> " fish." 

(2) drjhovi "nightingale," daripc "star," SoVr* "tooth," 
kovSovvl " bell," opviOi " hen," crevrovi " linen-napkin," ^ept 
" hand," %tow " snow." 

(3) Nouns in -aSi, -apt, -iSa, diminutives in -a/a -oi/St, 
(rarely) -oiJXt : XaytcdSi " valley," TrrjydSc " fountain," " spring," 
XtovTupL " lion," iroSdpt " foot," \iQdpi " stone," atrdpt 
"wheat," Taf/St (ra^etSc) "journey," </>/& "snake," iratSdtci 
" little child," %6/oa/a " little hand," a77eW8* " little angel," 
yiovhi " little son," hevrpovXi " small tree." 

Note also the Lesbian dim. suffix -e'A(i), e.#. To-ipareX' "little 
horn." 

(4) Many loan-words : irakaTi (Lat. palatium) "palace," 
<T7rm (Lat. hospitium) " house " ; esp. Turkish : daricepi " army," 
Xtfiept "camp," vTefiXiri "government," irairov-TGi "shoe," 
aapdyi " castle," rovfe/a " musket," ^ect " Fez," ^oVt " inn." 

(5) Sa/c/w "tear," Si^ti/ "net" (now only orthographi- 
cally different). 

(6) In -/. 

(1) £owi "mountain," 71*0X1 "glass," *XoS/ "twig," 
/cpacr/ " wine," fiaXXi " hair," <r*:i*Xt " dog," aradl " sword," 
^w/u " bread." 

1 Cf. § 95, n. 2. 

5 



62 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(2) avri " ear," 6e.pl " animal," xXeiSi " key." 

(3) fipaici (Lat. braca) " trousers," irovkl (pullus) " bird," 
(TKafivi (scamnum) "footstool," $Xovpl (Ital. florino fwrind) 
" florin," Trovyyi " purse." 

(4) <j>ayi " eating," " food," +£kl " kiss." 

1. Those dialects which retain the final -v, or extend it parasiti- 
cally, have the termination hv: e.g. /SovSiv "ox," Kwrjyw "chase," 
X*pw " hand," iraihCv ; this -v is present even in the pi., e.#. to. 
ira&idv rov "his children" (Naxos); cf. § 34, n. 4. 

2. In those dialects which show the peculiarity mentioned in 
§ 10, n. 1, the accent remains on the -i-; thus, iraXan 7raXartov, 7rcuoY 
7ratStov TratSt'a. And so the neuters in -t are to be treated as non- 
parisyllabic, — a fact, however, disregarded in the common speech 
since i has become i. 

Moreover, for the decl. of these neuters, all the other phonetic 
changes to which i or i are subject must be taken into account ; cf. 
ypoo-a for ypoma (ypocri, Turk, coin), etc., § 10, n. 4 ; fxdOta, § 16, n. 3 ; 
or p,aT L x la = ftarta, §10, n. 5; 7T€0to-T€pfca, etc. = 7T€pio-Tepta, lb., /xaira, 
7rattSa = /xarta, 7rat8ta, etc., § 8, n. 2. In Pontic -ia becomes -a (?;. § 6, 
n. 6); thus, to. TrevTimpa = Trem/capta. In North. Gk. (§ 7, n. 1) t 
drops out; thus Xcovrap (Pontus) = Xtoi/rapi, o-^tV (Maced.) = cr7riTt, 
TvicfxiX' (Lesbos), or to KicfidXv dr (Pontus) = (to) fce<£aAi tov ; conse- 
quently Turkish loan-words in this region retain their original 
termination, as, to x a 'tpdv (pi. to. x a 'i-ftdva) "beast," "animal," to 
TrpiVrs "rice," to adp "condition" (Pontus). 

3. In Pontic note the gen. sing, tl o-a/c/a fr. to o-olkkl, i.e. with 
the i maintained throughout, as in kAc^t^s KXi<j>Tr) or ($aOv(s) fiaOv, 
etc. (§ 110). 

§ 96. A few masculines in -05 form their pi. in -ta, like 
the preceding neuters: X0705 "word," pi. \6yia, xp6vo$ 
"year," pi. %p6via and %p6voi) cf. also § 61, n. 1, and § 100, 
n. 1. 

§ 97. 1. The forms discussed in the preceding paragraphs repre- 
sent on the whole the a. Gk. neut. o-stems ; the neuters in -l came 
from the ancient type in -tov through a process that was already 
completed in Hellenistic days. Both forms may still sometimes 
be found existing together; thus, Oepio and Oepi, koltcocj>Xi and 
/caT€(£Ato(u) (Velv.) "threshold," adXio and (rather rare) o-dXt 
"saliva." The neuters in h (-dpi, -a&, -I81) have considerably ex- 
tended their territory at the expense* of other forms, and, having 
lost their original diminutive signification, they have largely sup- 
planted the parent forms ; cf. the exx. in A. 1 and B. 1 in place of 
the a. Gk. nouns like Tpdir^a and 7roTafji6s or /cAaSos; A. 2 (and 
partly 3) and B. 2 in place of the old consonant stems. The words 
given under A. 5 and B. 4 have found their way into this category 
as a result of phonetic decay (<£ayi and cfaXt are really survivals of 
infinitives equivalent to a. Gk. <£ayeu> and <£iAetv). 



MORPHOLOGY 63 

2. The contracted neuters (like the masc. § 63, n. 2) have dis- 
appeared, to KOKKaXo "bone " being now employed for to 6o~tovv, and 
to KavioTpt or to KoXadt "basket" (or other words) for to kcu-ow. 
There is also no trace of the Attic decl. of neuters ; dvwyi " upper 
chamber " can trace its ancestry back to avwyctov found in a. Gk. 

B. In -os. 
§ 98. View of the terminations: 
Parisyllabic. (Nbn-parisyllabic.) 

Singular. 



Nom. Ace. 


-OS 




Gen. 


-u(s) 
Plural. 




Nom. Ace. -i (-ya) 




(-ita) 


Gen. -A 


Pavisylldbics. 




§ 99. ToXddos "error." 




Singular. 




Plural. 


Nom. Xd0o(<;) 




Xd0r) 


Gen. Xd0ov$ 




Xa06y(v) 


Ace. Xd0o<; 




Xd07). 


Similarly : /3a#o9 


" depth " Saaos " thicket," eOvos 


"nation," 0dppo$ "courage," /cepSo? ' 


1 gain," fjbepo? " part," 


"region," "locality," opo$ "mountain," 


irXydos " multitude," 


tc'Xo9 " end." 







§ 100. Together with the pi. in -rj there is found quite 
frequently also one in -ia (-rja), as : 

av0os " flower "—&v0 V , av0ia 

pd0o? "depth" — /3d0rj, /3d0ia 

Xd0o<; " error " — \d07), \d0ia 

ird0o<; " suffering " — Trd07), ird0ia 

ira^o? " fat " — irdyia 

GKe\o<; " limb " — aKeXrj, aiceXia 

<TTf)0o<; " breast " — <tti]07j ) ar7]0ca 

(%€£\o9 " lip," usually pi.) — (a)x e ^V> a<X € ^ ia - 

1. The decl. of the neuters in -os is in general that of the 
corresponding a. Gk. paradigm; the termination -ov is found quite 
frequently beside -ovs in the gen. sing. The nom. sing, also shows a 
similar fluctuation with the neut. o-stems (§ 92) ; thus, to Sdo-o beside 
Sacros, to Kpdro beside to /cparos, to Kpvo commoner than Kpvos, to 
XdOo beside Xd6o<s. And contrariwise, neuters in -o(v) have often 
passed over into the decl. of those in -o? ; thus : 



64 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

acrrpo and aorpos " star," pi. aorpa, aarprj, and ao~Tpia 
8ia<£o/)o(v) and Sia<£ooos " gain " 
Kao-rpo " fortress," /caorjoa, KaaTprj 
ixirpo and jne'rpos "measure," 
cr/ceSto and o-K-eSto?, Texts I. d. 5. 
Some mascs. (and ferns., #. § 63, n. 2) in -os have been trans- 
formed into neuters in -os ; thus : 

to j3i6<s for o /3los "property," "means" 
to 8f)6<ro<s for rj Spocros " dew " 
to e7ratF05 for 6 hraivos " praise " 
to Opfjvos for 6 0p7}i/os "lamentation" 
to TrAovros for 6 7tAoi>tos (wAouti/, 7rAovTia) " wealth " 
to xpovos for o xpoVos " year." 
The neuters in -05 have in this way been increased in numbers, 
and have also taken into their ranks new formations like to xf/rjXos 
" height" (fr. 1/07X0$ "high"), t6 £?}Aos "envy" (fr. £^Aoi), to Kovpo-os 
TOLKovpo-rj " piracy" (fr. Kovpo-euoj), etc. But sometimes neuters in -05 
have deserted to the mascs., thus — in some dialects — 6 d0os for t6 
av0os, with the accent shifted. 

The blending of neuters in -os, -ov, and masculines in -os finally 
resulted in some masculines like 6 fidaavos "torment," 6 Ppd\os 
"rock," 6 o-T€<£avos "garland," Aoyos " word," XP^ V0<S "year," taking 
neut. forms in the pi. (fidaava, (Sparta and fipdxpt, orc'c^ava, Adyta, 
Xpovca and ^povoi). 

2. Sometimes the pi. termination in -rj has been treated as a 
neut. sing, in -1 : 

to o-t?7#os — tol orrjOrj 
to vrrfii — Ta o-rrjOta \ 
(to x^tAos) — tol x cl ^V 
to (a)x€tAt — tol x^tAta. 

This misunderstanding may be said to have given rise to the pi. 
in -ia. 

( Non-parisyllabics. ) 

§ 101. Sometimes neuters in -os form a non-parisyllabic pi. in 
~y)tcl • as, to Odppo? " courage," pi. to, Gdpprj and tol OdpprjTa y /cepSos 
" gain," pi. tol KepSrj and Ta KtpSrjTa. 

C. In -a -tjito, -as. 
Non-'parisyllabic} 

§ 102. The three paradigms of this class differ from one 
another only in the nom. and ace. sing., agreeing in all other 
cases. The gen. sing, shows the same number of syllables as 
the pi. : 

Singular. Plural. 

Xom. Ace. -a, im*o(n) t -as -ala 

Gen. (-atos) -dtio -dto. 

1 Excluding the type given in § 101 n. 



MORPHOLOGY 65 

§ 103. to 7rpdfia "thing," ovofia "name." 

Singular. Plural. 

]STom. Ace. irpafxa ovopLa nrpdfxara ovofiara 

Gen. irpa/Jbdrov ovo/jbdrov Trpapbdrco ovofidrco. 

Like Trpdfia are declined : alfxa " blood," yipua or yiofia 
" repast," ypapupua " letter," hwpua " apartment," " terrace," 
6dfia " wonder," /cpfyta. " sin," /cOyxa " billow," arofia " mouth," 
arpojfxa " mattress," %w/xa " ground," i/re/ia (tyofia) " lie," and 
only in pi. apfiara " arms " (from Lat. arma). 

Like ovo/xa : fidXafia " gold," vawdpiajxa " lullaby," 
irdirXwpa " coverlet," nrdra^ia " floor," " story," crKeiraapa 
" cover," a-rpdrefia " army," <f)6p€fjLa " garment," ydpiupa 
" gift " ; also pure verbal nouns (nomina actionis) like /3d<r/capa 
" bewitching," " evil eye," hdytcap,a " bite," fiiXrjfui " proclama- 
tion," " conversation," TnjSripLa " leap," /edfcicofia " sickness," 
fiTrdXcofia " improvement," tydpepia " fishing," " fishery," 
catrovvicrpba " lathering." 

Some abstract nouns have a preference for the pi. ; as, 
Kkdfiara " weeping," ^cofiara " earth " (£e. " piles of earth "), 
yepdpara " old age," TrepLyeXda/jLara " laughter," r^vpiyfiara 
(Texts III. 14. b), "hissing/' " whistling." 

1. The neuters in -a- have pretty faithfully preserved the 
corresponding a. Gk. decl. and have not seriously lost in numbers. 
In the gen. sing, -arov is more usual than -aros (Trpa/xaro?, oro/xaros) ; 
in the gen. pi. the accent may also be proparoxytone, rw orrpw/xaTw, 
tw Tra7rA.(£ju,aTa). Gen. sing. irpafxaTioVy pi. irpafxaTiovv in some 
dialects (<?.<7. in Lesbos). 

2. yctXa "milk" is declined like 7rpaju,a; so also yora (or yoVaro 
= a. Gk. yovv) "knee," yorarov yovara; Sopv has been displaced by 
Kovrdpt "spear," "lance." 

3. Those dialects which maintain and tend to generalise the 
final -v (v. § 34, n. 4) give the nom. and ace. sing, in -ar; thus, 
ovofiav, 7rpa/xav, crKLCTfiav, otojaolv, e'tc. 

4. The pi. ot vofjidroi fr. o»/o/xa means "persons," "individuals." 

§ 104. to ypdtytfio "writing," "handwriting." 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Ace. ypdyfripLo ypayfrifiara 

Gen. (ypaifrLfiaros) ypa-^rtfidrov ypayfri/jbdro). 

So also the abstract verbal nouns (nomina actionis) in -<ri/.io, 
like fiydXaifio " dislocation," Siaifto " binding," Boaifio 
" giving," ddtyifAo " burial," to KXeiat/no " locking," to vtv<ti}.io 



G6 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

" putting on (clothes), to geySt/atpo " putting off," ^vcrifio 
" scraping," pdtyip,o " sewing," rdgi/io " vow," " promise," 
"command," rpe^i/juo "running," ^ipat/io "behaviour" ^tcecd* 
crifjLo " making," " arranging," (frraigi/io " being at fault, guilt." 
These nouns often serve as a substitute for the obsolete 
infinitive. 

A parisyllabic decl. (</>€po-i/xo, <faepcnfiov) is occasionally to be 
found, while, vice versa, some ancient neuters in -o make up non- 
parisyllabic pi. in -ara, v. § 94. 

§ 105. to repeat "flesh" (more rarely to /cpidsi). 
Singular. Tlural. 

Nom. Ace. Kpia? k pear a (tcpidra) 

Gen. Kpedrov Kpedro)(v). 

So also to a\a$ " salt " (though to dXaTi, tov dXanov is 
more in use). 

1. The two nouns just given are the only survivors of a class 
that even in a. Gk. was rather limited in number ; o-efias is to be 
attributed to the literary language, while /cepas and repas have been 
displaced by /cepaTo, sometimes also Kpidro, and reparo respectively. 
For to yrjpas " old age," tcl yepafiara or tcl yepareia. 

2. The remaining a. Gk. neut. stems have been ousted partly by 
different words and partly by new formations, as, to vepo " water" for 
vSuypj rj uvoifi " spring " for lap, to (tvkutl " liver " for rjjrap, to irrjydh 
"fountain" for <£pe'ap, fj <£ajria "fire" for irvp, to olvti "ear" for ovs. 
to jxiki " honey " is decl. like cnriri (/xcAiov, /xeXia). On yo'va, v. § 103, 
n. 2. The forms to <£ajcri, tov (froicnov, tcl </>a>cria are found alongside 
to <££s "light." 

Adjectives. 

§ 106. In m. Gk. the dividing line between adjective and 
substantive is hard to determine as in a. Gk. A. Gk. adjs. 
were converted into substantives and vice versa (cf. Xvyeprj 
" the young girl," literally " the slender (one) "), — a process 
which is still operative in the language spoken to-day : e.g. 
dya7rr)Tifc6$ " beloved " and " lover," veo$ vio? " young " and 
" young man," f ei/09 " strange " and " the stranger," tcl %kva 
" the foreign country," ^tw^o? " poor " and " the poor man," 
£a(i/)0o? " blond " and fa(i/)^ {%av8ov\a) " a blonde " (" little 
blond "), or vice versa yipos " old man " and " aged," 'XfopidT^ 
" peasant," " boor," and " boorish." But national names and 
the adjectives from the same are generally carefully dis- 
tinguished from each other ; as, Pcd/jli6$ and ptofxaLtcos, Tovpicos 
and Tovp/cLfcos " Turkish," " peculiar to the Turks," Qpayicos " a 



MORPHOLOGY 67 

European/' and <f>pdyKiKo<; " European " (adj.), " in European 
fashion," 'Iyy\e%os and lyyXe&Kos " English," " peculiar to the 
English." Only it must be noted that in expressions like 
"(the) Turkish soldiers," "(the) English physicians" "(the) 
European scholars " m. Gk. employs the national name (not 
the adj.) ; thus, (ol) Tovp/coc <rrparcd>T6<; } (ol) 'lyyXe^ot, ycarpoi, 
(ol) $pdytcoi Xoycoc. 

For the position of adjs., u § 293. 

The adj., whether attributive or predicative, agrees in gender and 
in number with its noun. If the attribute belongs to several nouns 
of different genders, then the adj. accommodates itself to the nearest 
noun, but tends to be repeated with each ; thus, koXo Kpaal kol (KaXrj) 
fjL7ripa or Kpao-l (/caAo) kol fi7rtpa kclXyj " good wine and good beer," 
dvT/o€to)/^cVot avTpcs /cat ywtu/ccs " brave men and women." The adj., 
when predicate, is masc. when it goes with persons, neut. when it 
goes with things ; thus, avrpes /cat yvvcuKes kol 7raiSia rjrave TOiyv/ncr- 
fievoi airo rovs TovpKovs " men, women, and children were surrounded 
by the Turks," to Kpaal kol r) fjurlpa cTvat KaXa " wine and beer are 
good." In longer enumerations of things the subject can be summed 
up with oXa ; but, generally speaking, such a remedy is avoided by 
the repetition of the predicate ; thus, kolXo (elvai) to Kpocri koX KaXrj r) 
fxiripa. Expressions like " a mothers love is something noble " run 
ttJs fidvvas r) aydiTrj elvai kciti(ti) Xapjirpo or Xafxirpo 7rpa/A0u When 
the subject is a demonstrative pronoun it usually agrees with the pre- 
dicate ; as, civtos civui (6) <£tXos jjlov "that (he) is my friend," avrrj ctvai 
avorjvia " that is nonsense," but one may also say avTa thai avofjo-Us. 

§ 107. The declensions of the adjective correspond almost 
exactly with those of the substantive. Eor some pronominal 
forms, y. §§ 144, n. 1, 156. All adjectives have separate forms 
for masc. fern, and neut. Adjectives also, like substantives, 
fall into parisyllabic and non-parisyllabic. 

Taking the masculine as the standard, we differentiate : 
I. Adjectives in -os. 
II. Adjectives in -is. 
a, Oxy tones (-^9). 
6. Barytones (-6?, -775). 

I. Adjectives in -os. 



§108. kclXos "good." 






Masc. 


Eem. 


Neut. 


Sing. Nom. tcaXos 


KaXrj 


Ka\6(v) 


Gen. tcaXov 


KaXr}? 


KaXov 


Ace. tca\o(p) 


KaXr](v) 


KaX6(p) 


Voc. KaXi 


KaXr) 


KaXo(v), 



68 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Plur. Nom. icaXoi 


Kakes 


Kakd 


Gen. tcak<o(v) 


fcaka>(v) 


tca\a)(v) 


Ace. Kokovs 


icakes 


Kaka 


Voc. KOkOL 


/cake? 


KaXd. 



The adjs. also, which are not accented on the final, retain 
in all cases the accent of the nom. sing. masc. ; as, irpoaTv^o^ 
" ordinary," " common," gen. irpoarw^ov, fem. TrpoaruxV: fern, 
pi. 7rp6aTvx^ e ^ c * 

To this group belong : yepos " sound," " strong," ikacfrpos 
" light," fcafcos " bad," p,ucp6<; " small," \dfi7rp6s " bright," £epo? 
"dry," gvvos "sharp," 7repiaa6<; "very much," "enough," 
7riKp6<; "bitter," a<nrpo<; "white," fiavpos "black," d^pdros 
" fresh," yepbdro^ " full," fieydkos " great," fiovd^o^ and iLOvayis 
" alone " ; aStfcos " unjust," afioipos " unlucky," driketcoTo? 
" endless," aifrvxp? " lifeless," fidpfiapo? " barbarian," ikevrepos 
" free," ^/crir^o? " quiet," KaTdyjrrjkos " very lofty," op,op<f>o<; 
"beautiful"; also adjs. in -epos (0.^. ftpoxepo? "rainy," 
kaairepo^ " dirty," pavpiBepos " blackish "), -^0? (denoting 
colour and material, £.#. kokkivos " red," irkrpivo^ " stony "), 
-^05 (dates, £.#. (T7}fi£pLv6<; " of to-day," irepcnvos " of last year "), 
-i/co? (-ari/co?, § 212 n.), and -t/co? (esp. of origin, e.#. rovptciKos, 
(frpdyKtfcos, vr\<ji<ATitcQ<$ " from " or " belonging to the islands," 
KprjTL/cos, dvaTcikitcos " oriental "), -q)7to5 (to designate colours, 
e.#. KOKtcivGyrros " reddish "), diminutive adjs. in -ovto-lkos and 
-ovko$ (fjLiKpovTcri/cos " quite small," TpeXkovraitcos " rather 
crazy," 7ra^ozAo9 " somewhat fat "), and participial formations 
in -(«)to9 (§212 n.) and -/*e*/o? (§ 234, 2. 3). The feminine 
forms are : Xapwrrp^ juicpr), denrpr], aSucrj, dfxoipr}, ekevrept], 
drikeccoTT}, ^Gvyjf), <j>pdy/a/c7] } fiiKpovraiK7] i etc. 

1. Apart from the accent remaining uniform in all the forms, the 
adjs. deviate in two respects from the a. Gk : 

a. The fem. termination -77 has been made general, even after p 
(eAeuTcpos — iktvreprj). 1 

b. The conversion of all the adjs. of two terminations -05, -ov into 
the class of those of three terminations (aSi/cos, fem. aSucq, kovto- 
jAvakos "limited," KovTOfjLvakrj). 

For a further change v. § 111. In Pontic a new fem. form 
in -eWa (or -tva, Capp. -dcrcra) has usurped the place of the old 
#ca\o5 Kake<r<ra Kakov, fUKpos /xtKpco*cra fxiKpov (yoTcra/xaj/05 " old," fem. 

1 Exceptions are rare, e.g. &Kpa (for dtepyj) "extremity," "end," Texts II. a. 
13, and Xa/inrpd (for \a/jL7rpri) } II. b. 2. 



MORPHOLOGY 09 

yoTorafidveva). This suffix also serves as the feminine of substantives, 
e.g. aJWo-a "fox" (fern.) (Texts III. 13. c). • 

2. Note that //.eyas has been replaced by //.cyaAos ; the neut. /xe'ya 
for fjLtydXo, however, occasionally turns up. 

3. The voc. of the masc. is sometimes used also for the fern. ; as, 
kolXI fidwa " good mother ! " for KaXrj fxdwa. 

4. The nom. pi. masc. (as in the noun, § 62, n. 1) serves also for 
the ace. : e.g. Texts III. 5 (Ios) vd \rfs 7roXX6l ro-ol xpoi/oi, or III. 14. b 
(Capp.) //.as e/SyaA* dpol "he regarded us as sound." Note also eVa 
KaXb aT/3a)7ros, Texts III. 14. a (Pontus). 

§ 109. TrXovaio? "rich." 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Sing. irXovaios ir\ovcria irXovato 

ttXoihtiov 7rXov(Tia<; ifXovaiov 

7tXov<jio(v) TfXovaia{y) irXovato. 

Plur. ifkoiHTLoi TrXovGies irXovcria 

7fXov<rLco(v) ir\ov<Ti(d{v) *7rXov<rLco(v) 

irXovcriov*; irXovaies ifXovvia. 

Similarly, all adjectives with a vowel, usually i (or y), 
before the termination; as, ay cos "holy," aypto? "wild" 
a/cepLos " unhurt," " untouched," " pure," a£io9 " worthy," 
"capable," yaXatyo? "blue," Si/eios (Sl/eaios) "just," S0A409 
"unlucky," icaivovpyios "new," repvos "cold," ovpavios 
" heavenly," tijmo? " honourable," rpv7rto<; " pierced," Se&o? " on 
right hand," vtos (i>e'o?) " young," ttclXlos " old," %\to9 " tepid " ; 
the mots savants : aarelos " witty," axpetos " bad," " common," 
ap^alo? "ancient," reXevraio^ "last," cbpaios (beside wpios) 
" fair " ; the adjs. in -Laios : e.g. fiovviaios " mountainous," 
yvvaucivLos " womanish," apvlcrios " like a lamb " ; designa- 
tions of material in -evtos: e.g. aarfixevto^ "of silver," fieXov- 
Sevto? " of velvet," fiapfiapevco^ " of marble." 

1. Except for the accent, the old fern, form has been retained, 
though even here the fern, formation in -rj is found : e.g. fieftai7] f r. 
/3ef3aio<s "sure," "certain." 

2. In dialects in which t after <r disappears (v. § 10, n. 4), note 
forms like <xfa = d£ia, 7rXovaro<s irXovcra = TrXovaios 7rXovcrta y etc. On 
indeclinable d(y)i = ayios, v. § 63. dytos "saint "has also the fern, 
dyia ('Ayia Mavpa — Leukada) and the masc. pi. ol dytot. 

§ 109a. The ancient contracted adjs. (aTrXous) have disappeared 
or. passed into the class in -ds ; thus, a-n-Xos " simple," 8i7r\ds ." double," 
X/rao-ds "golden" (but x<^ KLV0 $ "of brass," //.TraxipeVios "of copper," 
or /jL-n-povvT^Lvos "of bronze," for x a ^ K °us). Most of the forms do 
not practically differ in pronunciation from the paradigm of «aA.ds 



70 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(xp v <ry like Kakrjy xpvoa like fcaXa, etc.). Several of the exx. given 
above show that the adjs. in -os have been enriched to the detri- 
ment of others; c/. also § 110 n. 



II. Adjectives in -is. 




(a). Oxy tones (-vs). 




§ 110. /3a0fc "deep. 5 


> 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neufc 


Sing. fiaOv? 


/3a0€td 


/3a0v 


paOetov (fia6v) 


fiaOetas 


fSaOepv (fiaOv) 


/3a0v 


/3a0eid(v) 


/3a0v 


/3a06 


ftaOeta 


j3a0v. 


Plur. paOetot 


/3a0€t,€<; 


fia0€La 


/3a0€Lw(ve) 


j3a6eiay(y€) 


fta06it»)(ye) 


/3a0€LOV<: 


fiaQetes 


f$a0eid 


/3a6ei,ot, 


fia0eie$ 


(3a0etd. 



Similarly : fiapvs "heavy," yXvxvs "sweet," /naftv? "blue," 
IxaKpvs "wide," "far," irXarvs "broad," irayys "thick," 
Tpa%v<; " rough," <j>ap$v<; " wide," " broad." 

The a. Gk. parent form is generally retained, i.e. most of the 
forms may be phonetically derived from the ancient ; /3a0etov t fiaOetoi, 
fiaOetovs are due to contamination with the adjs. in -os (esp. those 
in -tos), brought about in the first instance chiefly by the fern. 
fiaOeid. The adjs. 8«£t9 (Se^vs) = Sextos "on the right," and apis 
(apvs) = apaios, apios "thin," "rare," have gone the opposite 
way into the fiaOvs class. The neut. fia$v is, moreover, declined 
like 7rcuSt. Analogous to the decl. of §§ 74, 75 we find also — but 
rarely — a gen. sing. masc. )3a6v and a nom. pi. in -Scs: fiapvSes, 

An almost wholesale transition of the adjs. in -vs into the -os or 
-tos class is sometimes to be found ; thus the decl. yXvKos (yXvKtid) 
yXvKo is quite as common as yXvKvs yXvKv) fxtaos (a. Gk. yjixmtvs) 
is invariably the rule (but 7T£vt€ */xtcrv = 5|, etc., v. § 131). More- 
over, forms like 7rAareto5, yXvKuos, irax^os are found, and in Lower 
Italy these are the usual forms; thus, vario varia (Bova), vareo 
varea (Otr.), etc. = ftapvs fiapud. 

§111. Some adjectives (originally) in -o? have second- 
ary forms in -1/9 ; thus, in addition to fia/cpv? above : dSpvs 
"rough," iXacfrpvs "light" beside i\a<ppo<; } Trpitcv? "bitter," 
beside iritcpov, TrpiKos, etc. Cf. also the comparatives in 
-ure/)09, § 117. The feminine formation — eid — after the 
model of yXv/eos yXv/ceid occurs quite frequently with adjs. 



MORPHOLOGY 



71 



in -0?, and especially with those in -t/eo? (mostly alongside 
the normal forms), e.g. : 

kcik6<; " bad," " vile "—Kafcetd (TEXTS III. 3 Kalr&d) 

aya7rr]TiKQ$ " lover " — ayaTrrjTifceid 

dppeficovLaaTiicos " fiance* " — dppefiwvLacrTifeeid 

evyevnco? " noble," " gallant " — evyevacecd 

eKkfjvi/cos " Greek " — 'XrjviTad, Texts III. 6 

Traarpiicos " clean " — iraarpiKeid 

(pvcritcos " natural " — <f>vcriK€td. 

Even barytones have sometimes such a feminine : 

KcucofAoipQs " ill-fated " — /ca/cofioipeid {icaKOfioipa " ill- 
fated woman "). 

Many representatives of the popular literature are very fond of 
using this -eta form. 

§ 112. ttoXv? "many," "much." 



Masc. 


Tern. 


Neut 


Sing. iroXv? 


7ToXXt/ 


7ToXu 


7ToXXoV 


7ToXXt}? 


7TOXXoi) 


Tro\v(y) 


7roXXiy(l/) 


7T0Xv. 


Plur. ttoXXol 


woWe? 


7roXXa 


7ToXX(io(l>) 


7ToXX(o(v) 


7ToXXtt(l>) 


TTOWOU? 


7T0XXe? 


7roXXa. 



Exactly corresponds to the a. Gk. decl. 



(b) Barytones (-19, -77s). 
§ 113. £ov\tdpi<; "envious," "jealous." 



Fern. Neut. 

^ovXidpa %ovXidpifco 

^ovXtupas %ov\idpifcov 

^ovXuipa ^ovkidpiKO 

^ovXcdpa ^ovkidpiKo. 

^ovXidpthes tpvXtdpiKa 

^ovXcopcSco ^ovXidptKoy 

^ovXuipiSes ^ovXidpLfca. 

Similarly, e.g. : ypividpis " peevish," Kavicqaidpi? " boastful," 
atXacndpis "fastidious," jcn^irXidpt^ "deep-eyed," yritadpis 
" consumptive," and also numerous compounds (denoting 
possession) like yaXavofidrrjs " blue-eyed," fcaaravofjidTr]^ 



Masc. 

Sing. %ovXidpi$ 
^ovXidpL 
^ovXuipt 
^ouXiapi 

Plur. ^ovXtdpches 
^ovXidptSay 
^ovXtdpcSes 



72 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

" chestnut-eyed," fiavpo(f)pvST]<; " with dark eyebrows," ayovpo- 
jjbdXXrj^ " curly-haired." 

1. No value attaches to the spelling ~rjs (here and in the 
following §) except in writing; cf § 75, n. 1. 

2. Diminutives like ao-jrpovkLs "rather white," fiaKpovXis 
" somewhat long," <£ro);(ouA.i5 " poor," give acnrpovXi, <j>to)xov\l, etc., in 
the neut. (nom. pi. masc. and fern. dcnrpovXiftes). The fern. pL may 
take also parisyllabic form : e.g. /Aavpo/Aares fr. pavpofidTrjs " dark- 
eyed." 

§ 114. afcajJLaTr}? "lazy." 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Sing. afcafiaTf)? aKapbdrio-aa a/ca/jLaTi/co 

afca/jbdrrf afca/zdrMTcras dfca/xdrtKOV 

dfcafidrr] dfca/jLaTio-aa dfcapudriKO. 

Plur. atcafiaTrjSes d/cafidTtaaes dfcafidrLfca 

dKa/jidrrjSco aKa/jLaTiaaco afca/idTi/cco 

aKa/idrrjSe^ dtcaixaTicrcres area pbdrt Ka. 

Similarly : fcavatcdpi? " darling," fiafcapirr}? " blessed," " late," 
lACLfcpoXaifiT}? " long-necked," etc. 

The fern, form sometimes fluctuates between this paradigm 
and the immediately preceding ; thus the fern, of £ovXuipi$ is 
also ^ovXtdpiaaa ; <ypividpi<; " peevish " has two fems. yptvidpa 
and ypividpiaaa, kokklvo/ivttj^ " red-nosed " KOKKivopLvra and 
-fivTUTcra and even kokklvojulvtov, aravpo7r6Br]<; " with crossed 
legs " a-ravpoiroSa and fuavpoiTohicFCFa, 

aKOLfiaTY}*; even forms a fern. aKafidrpa, and ij/tvTrjs " lying," if/evrpa. 
Note also KdKovBrjs " Ugly," KoucovSia, xpucro/AaAA^s ypvo-ofjiaXXovcra 
" the golden-haired " /. Masc. substantives in -a? have corresponding 
fems. in -ov (§ 88) and neuts. in -dSiKo : e.g. i^w/ias \j/o>ilov i^w/xdSt/co ; 
those in -aSt/co designating the place where a trade is carried on ; as, 
xf/uijxdhiKo "bakery," "bake-shop," ij/apaSiKo "fishmonger's shop." 
For other suffixes of gender, v. §§ 40, 81 (2) d. 

§ 115. Both the preceding paradigms are m. Gk. formations, their 
decl. following that of the corresponding substantives. The ancient 
adjectives in -t/s (evyevrjs) have disappeared from the real vernacular, 
being replaced either by new adjectives (a$idvTpo7ros "insolent" for 
avOdSrjs, ycpo9 = a. Gk. vyirjpos " healthy " for vyuqi) or by forms in 
-o?: cLKpifios "dear," dfjuiOos "unlettered," Sidfavos "transparent," 
SvarTvxos (SvcrTvxurpzvos) "unfortunate," Trptiros = €v7rp€7TYJs "proper," 
"becoming," a7rp€7ro<s "unbecoming," icrofiapos "of equal weight," 
TpicrfiaOos " very deep," dXrjOtvos " true," euyeviKos " polite," i^evVtKog 
"false," "falsified." Other types of the a. Gk. adj. have also dis- 
appeared; thus, e.g., Orjkvs and dpa-qv have been displaced by 0tj\vk6s 
" female," and apartviKos (crepviKos) " male," irX-qp-q^ by ye/^aTog " full," 
cvojS^s by fjivpovSaTos "fragrant." Forms such as evyems, crvyycveis 



MOKPHOLOGY 73 

(nom. and ace. pi. of euyev^s "noble," and o-vyyevys "related"), or 
tt/cpt^s " accurate," vevpuy&rjs (gen. vevpwSovs) " nervous," come from 
the literary language. But such adjectives from the literary 
language may be conformed to the vernacular paradigm : e.g. o-vyyzvrp, 
-77, -rjScs, evXaftrjs, -y\, -rfics, fem. <rvyycvL<r<ra (rarely €vXaj3^Sio-cra.) f 
neut. avyytviKo, 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

§ 116. The adjectives in classes I. and II. a. form the 
comparative — so far as it is in use — by adding -repos to the 
stem (what remains after cutting off -9 of the nom M v. n. 2), 
that is to -0- or -f- ; thus : 

yepo? " strong " yepcorepos 
evtcoXo? " easy " eutcoXcorepo? 
Jeo-To? " warm " ^ecrjorepo^ 
Xtyos " little " Xiywrtpos 
fii/cpos " small " tAucpoTepos 
$p6vL(Ao<$ " reasonable " (ppovifiwTepo? 

0Tfi)^O9 " poor " (f>TCO^OT€pO<i 

^77X09 " high " 'yfrTjXoTepo^ 
ttXoihtios " rich " TrXovcncorepos 
fiadvs " deep " fiaOvTepos 
fiapv? " heavy " fiapvrepos 
yXvtev? " sweet " yXv/cvrepo? 
fiaicpvs " long " fiafcpvrepos 
ira^us " thick " ira^vrepo^. 

The superlative is formed by placing the article before the 
comparative ; as, fiifcporepos " the smallest," etc. The 
declension is the same as that of a corresponding adjective ; 
thus, nacporepos, pmeporepr], pa/cporepo, etc., like, e.g., eXevrepos. 

1. Xote yepovroTcpos fr. yepos (a. Gk. yipoyv) " old." 

2. The distinction between evKoX-u-repos and ^Tcox-o-Tcpo? is merely 
orthographical, having no value for the living speech. But since in 
the majority of cases the comparative in -T€po$ is formed exactly like 
that of a. Gk., the present-day orthography maintains the a. Gk. rule 
of -o- after a preceding long syllable and -a>- after a preceding short, 
although this rule has no meaning for genuine m. Gk. forms like 

A.tyWT€/0O?. 

3. The a. Gk. superlative in -Taros is still to be found — only 
occasionally — in the so-called elative sense, i.e. to throw into promi- 
nence, translated by very : e.g. XafjunpoTaTos " very bright," /caA.a>raTos 
"very good." These forms are somewhat freely employed in the 
vernacular literature in imitation of the usage in the written language. 
Still it is more customary to employ iroXv (also 7rapa wo\v) or iroXXa 



74 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

or other words signifying " very " ; thus, iroXv (ttoXXo) KaXos " very 
good," etc. The doubling of the adj. serves the same purpose (1/07X0 
xj/qXb j3ow6 " a very high mountain "), or compounding with Kara- 
ex 0eo- : e.g. KaraKOKKcvos "quite red," OtorpeWos "quite crazy." 
Finally, cf. § 281, 1, n. 2. 

§ 117. A number of adjectives in -09 form their com- 
paratives in -vrepos ; those most in use are : 

icako? " good " KaXvrepo^ 
kclk6<; " bad " fcatevrepos and KaKcorepo<; 
fieydXos " great " iie<yakvTepo<; ; 
also : kovtos " near " KovTvrepos and Kovrorepo? 
fiavpos " black " fiavpvrepos 
o/jiop(po<; " fair " 6fiop(f)VT€po<; and opLopfyorepo? 
7t/)wto? " first " irpwrvrepo^ " earlier " 
rpavos " great " (e.<7. in Maced.) rpavorepos and rpa- 

vvTepos 
%ovTp6$ " thick " " coarse " ypvrpvTepo^ and xovrpoTepos. 

The orthography fluctuates, the spelling usually being -ijrepos, 
-arepos, or -iVcpos, even -^'repos, and so /^eyaAvrepos may be spelled 
p,zyaX.rJT€po<s, [LeyakeCrepos, /xeyaXtrcpo?, or /xcyaAifrepos, — KaAurepos 
also KaXXtrcpos (on account of a. Gk. koAAiW). The spelling -vrepos 
corresponds to the origin of the form, comparatives in -irrcpo? being 
formed on analogy of the adjs. in -vs. The adjs. with double forms 
served as a model ; cf, //.a/cpos — p.aKpvs — /xaKpurepos, yAvKos — yAuKv? 
— yXvKVTtpos. 

§ 118. Two adjectives employ different words for the 
comparatives : 

7roAu? " much " TrepiG-aoTepo^ and irQCjeioTepos. 

1. Cf. also TrXinpov in Velvendos ; 7roAvTcpo? and 7roAAorepo$ are 
employed only in dialect. 

tea/cos " bad " ^eporepo^ (xeiporepos) " worse " (beside 

fCCLKUTepO?, § 117). 

2. Instances of double degrees of comparison occur in 7rA.€tdrepos, 
Xc(t)poT€pos, the old comparatives ttXciW, x^pw having been rein- 
forced by the common m. Gk. com par. termination -rcpos. The older 
language had still more exx. of this kind. The old formation in -tW 
is retained intact in the neut. kolXXlo (occasionally used) ( = a. Gk. 
KtiXXiov) " better," in addition to which a kolXXlos (m.) and KaXXia (/.), 
or even (in Crete) a 6 KaXXtds, fj KaXXtd "the better" (m. and /.), 
and an adverb KaXXta or KaXXtd (neut. pi.), were formed. In Eova, 
forms like ple?i cjdlia (KaXXta) and pleh-li-irn (x^pov) have, taken on 
the compar. particle jple(n) = irXeov. 



MORPHOLOGY 75 

§ 119. Beside the mode of comparison with -repos, there 
is another equally common method which corresponds to that 
of the Eomance languages : 

KaXos — ttlo /caXo? " better " — 6 ttlo kclXos " the best " 
fitfcpos — ttlo p,ucpo<; "smaller" — 6 ttlo pu/cpos "the smallest" 
Xljo? — 7J70 Xcyo? " less " — ol ttlo Xlyoi " the least." 

1. The particle irio (also irXio, iria) is the old irX4ov (still used in 
the written language). It occurs as an independent adverb (*rA.id[V), 
7rXtd, TTta, in the Terra d' Otranto pled) in the signification "more," 
" now," " already," as Sk fnrop<o iria " I cannot any more," </>ravet irtd 
"it is enough now " ; but note hlv irw<o ircpuraoTtpo " I drink no 
more (than a definite quantity)." 

This method is employed chiefly with adjective forms of 
modern (or foreign) origin, with compound and other 
adjectives belonging to II. b, with participles and generally 
with polysyllabic adjectives : 

Kacvovpyios " new " ttlo Kaivovpyto*; 
Te/jL7r€Xr}<; " lazy " ttlo Te/juTreXi]? 
yefidros " full " ttlo je/jbdro^ 
ofiop(J>o<; " fair " ttlo o/JLOpcfyo? 
tyfXuipis "jealous" ttlo fyjkiapi? 
Tifi7)iJLepo<; " honoured " ttlo rcfirj/xevos 
ajAaprcoXos " sinful " 7T£0 apbaprcoXo^, 

2. One may occasionally say for emphasis ircb KaXvrepos beside 
the simple KaXvTcpos or 6 ttAio arepvoTtpos "the last," "latest" (cf. 
§118,n. 2). 

3. The periphrastic comparative has almost ousted the a. Gk. 
mode in Lower Italy. A different periphrastic method — borrowed 
from the Turkish — predominates in Pontus and elsewhere in the 
region of the Black Sea ; /caAd? — atcojxav kolXos " better," tutItt kclXos 
"very good," "best"; similarly in Saranda Klisies kojx (i.e. aKOfxt)) 
kolXos "better," 6 ko/x kclXos "the best." Finally, foreign influence 
lias resulted in the complete loss of the corapar. form ; cf. Texts III. 
13. a, ds core^ piKpos " small from thee" = " smaller than thou." 

§ 120. In the comparison of nouns, "than" after the 
comparative is translated by duo with ace, less frequently 
by irapd with nom. ; as, Tiwpryis elvai fieyaXvrepos dirb to 
Ttdvvr) " G. is taller than J.," /caXvrepa /ua<? cop as iXevOepy 
^cotj irapa capdvra yjpovtov crtcXaftid " better one hour of 
liberty than forty years of slavery." 

1. irapa. (Velv. irlpi) is used especially for the comparison of 
adjectives, irapa. vd or irapa irov for comparison with a whole 



7G HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

sentence : e.g. tj cfrtoVT] rjro ireptcro'OTtpo 4>o/3epa irapa, t^Ttavua " the 
voice was more fearful than entreating," KaXvTipa va tovv eiripvLs tov 
KLcjidXi irepl tov irXi (Texts III. 11) " better you had taken his head 
than the hen," icdXXio va o-/cao-a) irputTa irapa va prj eras 6vprj6<x> " better 
that I should perish sooner than forget thee," Sev virdpx^i dXXo 
<f>o/3cpu)T€po irapa irov liraOa "there is nothing more terrible than 
what I have suffered." Finally, irapa means " except " (Lat. nisi) : 
e.g. Skv r)$€pe irapa tol iraXid pas "he knew nothing except our past 
history," $lv kolv€l irapa ovetptveraL "he does nothing but dream." 

2. The genetivus comparationis is occasionally to be found with 
the personal pronoun ; cf. pi tovv TpavvTipo <r [i.e. crov] kovkklol va prj 
creeps (Texts III. 11) " sow no beans with him that is stronger 
than thou" ("have no business partnership"), Sev rjvpa d8epc£o 
KaXXidv tov (I. a. 15) "I did not find any brother better than he." 

" The more ... the more " oao — (aXko) rocro. 

" The best of all " runs to xaXvrepo air oka. The a. Gk. 
partitive gen. after comparative and superlative has been 
displaced by a7ro ; thus, 6 peyaXvrepos air rov$ Svo " the 
greater of the two." 

"As . . . as " = toco — oao or aav (jcai) ; thus, elvai rocro 
peyaXo? oab (elpaC) iyco or elvai peydXo<; cav teal pkva " he is 
as tall as I." 

The Adverb. 

§ 121. The adverb is not connected merely with verbs 
or adjectives (iroXv *ca\6<; "very good"), but may be 
employed also attributively as in a. Gk. : e.g. rj peer a /cdpapa 
" the middle room," i) /cdrco yr} " the lower world," to dirdvco 
irdrcopa " the upper storey," ra tcaOavrb bvopara " the proper 
names " ; in some phrases it even becomes a quasi-substantive, 
as crrb €%?}<$ " in the future," crrb peragv " in the meantime "; cf. 9 
further, § 57 n. 

§ 122. To form the adverb take the neut. pi. — only in 
exceptional cases the neut. sing. — of the corresponding 
adjective ; as, drcpiftos " dear " drcpLftd, dyopracrros " insatiable " 
dyopracrra, y\r)yopo<; " speedy " yXrjyopa, Svvaro? " strong," 
"loud" Sward, ivio? "equal" Xcria "even," "forthwith," 
tcaXos " good " tcaXd, tcovros " near " Kovrd, Kpvcfros " secret " 
tepvepd, pcopaufcos " Eomaic," "modern Greek" poypauica, 
7T/oo)to<? " first " 7rp(bra t ^tjXo*; " high " yfnjXd ; ftapvs " heavy " 
fiapetd (and in dialects Papv), pa/cpos and paKpvs "wide" 
pa/cpecd, %ovXidpi<; " jealous " ^ovXtdpc/ca ; iroXvs forms iroXv 
and TroXXd, (6)\tyo<; " little " (p)Xiya y (6)\iyo or Xiydtci. 



MORPHOLOGY 77 

§ 123. The comparative of adverbs is the neut. pi. of the 
adjective, though the neut. sing, is relatively more frequent 
than in the positive : fcaXvrepa " better/' ftadvTepa " deeper/' 
\iyd)T€po " less," irepiaaorepa " more " (beside irepiaaorepo 
and TTLorepo or iriorepa), -)(e(C)p6r€pa " worse," etc., or irib 
KaXd f 7rib 7ro\v " to a higher degree," irib (Sadeid (or ttlo 
KaKvTepa y ttlo fiaOvrepa), etc. 

Superlative to 7r(A,)*o KaXvrepa and to 7r^o tcakvrepo, to 
ttlo fiaOvrepa (-o), to ttlo ^etporepa (-o). Emphasis of com- 
parison is secured by 7ro\v (noWd) " very," and other such 
words, or by repeating the adverb ; as, dydXia dydXca " very 
gradually," cr^ o-^a "very slowly," ia(i)a ta(t,)a "just so," 
14 even," Kara) Kara) " quite under," /itXa /ea\a /ca\a pwfiauKa 
" he speaks modern Greek most excellently." 

1. Forms like ^vcriKwrara "most naturally," cAA^i/iKtoTara "in 
genuine Greek style," come from the literary language. 

Adverbs with no corresponding adjective like diravta 
" above," irepa " yonder," Karoo " under," form the compara- 
tive exclusively with 7T£o ; thus, irtb 'navco, ttlo /cuto), etc. 

2. Note adv. rayvrepov " later " (Xaxos) from raxys. 

§ 124. Compared with this mode of forming adverbs the 
(old) adverbial forms in -w? have survived only in isolated 
cases in the popular speech ; as, dfieaoos " immediately," lam 
" perhaps," icaXm " well," in the expressions tcaXm <opiaaT€ t 
tcaX&s rjpdes " welcome," or icaXm top " long life to him," " a 
welcome to him," crraviKm " unwillingly." 

§ 125. Even substantival and prepositional expressions 
are sometimes stereotyped as adverbs : e.g. tov kclkov " in vain," 
/Ma. <f>opd " once," 7roXXe<? $oo€9 " often," fxid teal /caXrj " once 
for all," Kade fiepa " daily " ere Xiyo " soon," crrbv iBio tcaipo 
" simultaneously," " at once," ard rv<f>Xd " at random," fie p,td$ 
" suddenly," errb fiera^v " in the meantime," etc. " Almost " 
is rendered by means of the verb kovtcvo) " I am near " (or 
Xiyo XeL-sfre " it wanted but little "), e.g. ifcopreva vd ireaa> " I 
had almost fallen." 

§ 126. Many adverbs have either never been accompanied 

by an appellative, or have lost all formal connection with 

such in the course of development of the Greek language. 
6 



78 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Such are of various kinds. The most important are the 
following : 

1, Adverbs of Place. 

irov " where ? " curb irov (also irovQe) " whither ? " tcdirov " any- 
where," irovOevd {irovTrera, irovfieTL?) " anywhere," in 
negative sense " nowhere " (cf the use of icavkvm and 
"" tlttot€ ) § 153), 07TOV, ttov " where," relative 

iha>, Sco " here," " hither " 

eAret, Vet " there," " thither," " in that place," irapafcel " farther 
that way," " on that side " 

avrov (evTov, avrovvov) " there," " in that place " 

dXXov " elsewhere " 

iravTov " everywhere " 

6Xov0e " everywhere," " on all sides " 

aTra^ft), irdvco {irdvov), diroirdvcx) " above " 

/carw (/cdrov) " under," " underneath," Trapa/cara " farther 
under," " lower down," ai>&>/eaTGi> " up and down," " pell- 
mell" 

XdjjLco (%dfJLov, more rarely %afial 9 ^d/xac), also Karayfj<; " on 
the ground " 

Sfa (8%ov, efa>) " out," " outside " 

/Lteca (a7ro ^ecra) " inside," " within " 

o/x7rpo9 (ifi7rpo<; } irapepLirp6s:) 9 pbirpoard "in front," "before," 
" forwards " 

irt<ra>, oTrlato {iriaov) " behind," " back " (note irlaov iriaov in 
Lesbos " in the course of time ") 

(TL/jud, fcovrd " near " 

StVXa, dirb SlttXcl " close by," " alongside " 

irXdl wXd'i " side by side," " alongside " 

aVTLKpv($) (flVTlKpV, (VyVCLTta) " OppOSlte " 

yvpco, rpLjvpov, oXoyvpa " around " 
7repa (iteeiffe) " beyond." 

C/. also combinations of two adverbs of place, like c/cet koltio 
" there underneath," " below," e/ceT Travw (cKfdv Pontus) " there 
above," and especially (£)k€l iripa "yonder," c8a> 7re/oa "here," "in 
this case." 

2. Adverbs of Time, 

7t6t€ " when ? " TroVe— 7tot€ " sometimes — sometimes," " now 
— now " (also Karrore kcll nrore) " sometimes," 7Tot6 
" ever," " never " (</. irovOevd) 



MORPHOLOGY 79 

aXXore " formerly," " once " 

roTe(9), €TOTe(9) " then," d-iro rore? " since " 

Tcopa " now," " at present " 

<y\7]jopa " soon " 

KioXas " already," " even " 

fioXts "just now" 

afcSfia « still," " yet " 

aviaixa " at the same time," " together * 

wdvra " always " 

TrdXi, irdXe " again " 

0X0, oXoeva " continually," " incessantly " 

evrvq } a/jLecroos, dxpvovs (e.g. Chios) " immediately " 

7rpo)Ta " first," TrpcoTvrepa " before " " previously " 

varepa (Chios varepL, Ios vaTepcbrepa), eireira, fcaroTTCj aireKei 

" afterwards," " later " 
^ojpt9 (ivapk) " early," v cop ire pa " earlier " 
«joya, gclbpas " late " 
(to) fipdSv (also ySpaSu?) " in the evening," (to) Ta^v " in the 

morning " 
(e)%T69, (ijyfre? " yesterday," irpo^ri^ " day before yesterday " 
urjfxepa " to-day," aTro^fre " this evening " 
«{!/ho " to-morrow," fieOavpto " day after to-morrow " 
oXrjfiepk " the whole day" 
^>€to9, €(/>€T09, (i)cf)€To " this year " 
irepvai (iripai) " last year," irpottkpvai " two years ago " (toO 

yjpovov " next year "). 

Here also combinations like e^res ftpa&vs or ex T * s T ° /?pa'8u 
"yesterday evening/ 5 apya t a,7roTa;(aa "late in the afternoon," etc. 

3. Adverbs of Manner and Quantity. 

wm " how ? " «a7r©9 " somehow, anyhow," o-az/ " as " (in 

comparisons) 
€T(7t " thus " ; €T(7t /c' eT<7t " so and so " 
dXXitos, aXXicoTLKa " otherwise," " else " 
(a)7ra^o) /caTO) " about," " approximately," " nearly " 
tovti? " really " 

egatfiva, afjaffrva, gdtfivco " suddenly," fiovofiia? "all at once" 
j&a# " together," " with " 

X^? ia (x w P L<TT ^^ Zfy(opa) " apart," " separately " 
/Ltoi/o (p,6v€ t fiovov), iiovaya " alone," " only " 
ap/cerd " enough " 



80 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Xiyd/a " a little " 
TrapaTToXv " too much " 
to ttoXv irokv " at the most " 
to Xiyo Xiyo " at least." 



Numerals. 



(a) Cardinal Numhers, 

§ 127., ( 

1 eVa<?, /-ua, eW 

2 8i/o 

3 t/)€?5, rpla (rptd) 

4 riaaept^ (ricraepoc, ricr 

aepa, and reaaapa) 

5 7T6VT6 



6 e£i, e£e 

7 60TO 

8 O^Tci 

9 ezwta 

1 Biica 

1 1 €VT€fCCL 

1 2 SooBefca 

1 3 Be/carpeis 

14 SefcaTeaaepLS 

1 5 Setcairevre 

1 6 hetcdfy (Se/caefji) 

1 7 Se/catyrd 

18 Socorro) (Se/ca o^tco) 

19 hetcavvid (8etca ivvta) 



3 rptdvra 

31 rpiavra epa> etc. 

40 aapdvra 

5 irevrjvra 

6 k^rjvra 

7 k^hofirjvra 

80 (pySo^vra) oyhovra 

9 ivevrjvra 



100 etcaro 

101 etcarb(v) ez>a<?, eicarb pud 

102 eicarb Bvo 
111 etcaro evrema 
121 etcaro eltcoaiiva 



200 8ia/c6<rioi 9 Biatcocies, Bia/co- 
220 htaKoata eXicoai [aia 1 ) 

300 rpfyatcocrioi, -*€<?, -ia 
400 rerpa/coaioc, -je<?, -ta 
500 nrevratcoaioi, ~ies, -la 
600 e^aKoacotj-ie^, -la 

20 ettcoaL* 700 efyratcoaioi, -ce$, -la 

21 eltcoaieva 800 6^rafcoaiot y -te<?, -fa 

22 eltcoa-i Sfo, etc. 900 ewiatcoatoi, -*€<?, -«x 

1000 xiktoi, ^iXces, %i\ia 

1894 yikia o^ra/coaia ivevrjvra reaaepa 

2000 Si/o %i\(aSe<? 

3000 Tpefc j^XtaSes, e ^ c * 
10,000 Se/ca- %iXid8e$ 
100,000 iicarb p^XtdSe? 
200,000 Siatcocrces ^tXtdSe? 
1 The t before the ending is always consonantal ( = i). 



MORPHOLOGY 81 

1,000,000 eva iiCKktovvi (e/eaTOfifAvpiov) 

2,000,000 Svb ficWcovvta (Svb e/eaTOfifivpia) 

(1,000,000,000 ^Xte/caTo/i^toi/ Milliard) 

(1,000,000,000,000 8t<r€/caTOfifjLvpLov Billion). 

Of course the last two high numbers are no longer in evidence 
in the vernacular, since they lie outside the sphere of the usages 
and conceptions of the people. 

§ 128. The numerals from 1 to 4 inclusive, and from 
200 up, are declined; thus: 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

1. eva? fud (/jlvlcl) eva (evav) 

(evos;) evov, evovs /ua?, ix,iavr\<; (eVo<?) evov, evovs 

eva(y) (evave) fud(y) eva (evav). 

After the analogy of p,iavrjs there is even a gen. masc. fxiavov. 
In Pontic the nom. (masc. and fern.) el?, ace. zlvav (m.), Ivav (f.) are 
in use; in Saranda Klisi^s the nom. sing. neut. to lv "the one." 

2. Bvo nom. and ace. of all genders ; gen. sometimes Sva>(ve) 
and Svovco(ve). 

k ol Svo (jeal ol Bvo) " both," koX ol Svo pas " both of 
us." 

1. On /ua, Svo, cf. § 10, n. 1 ; on neut. Ivav (like (rro/xav, etc.), 
§34, n. 4. 

/itar/^s, Svovoiv, cvave have been affected by the pronominal 
declension. 

2. fuav kolI Svo like "one, two, three " — " immediately," "forth- 
with." 

3. Tpel<; y masc. and fern. ; rpla (or rpid) neut. ; gen. rptco(v). 

4. Nom. and ace. masc. and fem. Tea-crept? ; neut. Teaaepa 
(reaaapa) ; gen. reaa-dpco(v). 

The following forms are also found : nom. m. riaro-apoi (tcVo-c/doi), 
ace. T€0-crapov<$ or rtcro-apovs, nom. and ace. f. 7re'<7(TO/>es (ricrcrzptt). 

5. The declension of the other numerals (Stafcoaioi, etc.) 
is the same as that of corresponding adjectives. 

On rpaKOcra, Tpa/cdcra, etc., V. § 10, n. 4. 

§ 129. The examples given in the table show how the 
numerals are combined : the larger number precedes, the 
smaller follows without naL 

Numerals are combined with substantives as in German 
or in English, the numerals being always used as adjectives ; 
thus, ZiaKQGies <yvvaiK6<;, Sub ^iXidBe^ dOpoyiroi. 



82 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(b) Ordinals. 

§ 130. "the first" o irp&ro? 

" the second " 6 Sevrepos 

" the third " o rplros 

" the fourth " 6 rerapros. 

To express ordinal numbers higher than " the fourth " 
the cardinal numbers (in the neut.) are employed with the 
dcf. article placed before them ; thus, 6 rrevre " the 5th/' 
6 efe "the 6th," 6 i(f>T(i "the 7th," 6 rptdvra "the 80th," 
6 e/caro "the 100th," 6 Sccucocrca, 6 %l\ia 9 6 Bvb ^TuaSe?, o 
eW fuWiovvi. 

The ancient ordinal numbers have disappeared out of the present 
popular language. Those from 2 to 5 occur partially in older or 
modified forms in the names of some week-days : Sevrepa " Monday " 
(yj Sevreprj " the second "), rptrrj " Tuesday," Ttrpd&rj " Wednesday " 
(but fj TerapTrj "the fourth "), iri^Tq (also TrejxTY]) " Thursday " (fr. 
a. Gk. 7r€fjL7TTYj). Note also to Scjraro " the tenth," " tithe," ^ o-apa- 
koctiJ "Lent," ^ 7T€VTr}KovTy "Whitsuntide." 

(c) Derivatives and Special Usages of Numerals. 

§ 131. Fractions: juu<r6<t t i±t<rr}, fioco "half," "half an 
hour " fitcrr) copa, " the half " to /aco. When used in 
connection with other numbers it takes the form (rj)fiiav : e.g. 
eva 'fiiav (pud 'puarv) 1£, Bvo '/jlmtv 2|, rpeZ? tfpuav 3|, 7T€vr4 
'fitav 5 J, e£' rjfJLKTV 6^, Se/ea 'puau 10£. 

If a substantive follows such numerical terms there are 
two usages : (1) e.g. pud 'pu<rv otcd " 1|- oka," hvb 'fii<rv yjpovia 
" 2|- years," etc. ; or (2) pua okcl teal pu<rrj } Sub xpovia teal 
puao. 

(eva) rpLTo " a third," eva rirapro (also eW tedpro) " a 
fourth," " quarter," rpla rirapra " three-fourths," " three- 
quarters of an hour" = rpia rirapra ryj? &pa$. 

The larger fractions are expressed periphrastically : " one- 
fifth " = eva dub ra or err a rrevre (sc. tcopLpbdrta) ; -fjy^Svb 
drro ra (ara) 8e/ca (/copspidria), or dirb (ra) Setca (ra) Syo, 
etc. 

1. Per cent. : e.g. 5 per cent. = Trivrz (a-)ra eKard (literary 
language, irivre tols €kcxt6V; cf. § 41, n. 2). 

2. Dates and o'clock. The cardinal numbers are employed : — 
" one o'clock " = /jliol wpa, " five o'clock " = irivn wpa, but more 
usually " one o'clock " = (0-7-7) /"<*> " three o'clock " = (arts) rpt?s ; 
"half-past one," "half-past three" = (crrrj) /mil '/xto-v, (oris) rpek 



MORPHOLOGY 83 

rjfjLio-v ; " quarter past two " (<ttU) Svb kou rirapro ; " a quarter to 
four" (cttU) reWepes 7rapa TcVapro; "twenty minutes past five," 
"twenty minutes to six" (o-ti?) wivrt kcu €lkocti, (oris) cfe 7rapa 
tiKocri ; " it is one (two) o'clock " elvat pua <5pa, Bvb topes. " On the 1st, 
10th, 25th April " (o~tt]v) irpd)Tr} } Or (o-Tts) Se/ca, dKOvnrivTZ (tov) *Airpi\i ; 
" to-day is the 15th of the month " orffxtpa thai (exofie) StKa-jrivTe tov 
fjLyvos; "the first of May" ("1st May") wpuTOfiaid, "1st Jan.," 
"New Year" -irpuToxpovid ; "in (the year) 1910 " (cn-a) x^ ta 
iwiaKoo-ta SeVca ; "Sunday, 13th Dec. 1909," /ccpta/d) Bzkclt pels (tov) 
StKifipt x^ ia ivvioLKocr la ivvtd. 

§ 132. Distributive numbers are formed (1) by placing 
cltto before the cardinal, or (2) by repeating the cardinal ; thus, 
eva? eva? " one by one," " one at a time," dirb Bvo or Bvb Bvo 
"two and two," airb Si/ca or Bexa Beica " by tens." 

" How many times (Fr. fois) " is expressed by <f>opd 
(occasionally also by fioXd) : pud <fiopd " once," Bvb, rpec? (pope? 
"twice," "three times" Trove? (pope? "how many times," 7roX\e9 
(pope? " many times," " often," dirb pud Bvb (pope? " every once," 
" twice." Note also 'xfkia fxepaBta dfiopcpvTtpr} " a thousand 
times fairer." 

In multiplication cpopd is omitted ; as, Tpeis (ol) Se/ca kcLvqvv Tptdvra 
"three times ten make thirty." The following are exx. of other 
arithmetical calculations : Bvb /ecu Tecrcrepa (jcavovv) eft " two and four 
make six," -rrivTt a-nrb Sckci (itdvovv) irivTe " five from ten leaves five," 
7rivT€ ctto Scko, (kwow) Svd " five into ten gives two (goes twice)." 

" For the first time, second time," irpdrrj, Bevreprj (popd ; 
" the tenth or twentieth time " Beica, ei/coat, (pope?. 

" Single " = fjLovo? or dirXo?, " double," " twofold " BittXo? 
or aXXo? roao?, " three-, four-, five-, tenfold " rpel?, re'aaepe?, 
7T6VT6, Beica (pope? to<xo, etc., or even rpiBnrXo?, TeTpaBcirXo?, 
TrevTaBtTrXo?, etc. 

§ 133. The Numeral substantives in -aped denote a 
definite number of persons or things ; Beicapid " the number 
of ten," e.g. Kapud Beicapid dOpojirot " some ten men," BcoBe- 
icapid " twelve," " dozen " (also pud vrovtyva), el/cocrapid t 
elfcoGiTrevrapid, rpiavrapid, Bicucoaapid "a crowd of 20, 25, 
30, 200," But "the number of one hundred" is e/carocrv 
(fern.) ; " about fifty " nrdvto fedrco TTevrjvra. 

The suffix -dpa is especially employed for the names of 
coins the value of a definite number of units, of which the 
most common in use are irevrdpa " 5 Lepta piece," Be/cdpa 



34 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

"10 Lepta piece/' and analogously Bvdpa, elKoadpa, ttzv^v- 
rdpa, etc. 

1. Similarly the neuters Svdpt, Trevrapt, $€/ca/n, cKaToorapt, etc. 
(e.g. Se/ca/n " tener in cards "). 

2. The abstract numbers in -aSa (a. Gk. -as, -dSos) are rare, and 
employed only in specific senses : ^"Ayia TpiaSa " the holy Trinity," 
rj SwScKaSa, lit. " the number twelve," then " retinue " (e.g. of a 
King). 

3. An indefinitely large number is expressed by x& la Svd ; in a 
similar sense k£r)VTa Svo. 

The suffix -apiito is employed in the same way to denote 
" containing a definite sum " : e.g. Sefcdpt/co, elfcoaLTrevrdpuco, 
Trevrjvrdpi/co, e/carocrrdpc/co "10, 25, 50, 100 drachma piece 
or bank note," ^CkidpiKt) fiiroriKia "a bottle holding 1000 
Spd/jbia." l 

The masculine suffix -dpi?, fern, -dpa, denotes "of a 
particular age " ; as, Tpiavrdpis, etyvrdpis " thirty, sixty years 
of age" (fern, rpiavrdpa). On the employment of the gen. 
for designating age, v. § 45. 

Pkonouns. 

(a) Personal. 
§ 134. First person iyco "I." 

Absolute. Conjunctive. 

Sing. Norn, iyco « I " — 

Gen. ifieva " of me " fiov 

Ace. (e/xe) i/jL6va, fxiva (ifievave) " me " fie. 

Plur. Nom. ifiets " we " — 

Gen. (ifAas) - fias 

Ace. e/ia? " us " fia$. 

1. The following forms are also found : nom. 'yw and (in dialects) 
oyco, coi, also in Cyprus (€)y«o and iyiiavrj, in Otranto evo \ gen. sing, 
e/xov, Zjjl€vov, ifxowov, also €/xc (Texts I. a. 24. 41); ace. sing. ejaoV and 
c/juwa ; the gen, pi. c/xas (formerly also ifi&v) is quite rare (cf. e.g. 
Texts I. a. 24. 23). 

2. The forms e/xets, €/xas for a. Gk. fj/xtLS, ^/xas have been formed 
on model of the sing. eyw. t/xets (in North. Gk., e.g. Velv.) bears 
only apparent resemblance to the a. Gk. ^/ms, an unaccented e 
becoming i everywhere (cf § 7, n. 1), and so even tyw = iyd>. 

1 5/jdjui is a unit of weight, nearly 2 drams avoirdupois (400 5p&/jua = l 6k6.). . 





MORPHOLOGY 




§135. 


Second person ecrv " thou." 






Absolute. 


Conjunctive. 


Sing. Norn. 


€<TV, (TV 


— 


Gen. 


iceva 


crov 


Ace. 


(i<re) eaeva, aeva (iaipave) 


r 
CT€. 


Plur. Nom. 


eVet?, o-e?<? 





Gen. 


(eVa?) 


aa? 


Ace. 


iaas, 0"a? 


eras. 



85 



1. Also : nom. esu (Bova), icrov and Icrovv-q (Cyprus) ; gen. sing. 
icrevov, icrovvov ; ace. Icrov, ccrova. Eorms with initial f (£c, f ov) occur 
in the Maina, Texts III. 3. Gen. pi. icrovv in the connection awoirk 
Icrovv in Pontus, Texts III. 13. b. 

2. icrv after the model of cyw ; ccrcis co-as after cyci c/ms. 
Between the a. Gk. c/ac and m. Gk. c/jto/a, and between crc and 
(c)crcVa, come the intermediary forms ificv and co-cV, which survive 
still in Pontic (and occasionally also elsewhere) ; c/. icrev, Texts 
III. 13. a. 



136. Third person aw? "he." 
Absolute. 
Sing. Nom. <zt/ro9, airr?7, ai/ro 

Gen. avTov, avrrj?, airov 
Ace. avr6(y\ avrrjiy), avro 

Plur. Nom. avTol, aire's, avrd 

Gen. avra)(v), avrco(v), avruy(y) 
Ace. avrovs, aires, aird 



Conjunctive. 

(r f t\ 

T09, TT], TO) 

TOV y rfjs 

To(p) y Trj(y\ to. 

(tOL, T€9, TO) 

tw(i/), rovs (m. f. n.) 

TOVSy T€9, TCL. 



1. Instead of av-ros, euros also is found in the Ionic Islands and in 
the region of the Aegean (e.g. Crete, Naxos, Chios) ; sometimes (e.g. 
in Epirus and Pelop.) SaSros; in Bova dstos, according to § 14, n. 2. 

2. The North. Gk. forms t ( = rov or rrj), tv ( = t>?v), ts ( = 7^9, 
tovs) arise from the cause given in § 7, n. 1. 

3. In Pontus (also elsewhere, e.g. Icarus) the pronoun appears as 
aTos (arcs), the forms of which are used both as absolute and con- 
junctive (exx. Texts III. 13). The regular forms of the conjunc- 
tive pronoun originated from the form aro-. Further noteworthy 
forms of the pron. corij. are rcrrj (t<t) beside rrjs (Ionic Islands, 
Epirus, Aegean) ; the forms ending in -v take on frequently c (more 
rarely a) ; thus, tqv€ (tovcl), rrjve, (gen. pi.) rwe, and even fxacre, crave ; 
ace. (gen.) pi. tws beside tovs. Gen. sing. ax T€ ( 9 ) an( ^ neut. d = r6 
in Pontic : e.g. to 7ratStV dxrc " his child," and tKcrev a " he heard it." 

§ 137. Use of the Personal 'pronouns. The nominative of 
the absolute form is employed only isolated or with the verb 
for emphasis ; the verbal forms contain their subject in the 



SG HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

termination. Accordingly we may say, e.g., iyco \eyoy, icrv 
pa)Trt9. avrbs gepei " I say," " thou askest," " he knows," only 
when it is intended to throw the subject into prominence ; thus, 
e.g. ao)7ra icrv " thou, keep still," e\a gv fiopos gov " thou, 
come thou alone," and especially in contrast : e.g. iya) e^co 
SovXeid, ecrv irepirareU " / have work to do, you are taking 
a walk." 

In the oblique cases likewise the absolute form stands 
only in isolation, or, if in the texture of a sentence, mostly in 
alliance with the conjunctive pronoun ; but unless special 
emphasis is aimed at only the conjunctive pronoun is used in 
the sentence ; thus, ttolop ipcoTrjGes " whom didst thou ask ? " 
aha " thee" " thyself," /xe pwTa " he asks me," gov Xiyaj 
" 1 tell you," to gipco " I know it," TOp(e) y Trjp(e), tovs yp(opi£ei<; 
"you know him, her, them." On the other hand, for the 
sake of emphasis, i/jueva fie %epeis " me you know," iaiva Trays 
Ge (fraiveraL " what do you think of it ? " avrb Oekovp ical 
Kelvoi "that is what they also wish," avrovs dikco pa (row) 
ISco " I desire to see them" g* iGas to 'wa " to you I said it " 
(or to Va o-' eo-a9 " I said it to you "). 

1. The pronomen conjunctum, moreover, is quite frequently 
inserted pleonastically in instances like, e.g., to 'fiprjKn to pipos " he 
found (it) the region," r dk\a rd 'fipav Kvv-qoi " the hunters found 
(them) the others." 

Note also the idioms tyjv e-rraOa "I fell into it," ttus tol 7raTe 
(TTcpvaTe) " how do you do 1 " 

2. The nom. tos, tyj, tol appears in vd tos " there he is," vd tol 
"there they are"; more rarely irov clyai 'tos (ttov V tos), nov ctrat 
\y\ " where is he, she 1 " 

For other usages of the conj. pron , v. §§ 140-143. 

§ 138. The position of the personal pronoun is clear from 
the examples given. The conjunctive pronoun precedes the 
verb, except with the 2nd. pers. imperative : Swcre fiov " give 
me," Se? To^e " see him," irap(e) to " take it," kvtt&%€T€ fie 
"regard me," 7T€gt€ tov$ "tell them." When a verb is 
accompanied by a particle of negation, tense, or mood (0d, vd, 
a?) the pronoun stands between such particle and the verb ; 
as, Bev top elBa " I did not see him," da gov Bcdgo> " I will give 
you," va Gas (el)™ " let me tell you," as Tt](pe) (fycopd^rj " let 
him call her" (but: ifiim Be ^e 'pcoTrjGe, avTov 6a top 
ukovgo)). In combinations with the auxiliary e^w there is an 
option between, e.g., top el%a IBei " I had seen him," Be fiov el%e 



MORPHOLOGY 87 

elirei " he had not told me," and elya tov elirei, etc. OeX(o 
when an auxiliary is treated like Od. With rjOeXa the usage 
fluctuates between ae fjOeXa TrapcucaXeGci and rjOeXa ere irapa- 
KaXeaeu " I would request you." For the compound verbal 
forms, cf. § 223 ff. 

1. In Cyprus, Khodes, Crete, Chios, and other islands, and in Asia 
Minor (Pontus, Capp.), the rule for position is different, the pronoun 
being placed after the verb ; as, iratpovfji /xc " they take me away," 
Xiu fxov, aKovo-d tov, rj/xatfa to, ecfxiiva&v tov, i<jyopT(i>crav tovs ; in 
Pontus, e.g., Xiei oltov " he tells him," IpXiir Sltov " he sees him." 

When two pronouns come together the indirect object 
always precedes the direct : e.g. gov, acts to Va (to elira) " I 
said it to thee, you," vd to£>? to GTeiXys " see that you send 
it to them," Be Od /za? tcl fyepere ; " will you not bring it to 
us ? " and similarly with the imperat. 8coa(e) fiov to " give me 
it," <f>€pT€ rov to " bring him it." 

2. The conj. pron. is, properly speaking, unaccented (proclitic or 
enclitic, § 39) ; still, in the proclitic position it generally is written 
with an accent. On account of the fluctuating orthographical usage 
no hard and fast rule can be laid down. 

§ 139. Besides the personal pronouns, the ordinary people 
use (especially in addressing a person) peculiar forms of 
courtesy : e.g. r) dfavTid gov, rj evyeveia gov " your lordship." 
Instead of the pronouns " thou, he, you, they," periphrasis is 
very common with the aid of the stereotyped genitive tov 
Xoyov (which took its rise from a mutilation of the expression 
Bid Xoyov [gov] " at thy command ") ; thus : 

tov Xoyov gov " thou " 

toO Xoyov go,? " you " 

toD Xoyov tov, T7}<; " he, she " 

toO Xoyov tou? " they." 
These forms remain unchanged in all cases : toO Xoyov gov Bev 
rjGovva gto gitltl " you {Monsieur) were not at home," toO 
Xoyov tou? tl kuvovv " how are their worships ? " e%co Kaipov 
vd IBg) tov Xoyov T77? " it is a long time since I saw her," Od 
irdfie x<op\s tov Xoyov gcis " we will go without you." 

When the expression is joined with the prepositions (ei)Ge, 
Bid, diro, or even with fie, the art. is generally dropped : <7€ 
Xoyov era? epyo^iai " I am coming to you," &TW diro Xoyov 
gov " I request of you," eirepiraTovGa fie (rov) Xoyov tov "I 
went walking with him (with Monsieur)" 



88 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

The first person tov \6yov /jlov (pas) is used to express 
the reflexive : e.g. alardvofxai tov Xoyov /iov tca\vT€pa " I feel 
myself better." 

For the pronoun "self," v. § 157. 

1. In addressing a person the vernacular always employs the 
2nd pers. sing, ; the use of the 2nd pers. pi. is a foreign affectation 
and confined almost altogether to the educated and to city centres. 
Beside the forms already given, evrov ( = avrov) is used as a form of 
courtesy for ccrv : e.g. €vtov va to icd/iys " do it (thou)." 

2. Note the following rules of concord : eyw /cat o~v Oa ira/i* rwpa 
" you and I will now go," ecru /ecu 6 <£t'A.os crov i<j>vya.T€ yXr/yopa " you 
and your friend went away quickly." 

(b) Reflexive. 

§ 140. 1st Person. 

(tov i/jbaurov /iov " of me " rov e/iavTOv /la? " of us ") 

tov ifxavro /jlov " me " tov i/iavro fias " us." 

2nd Person. 
tov ifjuavTov aov " of thee," rov i/iavTov era? " of you " 

rov i/iavro gov " thee " tov i/iavTo aa<; " you." 

3rd Person. 
(tov ifjuavTov rov " of him " tov i/iavrov tow " of them ") 
tov ifiavTo tov, t^? " himself " tov i/iavro tov<z " themselves." 

(eavTov) eavTo is also employed instead of (i/iavTov) i/tavro, 
and in the same manner. To make emphatic, tov IStov iavTo 
/jlov or tov iavTo /jlov tov lBlo, etc., is used. 

1. These formations are merely stereotyped forms of the a. Gk. 
reflexive with the gen. of the pers. pron. following. In Crete a 
different expression is employed, rov d-n-aTo /jlov (crov, etc.); for tov 
\6yov /iov, cf. § 139. 

2. The reflexive is not much in use, often a middle voice taking 
its place, v. § 177, 2._ 

§ 141. The reciprocal pronoun "one another," "each 
other," is rendered (1) by combining 6 eva$ " the one " and 6 
uXko<$ " the other " (thus 6 eW? tov aWo, r/ /ica ttjv aWrj, 
kovtcl to eva /mc to aWo to, irideoaa " I placed them beside 
one another"); or (2) by (ava-)/i€Ta%v, dvd/ieaa (dvd/iea-o) 
" between," " among," and the gen. pi. of the pers. pron. 
(dva/iera^v /ia<;, /icra^v ca?, /lera^v toi/9, dvd/iead tov?) ; 
but frequently the middle voice" expresses the reciprocal idea, 
v. § 177, 2. " 



MORPHOLOGY 89 

In Capp. (Pharasa) an unchangeable (adverbial) ircvcvrd(f3)o is 
employed; as, Swkci/jic TzzvivTao "we struck each other" — perhaps a 
remodelling of an expression air Zva(v) r dXKo. 

(c) Possessive. 

§ 142. In m. Gk. there is no special adjectival pronoun 
denoting possession; it is supplied by the genitive of the con- 
junctive pronoun placed after the noun ; thus, 6 iraTepas fiov 
" my father," rj fidvva aov " thy mother," to o-ttltl tov, T779 
" his, her house," ra iraihia fia$, aas, tco(v) (tow) " my, thy, 
their children," 6 ttio-tos fiov </>/\o? " my dear friend," r) 
kuXtj aov d&epcfrrj " thy good sister," r) hokia tov fiavvovka 
" his unhappy mother," f} idvctci] aa$ y\a>aaa " your national 
tongue," fi o\r) tovs ttjv tcapScd " with their whole heart." 
As the examples indicate, the pronominal form leans upon a 
preceding adjectival attribute (but tcl fiaTia tt/9 tcl yXvicd 
" her sweet eyes," when the adj. is placed after the pronoun). 
It is less commonly attached to the second member (rj SoXca 
rj 'ApeTOvXa fjuov " my unhappy A.," to 8vaTv%o vrjat tov<; 
" their unhappy island "). 

The definite article is by no means absolutely necessary ; 
it drops out in addresses and in indeterminate expressions ; as, 
fidvva jjlov " (my) mother," ykviceid fiov dydirr) " my sweet 
love," koXtj aov fikpa " good day to you," elvai <}>i\os fiov 
" he is a friend of mine, my friend," eVa? 4>i\o$ aov " a friend 
of yours," fie ttoOo tov (fiov, etc.) " with longing for it (me)." 

Instead of rrjs also T<r(rf) same as with art. and pron., Texts III. 
5 (Ios) rcr^s (rj Koprj rays). Instead of jjlov, <rov (tov) : p! , <r (t), 
especially in North. Gk. dialects (§ 7, n. 1); thus, r/ fidvva p.\ rj 
d8ep<f>tf (r\ tov T<ri<£aA,* t, ov 7rovo<s p, , ov yapurpo^ovp. (§ 7, n. 2). Note 
also pa for /Jta?, Texts III. 3 (Maina) : e.g. to /36$l pea. The final -v 
of the noun is sometimes retained before the possessive gen. of the 
3rd pers., cf. Texts I. d. 5 ; the resultant dov, dys, dovs is occasion- 
ally generalised, cf. Texts III. 12. The Pontic a^ stands isolated, 
cf tov kcoXov a^T€, Texts III. 13. b, beside tov, oltov, and olt: e.g. y 

tj/Y) O.TOV, TO CTTtTlV OLT. 

§ 143. If the possessive is used predicatively (or as a sub- 
stantive, "mine," etc., or with emphasis "(my) own"), (6) 
Sited? (also 6 eSt/co?) " own," is combined with the gen. of the 
personal pronoun : 

6 Sitcos /aov, r) Scfcrj fiov, to Ziko fiov " mine " 

TOV BLKOV flOV, T?}? StKrj? fJLOV, TOV BlKOV flOV 



90 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

TO BiKO fXOV y TY) iiKt) flOV, TO SifCO (XOV 

ol Blkol fiov, oi haces fiov, tcl Blkcl fiov 

TW Bl/C(x) flOV 7 TCO BlKCJ flOV, TCO BlfCCO fJLOV 
TOl>? Sl/COVS flOVy Ti9 BlKcS fiov, TCL Stfcd JJLOV. 

Similarly : 6 Si/co? gov " thine," 6 Slkos tov, t?7? " his, 
hers," o Bikos fia<; " ours," 6 Blk6<? <ra? " yours," 6 Sttcos tco(v) 
or tovs "theirs"; e.g. clvto to fitfiXto eivai Blko fiov ''this 
book is mine," to Blko fiov fiiftXio (more rarely to f$LJ3\to to 
Blko fiov) " my own book," to /3l/3\io elvau to Slko fiov, o^t 
to Blko gov " the book is mine, not yours," fie BvvafiL Blkj] tov 
" with his own strength." 

Note ol Bv6 fias " the two (both) of us," okov fia? " we 
all," "all of us." 

1. The poss. pron. is sometimes thrown into emphasis also by 
the method of § 137, cf, k\ws i) dydirrj fias /Texts I. a. 24. 23) "our 
love." 

2. * dichedda mu, su (my, thy own daughter) Texts III. 2 (Terra 
cV Otr.) is equivalent to *rj SikcAAgl fiov } aov, i.e, Sikos with (Ital.) 
diminutive suffix. , 

Okos (in Velv.) is a phonetic transformation of St/cos (v. § 37 n.). 
The fern. r) oWta (cf. § 111) means "my wife," "my beloved." 

3. Modern Greek, compared with the ancient, has lost ground in 
the poss. pron. Only the Pontic and Cappadocian dialects retain 
the ancient possessive in various forms and modifications ; thus, in 
the dialect of Trapezus, ifio<s or t ifiov "mine," r iaov "thine," 
(i)jjLCTepo<2 "our," o-eVepos " your," and even KeivcVepos "their," and 
a\\uv€Tepos "belonging to others." Cf, further, Texts III. 14. a. 
t acrov to -^aTcrifio a " thy death." 

(d) Demonstrative, 

§ 144. The pronoun clvtos (§ 136) is employed also as 
a demonstrative " this, that." Besides the declension already 
given the following additional forms occur : 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Sing. N. clvtovo? (clvtovvos), avTeivr] (avTelva) clvtovo (clvtovvo) 

avTeivos clvtelvo, cxvtclvo 

G. clvtovvov, avTeivov avTeivfj? same as Masc. 

Ace. avTova (ainove) avTeivr)(y) same as Norn. 

Plur.N. a&TGivoL (avTelvoC) avTeive^ avTava, avTelua 

G. avTovcov, a\)T6Lvcbv avTovcov, avTeivoyv same as Masc. 

Ace. avTOvvovs, a&Teivovs avTelve? avTava,avTelva. 

1. Also arovvov, drctnjs (irovvov), whence tovvo — clvtq, in 
Otranto gen. tunu and ttinu, Bova ettuno — avrovvos, gen. (et) tunii. 



MORPHOLOGY 



91 



etc. ; rf. also Pontic drelv = avretvoi. In North. Gk. avrovvov, 
avTtivrjs, etc., becomes a<j>vov, d^vrys according to § 37 n. In Saranda 
Klisies the ace. sing. masc. is avrovva (neut. avrova). This pronominal 
termination is found also in the pronouns of the following paragraphs 
(/ceiVoi/fa, 7roi6vva, and also Kavetvavva, aXkovva y tvvava, fem. Kttvva 
fr. KeLvrjva, iroidvva^ TtToiawa, etc.), and has been extended even to 
oxytone adjectives (e.g. fiiKpovva, fjuKprjvva, aSpvvva). 

2. The voc. avri (aTravri) is used when one is addressed whose 
name is unknown, or for the moment forgotten : aKovae, avri " you 
there, hear!" For evrov = lav, v. § 139, n. 1. 

3. Instances like " George's house is larger than John's (that of 
John") are rendered to cnriTi rov Tiwpyt tlvai pieyakvTcpo <i7ro (to 
uttitl) tov Ttdwr]. 



§ 145. tovtos, €to0to9 
Masc. 
Sing. Nom. (€)tovto<; 
Gen. (i)rovrov 
Ace. (i)rovro(v) 

Plur. Norn. (i)TovTot 
Gen. (e) to vtco(v) 
Ace. (e)T0UT0U9 
Forms with -v(o)- : 

S. N. — 

G. TOVTOVVOVj TOVT6CVOV 
A. TOVTOV€, TOVTOVa 

PI. N. TOVT61VOL 

G. TOVTOV&fv), TOVT61- 
Vcb(v) 



1 this." 

Fem. 
(i)ro vttj 
(J)tovtt)<; 

(i)TOVTT](v) 

(£)tovt€<; 

(i)TOVTQ)(v) 
(i)TOV7€$ 



Neut. 
(i)rovTO 

(i)TOVTOV 

(£)tovto. 
(i)rovra 

(£)TOVT(jd(v) 
(e)TOVT(L. 



TOVT€LVf]<; TOVTOVVOV, TOVT61VOV 
T0VT7}Ve, TOUTTJVCt, 

rovTeives — 

TOVTOVG)(v), TOV' TOVTOVO^V), TOVT€t- 
T€lV(b(v) V0b(p) 



A. TOVTOVVOVS, TOVTeiVOV? TOVT€tP€<; 

The pron. olovtos or afiovros "this" — declined exactly like rovros 
— is peculiar to Pontic ; cf. nom. pi. afiovreZv, Texts III. 13. a. In 
Chios note tovos and irovos with dissimilatory loss of the middle t, 
in Bova the neut. forms are tundo — tovto and tdnda = Tovra. 



§ 146. i/celvos and tcelvos " that." 



Fem. 



Sing. Nom. 
Gen. 
Ace. 

Plur. Nom. 
Gen. 
Ace. 



Masc. 
ifeelvos 

ifcetvov, eKetvov 
€K€ivo(y), iicei- 

VOVCL, €K€LVOVe 

ifceivot, i/ceivoi 

ifC6Lva)(v), £fceivwv(e) = Masc. 

i/ceivovs, i/c€ivov<; ifceive? 



Neut. 



€K€lVTj 

€K€LV7)<; } ifcetvfjs 
i/ce£vr)(y) 9 eK€L- 

VY]va 
iicelves 



etceivo 

ilCeiVOV, 6K61V0V 

e/cetvo. 

€/ceiva 

= Masc. 
eiceiva. 



92 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

1. Sometimes (c)fcctos for iKelvos ; in Pontic also ceii/os. — (Qtctuvos 
(To-tii/os) in the dialects mentioned in § 17. In Chios T<mVoa-e, 
Texts III. 9, shows the supplementary c of the ace. also in the nom., 
only, however, in the absolute final, and in like position in Chios 
final -s of any nom. is generally supplemented by -c ; as, \<o\6<rc = 
AwAos " crazed," and so forth. 

2. The m. Gk. demonstratives correspond to the a. Gk., but they 
have suffered much by assimilation in their declension : in tovtos 
t and ov are carried through (compared with a. Gk. ovtos, tclvtyjv, 
etc.), tovtos and Ikciv&s produce ctovtos and kclvos* The accent 
of avTos gave rise to forms like Ikclvov (or tovtov), just as, on the 
other hand, auros (8a9ros) is accented after model of tovtos; and, 
lastly, formations like clvtclvov, tovtuvov, etc., have really been pro- 
duced by the forms of cVcTvos (cVctvov), and have finally given rise to 
pronominal forms like tovvos, etc. Such remodelling on analogy has 
assumed huge dimensions ; apart from fxiavov, /Aiavrjs (§ 128), of, also 
the forms to be cited in the following paragraphs. 

3. The neut. Kttvo in Texts III. 12 means "that and that" = 
" such and such is the case." 

§ 147. When one of the pronouns, avros, toOto?, or 
i/celvo? is connected with a substantive, the substantive is 
always preceded by the article ; thus, clvtos 6 avrpas " this 
man," tovttj rj fyvvalfca " this woman," itcelvo to iraiSi, teeth to 
Traihdfci " that child," or also 6 avTpa? civtos, rj yuva?Ka tovtt], 
to /3l/3\lo fiov i/ceivo " that book of mine." The gen. of the 
pron. stands preferably before the word to which it refers, as 
ifceivrj? 6 avTpa? " the husband of that (woman)." 

Moreover, atrro? and itcelvos serve to point to a relative : 
e.g. avrb ttov or itteZva irov " that which," ttjv &pa avTrj irov 
11 the hour in which." 

The pronouns in this capacity may be strengthened by the 
particle 8a : e.g. avrbs Sa, €/ceivos Sa " this one here," " that one there." 

§ 148. T6T010S "such a." 

Sing. T€T(HO? T6TOta T€TOlo(lf) 

T6TOCOV TCTOta? T6TOIOV 

T6T0l0(ve) T€TOld(v) T€TOlo(y) 

Plur. TGTOIOL T6TO*€? T€TOia 

T6T0LC0(v) T€TOLQ)(v) TeTOLCi>(v) 

T6TOIOV? T€TOl€$ TCTOIU. 

Thus : T€TOto$ avOpwos "such a man," t€tolu Sfio<j>r) /coprj 
" such a fair girl." 

1. tIOkios in Yelvendos (Texts III. 11) is a phonetic remodelling 
of TCToios, v. § 10, n. 5. The form dei/cos " such a " is peculiar to 
Pontic. 



MOKPHOLOGY 93 

2. The a. Gk. toiovtos has been ousted by rcVoto?, really a re- 
modelling of an older tl-tolo, i.e. " somewhat such." 

3. Also toctovtos has been thrust out by too-os "so much, as 
much, as many, so great " ; the neut. roo-o(v) " so much," " so very," is 
quite common. Moreover, one may say, e,g., rpiavra fitpes Kal <xAAc9 
Tocr«5 rux T€S " thirty days and as many nights," too-w xpovw aOpuiros 
" a man of so many years," roa-a Kal roaa " so many," i.e. " number- 
less." " So great " is rendered by too-os in the sing, with the indef . 
article, in the pi. by /cart ; thus, cva rocro ko/a/aciti or fva KOfifiaTi tocto 
"so great a piece," pi. /cart rdo-a (vka. "such great logs"; generally, 
however, toVo /xeydXos " so great " is also employed. 

(e) Relative. 

§ 149. The most common relative is the relative adverb 
ttoO (also $7rov t ottov), lit. " where," which remains the same 
for all genders, numbers, and cases. To express the oblique 
cases the conjunctive pronoun is usually attached to the verb of 
the relative clause. Examples : 6 d0pco7ro<; (o)ttov rjpde " the 
man who came," oi fyvvat/ce? nrov ft icfxbvagav " the women 
who called me," 6 ytarpbs irov top eareCXa " the physician 
whom I sent," rj itfyrjjiepU irov rrjv <ypd<f)€i 6 Hovpfjs " the news- 
paper which S. edits,"™ ^t^Xvoirov to 'Sid/Baaes " the book (that) 
you read," ra iraihia irov yvcopt^co ttj fiavva tol>?, " the children 
whose mother I know," 6 imBvjttj? ttov tov (e)ScoKa to fiiftXio 
" the pupil to whom I gave the book," tou ttXl ttov ov 
fiao-'Xias %avQvvTav ^dri avro " the hen which the king held 
so dear" (Texts III. 11). 

The pronoun 6 671-0109 " who," " which " — regularly declined — is 
of learned origin and little used by the common people. 

§ 150. Relatives with a specific meaning: 

ottolos, o7roia, o7roio(v) or ottolos kl av " whoever, what- 
ever," — declined like t€to£o?. 

Sao? "as great" "as much as" correlative to toVo*?, 
especially in the forms Sao (Sao ki av) " however much," 
" whatever," x roao Sao " as much as," Saoi " all who," (SXa) 
Saa " all that, as many as," irrjpe TrpafjL&Teies oae$ tfdeXe " he 
took as many articles as he wished." 

otc (on kl av) " that which," " whatever," " all that " (for 
which also oXa ore) ; ore \0777? " of what(ever) kind," Stv &pa 
" whichever hour." 

1 Also a conjunction, v. § 275. 

7 



94 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

1, Other forms of the a. Gk. ootis are rare; a gen. sing, otlvos 
and gen. pi. otmw are still met with. In Crete and S.-E. Gk. the 
article forms tov, rrjv, to serve as relatives. Moreover, rd is also 
possible for ore or ocra, as, rd 'flakes crro vov crov Blv eiv akrjOwc 
" what you have got into your head is not true." This rd is some- 
times in dialects employed instead of the relative ttov. Note, finally, 
rov for ttov in Cappadocia, Texts III. 14. b. 

2. oytos "qualis" (properly 6 otos) is current in dialects : e.g. on 
the mainland and also in Syra. 

Cf . § 263 ff. for the construction of the relative sentence. 

(f) Interrogative. 
§ 151. TroioV'who?" "which?" 





Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


S. K 


7TOf09 


7TO id 


7TOl6(y) 


G. 


7T010V, TTOICLVOV, 
7T0l0(v)V0V 


{iroiai) rroLavrj^ 


= Masc. 


A. 


, K0i6(y) i iroiove. 


TTOiaiy), 7T0iCiV€ i 


7TOl6(v). 




iroiova 


Ttoidva 




P1.K 


7T0L0L 


Troiks 


ITOld 



G. 7rotwi/(e), rroiov&v, TTotovvcbv, iroiav&v for all three genders 
A. Troiovs, iroiovovs rnroie^ iroia 

ttoiovvovs, iroiavov? 
ttoios — Trow "the one — the other " "this " " that " (indefinite). 

Except as intruder from the literary language the form iroios for 
ttol6<$ occurs only in the dialects mentioned in § 10, n. 1. On ?rx«fe> 
wo?, etc., v. § 10, n. 5. 

§ 152. rk"*ho1 n rivos " whose ? ° "of whom?" riva 
" whom ? " are rare : e.g. rivos elvai rovro " whose is this ? " 
The invariable ri " what," " which," is mostly employed : ri 
a(v)0poo7ro$ " which man ? " ri yvvaltca " which woman ? " ri 
Xoyrj? " of what kind ? " as ri Xoyrjs dBpdnroi " what kind of 
men ? " x ri &pa elvcu " what o'clock is it ? " Tt avrpes elv 
avroi "which men are these?" ri fedvei? "what are you 
doing ? " 

1. With ri belongs yiaji " why 1 wherefore ? n — same meaning as 
the simple ri 

2. Instead of ri. the word tvra (Ivrd) " what ? " (yidvra - yid tvra 
u why ? " tvra Aoi? " how 1 in what manner ? ") is used in the Aegean 
region {e.g. Crete, Naxos, Chios) and in Cyprus ; in Lesbos ritla, in 

1 The stereotyped Xoyijs in an expression like rh \oyrjs \oyfy pi(3\la means 
4t books of all kinds," ' ' the various books.'* 



MOKPHOLOGY 95 

Aegina vrd, in Pontos vto. These forms originated from ri ch(ai) tu 
(to). Note also from Pontos too-oios — ttolos (Texts III. 1 3. a). 

3. TovXyos, f. rovkyrj " what?" " of what kind?" (Texts III. 12) 
is a new formation from ri Aoy^s. 

(g) Indefinite and quasi-pronominal Adjectives. 

§ 153. tcaveis, icaveva*; "any," "anybody" (adjective and 
substantive). 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Sing. Nom. tcavek, /caveva? Kafi(fi)id icaveva 

Gen. icavevos, icavevov($) ica(ji)p,ia<; icavevos, Kavevov(si) 
Ace. naveva(ye) iea(fi)fud(v) icaveva. 

With a negative or in a negative reply it means " no one," 
" nobody " : tcavivas dOpcowos Sev to e?7re " no man said it," 
icaveh Sev to %epei " nobody knows it," Zev elSa itavkva " I saw 
nobody," rjpOe icavek ;- — tcavek " did anybody come ? No- 
body." " Any one " may be rendered also by evas. 

1. KaveU does not appear in instances like Sev eAa/fo ypdfxfia "I 
received no letter," $tv e^co TrapaSe? patji pcov " I have no money with 
me " ; in the first instance KaveU may be inserted if no is emphatic. 

" Anything," " something," when positive is kcltitl or 
rfedrty when in a negative or quasi-negative sentence riirore ; 
as, fcdriTi iTpeTrei va yivrj " something must happen," a ere 
ipcoTco tcaTiTi, irpeireL v diravra^ " if I ask you anything you 
must answter " ; but eyw riTrore yia pueva ; answer rltrore 
'" have you anything for me ? Nothing." e$epe? TiiroTa 
Trpdfiara ; " did you fetch any articles ? " «art (Xfya) fSijSkla 
" some books." 

" Nothing " in a sentence is rendered by tl7tot€ and the 
negative : Sev tfrav tl7tot€ " it was nothing," Sev elSa rliroTe 
" I saw nothing." 

" Some," " a little " (adj.) kAtl (indecl.) : B&ae fiov kutl 
tfrcofil " give me a little bread " ; /can with a plur. means 
" some " (" several ") : /cart, <tt par tares " some soldiers," tcari 
iraihid " some children." 

2. Beside icavevas sometimes /cae'vas or Kavtas (§ 33, n. 4), /cava?, 
/cava (gen. /cavou), and KayKavivas KayKafitd KayKaviva j also KariVTi 
for k6.titi ; Vi7roT€ is quite plastic phonetically : e.g. TtVoT€9, Tiirora, 
rnroras, tiVotis, ti/3ot<tl (Crete). 

3. The a. Gk. indefinite tis has been lost except in the frag- 
ments in ti-7tot€, Ka-Ti(ri) } Ka0e-ns KaOe-ri (§ 155) ; the use of ni/as = 



96 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

ris is rare and not genuine vernacular. The word /carets (also written 
/cdvets) that has supplanted ris is a combination of kolv, i.e. kol oV, 
and els; kolv (kolv) "at least," "even" is also employed as an inde- 
pendent particle in a sentence : e.g. a Slv thai 6X.0, as elv eVa pepos 
K(iv "if it is not all it is at least a part," The kol- taken from 
Kai/cts, Ka(fj.)fud\ etc., occurs again in kci-ti. Moreover, with this kolv- 
or Ka-the indefinite adjs. kolixwoctos and koVoios (§§ 154, 156) and the 
adverbs koVws "somehow," k6.itov "anywhere," /can-ores "sometimes," 
were formed. 

4. Kavet? is noteworthy as exhibiting a survival of the old 
nominative form (as in /carets " every " beside KaOivas and in the 
Pontic els = cms). Occasionally an ace. kolv€i(v) from /cams is found. 

§154. tcairoios "anybody," "somebody," pi. "some" 
(fcaTroiot 7tov " some who ") is declined like reroios ; but 
note the additional forms of the gen. Katroiovvov, /cairoiavrjs, 
and ace. Kairotov^ gen. pi. K(nroiova)(y). 

§ 155. KaOel? tcaQkvas (also 6 KaQkvai) as substantive 
" every one," " each." 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Nom. Ka6ei<s, Kadevaq tca0€fiid KaQkva 

Gen. tcaOevos, icaOevovs Kadefita^^ KaOe/Mavr)? = Masc. 

Ace. KaQkvaiy) /ca0€/ud(iS) KaQkva. 

Adjectival "each," "every" is icdOe (more rarely icd0a) y 
indeclinable ; thus, icdOe yjpovo " each year," icdOe <j)opd 
" every time," pe nd0e Tpoiro " in every way," tcdOe Xoyfjs " of 
every kind," icdde rpeh pipes " every three days." M. Gk* 
here employs the definite article where German employs the 
indefinite (ein jedes) and English no article : e.g. fidryeve tt^v- 
icdQe KapStd " she charmed each heart." 

" Each, every (one, thing) " subst. is also rcaderi?, neut. 
icdOeTi, with or without the article : (to) icaden rrov yiverai^ 
ryev€Tat diro dvdy/cT] " everything that happens, happens of 
necessity." 

1. Note in Pontic KaOa cTs = Ka0cVas. Beside kol$€ or KaOa, Tracra 
is also found (properly fern, of a. Gk 7r«s) for all genders : iracra 
wpa "each hour" (Velv.), irava f3pd8v "every evening" (Naxos) ; 
similarly TracraeVas " each one," gen. 7rao-a^os, etc. (e.g. in Crete and 
Cyprus). 

2. KaOtvas originated from the a. Gk. kclO* eva, which became 
stereotyped and passed for the ace. of a substantival pronoun. 

§ 156. fcdfi7ro<ro<; "good many," "pretty much," "con- 
siderable," " several " (fcd/xTroaos icoo-po*; " good many people ") 



MORPHOLOGY 97 

or "fairly large" {jcapbiroct] troXt "a pretty (rather) large 
city "), pi. " some," " few," " several" 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Sing. KCLfjuirodo^ Kafiiroa-T] fcd/jL7rocro(v) 

/cdfnrocTov tcdfiiroo'Tjs Kafnrocrov 

fcdfiTToa-ofv) /cdfi7roa7](y) KdjA7T0(J0(y) 

Plur. KafiTroaoL fcd/jLTroae? icdpnroaa 

/cd/jL7ro(TCd(v) fcdfj,7roa(o(v) /cdfnro<TG)(y) 

KdfjLTro<TOv<; fcdfnroo-es tcd/jLTroaa. 

Plur. also fca/jLTroo-oL and sing, tcainroaos, etc. 

" Some " may be rendered also by fiepucoi or tcdiroioi and 
(adj.) also by kutu (§ 153); thus, KapfKoaoi, tcdiroiot, fxepiKol, 
Kan (d0pd>7roi) " some (men)." 

0X09, in many parts o£/Xo9 "whole," "all," pi. "all": 
0X05 6 tcocTfio? " the whole world," fi oXtj p,a<; rrjv fcapSid 
" with our whole heart " ; if the subst. is indeterminate 0X09 
takes no art., as, oXtj /iepa "all day long," 0X77 vvyra "all 
night." If used as a subst. 0X05 may take the article : oXa 
and ra oXa " all." Note specially 0X01 pas, aas, toi>9 " all of 
us (we all), you all, they all (all of them)." 

1. "Whole," "complete" is 6X(£k€/oos: e.g. 6XaK€po to o-ititl "the 
whole house," or cva 6. o*tt. " a whole house." 

aXXos or eva<; a'XXo9 " another, one more " (cf. aXXo [em] 
\}rcofiL " another [piece of] bread," aXXa i/carb ypoaia " a 
hundred piastres more "), 6 aXXo? " the other " (subst. and 
adj.) ; sometimes with the article repeated : e.g. ol aXXe<? 
ol <yvvcuic€<; " the other women." 

2. The word ira&K* "other" (Texts III. 14. a) is of Turkish 
origin. 

0X09 and aXXo9 are declined like an adj., but pronominal 
forms are also found, like gen. pi. oXov&v, ace. oXovvovs, gen. 
sing. dXXovvov, dXXeivrjs, ace. aXXove, etc. 

3. In Pontic (Texts III. 13. b) neut. pi. oXd (fr. *o\W) for oXa ; 
m Saranda Klisies (Texts III. 12) dXX = iXXo : e.g. r dXX' to iroSdpi 
"the other foot" (cf to h y § 128, 1 n.). 

§ 157. 6 l'Sto9 "the same," "self," declined like ttXovgios 
(| 109); eyo> 6 lBlo? "I myself," crels ol 18101 "yourselves." 

fiovos when meaning " self " is combined with the gen. of 
the personal pronoun : (i^co) pavo? fiov " (I) myself," (avTos) 



98 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

/jlovos tov " himself," (e'yuw) /jlopol /jlcls " ourselves," etc. ; 
fiova^og (nov&'xps) is similarly employed ; so also 6 eavros 
/jlov or ar6$ /xov (clttj jjlov) or airaTo? /jlov {airarrj /jlov), etc., 
" myself." 

d (?;, to) raSe(?) " the so and so," " certain," " the what-do- 
you-call-it," is usually indeclinable: gen. and ace. tov, tov 
Td8e($), sometimes also gen. tov tclBivov, rrjs TaBcvrj?. In the 
same sense also : 

Nom. o Becva(<;), rj, to Belva 
Gen. tov, Trjs, tov Belvos 
Ace. to, tt) s to Belva. 

6 Selva? kcl\ 6 ra'Ses "the one as well as the other," "all 
together." 

fiovos "alone" and ftovos "single" are treated as regular 
adjectives. 

Pkepositions. 

§ 158. The proper prepositions are regularly joined with 
the ace. ; the (old) gen. has maintained itself only in a few 
fixed formulae; v. §§ 161, 6. n. 2, 1.62, 4. n. 2, 164 n. 
Prepositions may also govern an adverb (e.g. airo fiirpoaTa 
" from before," " in front," diro roVe? " since then," co? iroTe 
" how long ? ") and sometimes even a nominative (cf. §§ 161, 1, 
163, 2). The most commonly used prepositions are ek, diro, 
fie, ycd, less frequently kclto,, irapd (v. n.), dvTis, %«/>/?, Buncos, 
a)?, and in dialects o%, 7rpo?. The improper prepositions 
arise from the union of an adverb with a proper preposition. 

The proper preps, are inherited from the a. Gk. ; here m. Gk. 
has suffered considerable loss. Occasionally obsolete preps, turn up 
in the vernacular texts through borrowing from the literary language 
(thus 7rp6). Some a. Gk. preps. — apart from those used in compound 
verbs (§ 159) — survive only in an altered or a quite limited usage. 
Thus irapa appears with the comparative (§ 120), with dates (§ 131, 
n. 2.), in expressions like Trapa rpt^a " within a hairbreadth," ?rapa 
(ha) ypocn "a penny too little," and as a conjunction = nisi (§ 120, 
n. 1) or "but" (§ 260). Note TrapaKa™ "farther under? "below," 
7rapcL7rdva> "farther over" "higher up," etc., and also dialectically 
(in Cyprus) irapa ywvtas " in a queer fix" Other a. Gk. preps, 
survive only in adverbial expressions in which the meaning of 
the prep, is often more or less obscured; cf. ava^raiv "between," 
" amongst," imirovov in 7raipv<t> e. " I lay to heart," iriorofia " on the 
mouth," "prostrate," irpb Kecj>a\f)<> (Cyprus) "at the head of the 
table" in dining, irpoxres "day before yesterday," Trpofivra "on the 
nose." 



MORPHOLOGY 9S> 

§ 159. In compound verbs the following prepositions are 
still in active use : 

1. airo-i e.g. diroXvvco "release," diro^aiperri^oy "take 
leave," " bid farewell " ; especially to denote a completed 
act (perfective) : e.g. diroTpdyyw " finish eating," aTrofcoLfiovfiai 
"fall asleep," aTrohelxyay "prove," aTroTekeu&vay "complete." 
Cf also to diroj>d{y)i " fragments left after dinner, broken 
meat." 

jxera- or para- (v. fie): fjL€Tacj>i\S) "kiss once more," 
uarafiyaivay " come out again." 

1. /xdra occasionally serves as an independent adverb, " again." 

Kara- (/care-): fcaTefiatvco "descend," fcarefidfa "let 
down," Katairlvw "drink in one draught," Karaa^d^ay 
" butcher." Cf. also § 116, n. 3. 

ir a pa-: irapafiaivco "transgress," 7rapaBiBco " surrender," 
irapafcdvay " exaggerate," 7rapaKoi/Aov/JLCu " sleep in," Traparpcoyco 
" overeat myself," irapa/covoy " I hear wrongly," " disobey." Cf. 
also Trapayios " adopted son," irapafidwa " foster-mother." 

2. The preps, eis (o-e), Sta and ?r/oos are quite limited in their 
employment : e.g. cre/8«tvw " enter " (usually jiwrcuVa)), Sta/?aiVa> " pass 
by," 7rpocr<£e/oa> " offer." 

2. ai>a- (ai^€-) : dvafiatvco (dvefiaivro) "go up," dvafxevoy 
" await," dvacrepvo) " draw up," ai/ao-Te^afo) " sigh aloud." 

£e- denotes separation, release, also overcoming, heighten- 
ing or completion of an act or state, and is the most common 
verbal prefix : ^efScScovco " unscrew," ^eyXvToyvay " get free 
from," " escape," gefcdvco " put aside," ^e^vrpdouco " grow up," 
%€ypd(j)co " erase," £e8^&> " quench my thirst," %€/covpd£a> 
" rest," " recreate," t-eirepvay " exceed," £e<£&W£&) " cry out," 
ZerpeXkalvw " drive quite mad," gereXevoy " finish completely." 
C/. also ^€(r/c€7ro9 " uncovered." 

1. For the origin of £c-, c/. § 182, n. 2 ; the form e/c remains in 
/3yatv<i) y PydWw, y$£pv<a, yAircwa), etc. = a. Gk. e/c/SaiVa), £/c/3aAAa), ck- 
Setpa), €/c-Xvtoo). 

%ava- (from ef + az>a-) denotes repetition: %ava/cdvco "do 
it once more/' gavafiXeiroy " see again," ^avaXeyay " say again," 
" repeat." 

2. £ava serves also as an independent adverb " again." 

3. Other a. Gk. prepositions are found only in certain verbs, and 
are for the mosj; part entirely obscured ; cf. e.g. (fynirawa) " go in," 



100 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

" enter," /jwra£<o " bring in," (tjvrpiiro^ai " am ashamed," 7T€p(t)7rarw 
" walk," TrpoKo<f>T<a " make progress," (v)7ravTp€va) " marry," (ty-rayo) 
"go," owa£w "collect." 

Proper Prepositions. 

§ 160. 6t9, before the article usually '9 (v. § 55), other- 
wise ere (elae) "in" "to," "at," "on," "into," "toward," 
■* against," denotes : 

1. Place or local relation in answer to the question where ? 
whither ? (either as goal or direction) : e.g. elvai arb arrlri " he 
is in the house, at home," e%€i arb %kpi " he holds in his 
hand/' fiia ycovta arbv fjKio " a nook in the sun," /cdOercu arb 
rrapaOvpv " he is sitting at the window," icdOerai arrjv icapetcka 
" he is sitting on the chair," Trrjyalvco arrjv 7r6\i, arrjv i^o^v, 
arb ftovvo, arrjv ' AdrjVd, arb \tfieva " I am going into (to) the 
city, into the country, to the mountain, to Athens, to the 
harbour," fidWco arb rpcnrety " I lay on the table," icaOifa 
arb Tpanrety " I take a seat at the table," arjtcayvco rd x^P ia 
arbv ovpavov " I raise my hands to (toward) heaven," arovs 
Qpayrcovs " among the Europeans," <j avrrj -n) <£tg>^ Kopr/ 
(Texts III. 4) " with this poor maid," irfjye arbv r: are pa rov 
" he went to his father," eXa ere yAva " come to me " eareike 
arb fSaai\t,d " he sent to the king," rb e^co arb vov /jlov " I 
have it in my mind." For et9 supplanting the dative, v. 
§ 54, c; for the genitive construction after efc, v. § 46. 

2. Point or duration of time in answer to when ? how 
long ? e.g. a\ tcaipo " at a (in) time," arrjv iBca irroyr) "at the 
same epoch," arrjv copa rov " at the right time," ard ^ikia 
o-^raKoa-La evevrjVTa irevre "in (the year) 1895." arh errrd 
[copes] "at seven o'clock," ae rrevre fiipe? "in, within, five 
days," ere Xtyo (icaipo) "in a short time, soon." For the 
accusative (without prep.) in the same function, cf. § 52. 

3. A state or action during which something occurs, or 
which is regarded as the goal (or object) : e.g. crrb ra^lSt " on 
the journey," <re <^rco%La<; avdjfcrj " in the grip of poverty," ar 
aarprj "in (the light of) the stars," ard atcoreivd "in the 
dark," fiyaivco arb aipytdvi " I go for (on) a walk," irrjyaivto 
arb Kvvrjyi "I am going to the chase" (cf. § 51), KO(pra) ard 
Bvo " I cut in(to) two," tcarayiverai ae ypd^ifjio " he is engaged 
(at) writing," tcddiae arb $ayi " sit down to table (to eat)," 
Trepiopifyfiat, ae rovro " I confine myself to this," irdyaive arb 



MORPHOLOGY J, M ! 

KaXo " go in peace/' " success be with you " (iirrjye arb fcaXo 
means also " he went away about his business "). 

Note also : 7rpo<r£x<ti ere "I care for," fiXi-ira) ora /xana fxov " I see 
with my eyes" (usually //.c), tov ircpvui ctto roefi/Ao "I surpass him in 
running," 6pKi£o /iai &£ "I swear by, upon," <tto Oco (crou) "by (thy) 
God," err &\rj6€ta " in truth," " indeed." 

For eh in the improper prepositions, v. § 170 f. 

§ 161. dirb (also air, a</>' before the article; in dialects 
airi, ire, and dirov) "of," "from" "out of," "ago," "by," 
denotes : 

1. The point of departure in place or time : rjpOe dirb ttjv 
itokt " he came from (out of) the city," to vepb Tpkyei air to 
irrjydBc " the water runs from the fountain," (f>evyec air to 
Xvpio " he flees out of the village," air birlam " from behind," 
dirb yetki ae %€t\* " from lip to lip," Xeyco air' ttjv /capSid jjlov 
" I say (it) from my heart," dirb roVe (also a. t. teal ha>9e) 
11 from that time," " since then," d7ro Se/ca cope? " ten hours 
ago," dirb tU Tpeh " since three o'clock/' dif tt)v aiyrj " since 
dawn," * a7ro icaipb o~e tcaipo " from time to time " ; — with the 
nominative a7ro iraiSt or a7ro fiiKpo<; " from childhood," dirb 
irXovGio? eyeve fyTidvo? " from being a rich man he became a 
beggar." 

Notice the peculiar rendering in irepvSt dirb ttjv irbpia 
aov " I go past your door," irepdaave dirb Kaioy " they went by 
underneath," iralpvco dirb Ta fiovvd " I take the way over the 
mountains," 6a izepdaw dirb tt) Sfivpvr) " I will travel via S.," 
iftyrjue air aWrj irbpia " he went out through another door," 
iirrjye air* aXko Bpofxo "he went another way" (irrjye dirb 
icaicb airaQi <tto vefyepi (Texts II. b. 5) " he went to the war to 
his undoing [lit. with an evil sword] "), iridvco dir(b) to yepi 
" I grasp by the hand," Sevco dir(b) to hevTpo " I bind to the 
tree," apyi£p> dirb Ta evKoXcoTepa " I begin with the easiest." 

2. That (person or thing) from which one separates (by 
becoming free or differing, etc.), against which he defends 
himself, or which he fears : tow %6)/h£g> tov eva air tov aXko 
" I separate them from one another," a^pio-Tos dirb " in- 

1 The expression "not for a longtime" is peculiarly rendered: 2x<* ^ ai P^ 
(fitpes, xpt> VLa ) v & T *> v #« {without a negative) " I have not seen him for a long 
time (for days, years)," irbcov fcaipb £x €is v & ""&* <ft^v irarpida crov ; "how long 
have you not been in your native land ? " rpeis xP^ovs etxajne vh. yeXda-tcfie 
(Texts III. 4) "we had not laughed for three vears." 



102 ' ftANDBOTHt' 'OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

separable from," yXvTwvco dirb to Odvaro " I rescue from 
death," ekevdepcoOrjKe dirb row Spd/covs " he freed himself from 
the monsters," <j>vXdyojj,ai air to tca/co " I guard against evil," 
fita a-Keirr) air tjj Ppoxv " & roof against the rain," iatad^ovrav 
dir tovs Spd/covs "he was afraid of the draki" (but fyofiov- 
nai " I fear " takes ace). 

3. Origin or author : elvat dirb ttjv *A6rjva y «7ro fjueydXo 
gttLti " he is from Athens, he is of a great house," yje/ii^co t^ 
ardfiva diro tt) fipvai " I fill the pitcher from (at) the 
fountain," ekafia eva ypafi/xa dirb tt) [xdvva fiov " I received a 
letter from my mother," e^co (^rjTco) ttjv d&eca airo to fiaaikid 
" I have (seek) permission from the king," aicoTcbOrjice dir' tot;? 
Tovpicovs " he was slain by the Turks," (jxoTia-fievo dirb tov 
t]\lo " illuminated by the sun," i/coTrrjtce air to payalpi " he 
cut himself with the knife." 

4. Material : dirb fidpfiapo " of marble." 

5. Cause or motive : yiveTcu dirb dvdyKi] " it happens of 
necessity," dppcocrTija-e dir tcl yepdfiaTa " he became sick 
through old age," direOave dirb ty) fiXoyid "he died of the 
small-pox," to icdvei, airo <fi6/3o, diro tt] %apd tov " he does 
it through fear, for joy," air avTo yvcoplfa " I perceive thereby 
(from that)." 

After verbs like 0a/xa£oju,<u "I wonder at," ijvird&nai "I am 
astonished at," yid and ace. may be employed equally with airo. 

6. Partitive sense : Kaveh dirb tol>? <f>i\ov$ " none of the 
friends," eVa? hpdico*; dirb avToix; " one of the monsters," iroWol 
dirb tov? ixjpovs " many of the enemy," 6 neyaXviepos air' 
oXov9 " the greatest of all," Zeiirvdw dirb %&p>a (Texts La. 10) 
" I eat (of) earth," hev %epei, he voicoOei dirb tovto " he under- 
stands nothing of this." 

For diro in improper prepositions, v. §§ 170, 172 ; with 
the comparative, v. § 120 ; distributive usage, v. § 132, which 
is not absolutely confined to the presence of a numeral ; cf. 
e.g. dirb fipdSv " every evening," dirb \iyo Xlyo " little by 
little," " gradually." 

1. The preposition airo- has partly taken the place of the a. Gk. 
preps, cf, napd, vtto, and partly the place of the a. Gk. gen. (cf 
§ 44) ; it also competes with the present usage of the gen. ; cf. e.g. 
€Xw dvdyKJ] owr' dvaTraif/L "I have need of rest," or ^cA.€ va. irdprj 
o-K&ios d-n-b rb o-itltl (Texts I. d. 5) " he wished to make a plan of 
the house." In this way the gen. pi. can be avoided (cf. § 41, n. 3), 



MORPHOLOGY 103 

and in dialects (North. Gk.) the gen. has altogether been pushed 
into the background by airo (cf. § 44, n. 2). 

2. airo with the gen. is found in some stereotyped formulae like 
airo Kaphas " from the heart " (Texts I. a. 6), air' dvi/xov (Icarus) 
"away from the wind," i.e. "south (of the island)," irov /x£a? 
"from the ground" (Cyprus, where airo with gen. is of more 
frequent occurrence). 

§ 162. fie (a. Gk. perd) "with" denotes: 

1. Accompaniment or presence and coincidence in time 
(cf also fia%i y § 173) : etcava ra^iSi /ie to (f>l\o fiov " I made a 
journey with my friend," irapd fie Tovpfcovs fie Oepid KaKvrepa 
vd tpvfie " better to live with wild beasts than with Turks," 
eva airirc fie rpeh iraTMaies " a house of three storeys," yepo? 
fie fcdrao-Trpa yeveia " an old man with a very white beard/ 5 " 
icf)v\ae fie to vrovcfrefa " he lay in wait with the musket (in 
his hand)," yjpbvo fie yjpbvo " year after year," ttjv aiyrj fie 
tt} BpoaovXa "dawn at the time of (with) the early dew," 
(fiia vvxtcl) fie to <f>eyydpi " (one night) by the moonlight " 
(cf also 3). 

Note in addition: 7roA.€jnw p.4 "I fight with," KovjxTraviapzi p.1 "it 
suits,!' " agrees with " (Texts I. a. 24. 27), /Aoia£w fii " I resemble " (cf. 
§ 54, c. n.), fxiku> fii " I speak with (to)," also with gen. and ace. ; avn- 
\a\du pi fi€va " echo answers me," 6v[jlu>vo> \ii " I am angry with," 
et7rev pe to vov tov "he said to himself (in his mind)." 

2. Means or instrument : to eGKeirave fie ttjv Kaira tov 
" he covered it with his cloak," to elSe fie rd ficvria tov " he 
saw it with his own eyes" (cf § 160, 2 n.), to yvpeyjre fie 
ovka tcl fieaa " he sought it by all means," KpaTco fie to 
yepi " I hold with (in) my hand," fie tcl iroMpia " on foot," 
e/co\jra fie to fiayalpi "I cut with my knife," yiaTpevco fi eva 
yidTpLKo " I cure with a cure," deXco va Vw fi avTo " I mean 
(wish to say thereby) " ; fie can also express material (cf 
§ 161, 4): /caXvfta ifXeyfievTj fie cj>Tepe$ "a hut woven of 
ferns." Cf. also % 50, n. 2. 

3. Accompanying circumstances : Sia fiasco fie to Kepi " I 
read by candle-light," fie (fieydXi?) %dpa " with (great) joy," 
fie ttovo H with pain," fie Ovfio ical fie (j>cove$ t " with wrath and 
shouting," fie Ta fiaTatcia %a/irjkd " with downcast eyes," 
etyvye fie /cafieprj ttjp tcapScd " he went away with a sad 
heart," fi y oKo tov ttoOo " with, in spite of all the longing," 
fi o\o tovto " in spite of all this " irov 7ra9 fie TeToia ^v^pa 



104 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

" where are you going in such cold ? " ar]fccodi)Ka/ie fie eva 
Zvvaro fiopid " we set out in a boisterous north wind." 

4. Manner : fie ti rpoiro " in what way ? how ? " fie rrjv 
ilpdSa (also (tttjv dpdha) "in order," eirepijieve fie Trpoaoyfl 
" he waited attentively," fiiXrj&e fie 7rapa/3o\£<; " he spoke in 
parables," Saveifa fie o-rjfidSi " I lend on security," voiKid^co fie 
to firjva " I rent by the month." Note also adverbial 
expressions like fie to capo, fie re? (j)ou^T€<; " in heaps," fie 
tu o-GHTTa (jliov, etc.) " in earnest," " really," fie Xiya Xoyia " in 
a word," " to put it briefly," fie ttj av^covia " on the condition," 
fie to TTapairdvw (Texts III. 11) " still more"; to tcapdfti fie 
tt]v irdvTa (Texts I. b. 16) "the boat (rides) on the side." 

1. The preposition jxi continues to perform the duties of the 
a. Gk. jxtra only in a limited way. Thus the temporal usage 
"after" has disappeared from the vernacular, for expressions like 
fil tov Kcupov, 1 fxk Koupovs "in time/' ^c XP° V0V * "with (after) 
the years " belong under the usages of 1 or 3. The form jxerd is 
still found in dialects (e.g. in Pontus), and also in connection with 
the personal pronoun of the 1st and 2nd persons (fAtra o-eVa, /act' 
io-iva), and finally in a few stereotyped formulae (v. n. 2). 

2. The construction with the gen. is found (partly, no doubt, 
from the influence of the literary language) in some expressions ; as, 
fit /lias "at once," pera /&as "with effort" (Texts II. a. 2), fxtra 
Xapas " with joy " (Texts II. b. 6). In Cyprus /ura takes the gen. 
of personal pronouns and proper names, e.g. /ura fiov " with me," 
i-irijefx fjLLTa tov Tpo<j>rj " he went with T." 

§ 163. yid(Bid,v. § 25) "on account of," "for," "to," 
" as to," " because of," denotes : 

1. Motion or extension in time to a goal or conclusion : 
€<j>vye yia ttjv IIoXi " he departed to (for) Constantinople," 
efiyrjfce yia Svb &pe<; " he went out for two hours," yia Tpia 
Xpovta " for three years," yia fiiav dvoi^i " for (the duration 
of) one springtime," 7m irdvTa " for ever," yia vvTept) (f>opd 
" for the last time." 

2. An aim or purpose : irrfyaivay yia vepo " I go for 
water (to bring water)," tov ttclv yia fcpefiaajia " they are 
leading him out for hanging (to the gallows)," eToifido-Trjtce yia 
to ydfio " he prepared for the wedding," elvai yia x a P^ " & * s 
for joy," elvai yia fyvXayro gov " it serves thee for amulet," 
yia (to) koXo fiov " for my good," Bev elvai yia TiiroTe " he is 
(good) for nothing." With the nominative : rfpde yia hovXos 

1 Also "at the stated time." 



MORPHOLOGY 105 

" he came as servant (to be a servant)/' irepva yia <ro(j)6<z " he 
passes as a sage." 

For the competition of the double accusative in same 
sense, v. § 50, 2. a. 

3. Proposed reason : yea tovto " therefore/' yiarl " why/' 
yea era? " for your sake," yea ovo/jua tov Oeov " for God's sake/' 
€VKapL<TT(b yea rrjv /eaXoavvq crov " I thank you for your 
kindness/' to tedveo yea to xaXo, irov fiov etcaves " I am doing 
it on account of the benefit which you did me," rove 0afui£o> 
yea tU yvoHTe? tov " I admire him for his learning," ^aepopuae 
yea tovto " I rejoice on this account " (o-v^acpo) yid " I con- 
gratulate on "), yea /xavpa fjuaTea ^avofiae " for the sake of 
black eyes am I perishing," i.e. " I am desperately in love 
with black eyes." Less commonly yea gives the motive : e.g. 
to \afxe yea eyrpa (usually diro e^rpa, v. § 161, 5). 

4. The advantage (protection) or disadvantage for that 
(person or thing) in regard to which a declaration is made : 
avTo eevae ica\o yea aeva " that is good for thee," OTe yea 
fieva 8ev ^t<w, ye avTo (iraeBl) yvpevco "what I do not seek 
for myself I request for this (child)," Trkepoovo) yea oXovs u 1 
pay for all," (/>pozm£a>, (po/3ov/jbai yea " I care for, fear for/" 
Se fie fiiXee yea TtiroTe^ " I worry about nothing," elvae yea 
fieva iiwTripeo " it is for me a secret." 

5. " Concerning," " in regard to," e.g. /xeXijaafjLe yea aeva 
" we spoke of you," Svo \6yea yea tov? XeooTe? " two words 
on the Chiotes " ; oao yia means " as for," " in regard to " (Fr. 
quant a). 

6. Price : yea irevTe Zpayjies " for, at 5 drachmae " (q/1 
§52). 

1. The preposition yia — in addition to preserving the usage of 
the a. Gk. 8ia with ace. — has acquired the function partly of the 
old dative and partly those of iwi, ttc/k, virep, avri. The local 
meaning of Sia w. gen. has entirely disappeared (cf. ftecra, § 171). 

2. In connection with pronouns (especially of the 1st or 2nd 
person) yia often takes the form ytard (like //.era beside /x,e, § 162, 
n. 1) : e.g. yiara fxiva; note also yiaYi avTo } Texts III. 11 (Velv.). 

§ 164. KaT(i (rarely ko) denotes: 

1. The direction toward, to, something (so far as the 
actual reaching of a goal does not come into consideration ; 
cf. yia) : ep^eTae KaTce to %(opeo " he is coming towards the 
village," yvpva KaTce to yepo "he turns to the old man," 



106 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

iirrjpe to Spo/xo kcltcl irov tov *Sm,%V€ "he took the way in the 
direction he pointed him," kvtto, itceiha kcltcl to /xeydXo to 
hpofio " look there toward the highway." 

2. " According to " : Kara to vofio " according to the 
law," kcltcl tov /caipo "according to the weather," 0X170 kclt 
6\iyo " little by little," " gradually " ; kcltcl 7r<»9, /cclto, ttoO, 
v. § 281, 1. 

The a. Gk. usage of Kara is consequently greatly reduced. We 
miss above all the meanings " down " and " against " — for the expres- 
sion Kara twv Suvaiw, Texts II. b. 7, is taken from the written 
language. It is found with the gen. in the adverbial expressions 
Karayfjs "on the ground" ( = ^a^ou), Kara/x€(rrj<s "in the midst," 
Kara Oavarov " fatally." The construction Kara hiafioXov " to the 
devil," lit. " in the direction of the devil," must be taken like efe 
w. gen. (§ 46). 

§ 165. a vtIs "instead of," also clvtis *yui: e.g. va 7ra? 
iorv avTis i/xiva (clvtis tov dBep(f>6 jjlov) or clvti? yia fieva " go 
you in my place (instead of my brother)," eicpefiaaav olvtU 
<ivtov tov irapayto tov " they hanged his adopted son in 
place of him." 

§ 166. oi? "to," "up to," "till," of place and time: m 
ttjv TTopTa " (up) to the door," m ttjv copa " till this hour," 
" until now " (in Cyprus o5? tt}? wpa?), cw? to fipdSv " until 
evening." 

Also oj9 to, arfixepa "until to-day," w tcl ^re? "until 
yesterday." 

§ 167. %<ypt?, St^G)9 (also fie Bl^co^) "without": %fc)/^9 
kotto " without trouble," %&)/w 0XK0 " at all events," " with- 
out fail," S^«9 (3ov\a "without signet-ring," St^co9 {Kafiia) 
afyopiirj " without (any) cause." 

In Cyprus it takes the gen. of a pronoun x<*>pi>s o"otj, St^us o-ov. 
§ 168. The following are rarely used : ■ 

1. TTpos "toward," of place and time, e.g. Texts I. d. 3; the 
employment of irpos is in most cases due to the influence of the 
literary language. 

2. ox w. ace. ( = a. Gk. Ik) : e.g. in Vilaras, Solomos, and in the 
Ionic Islands, ox or ax in Pelopon., instead of airo ; cf. 6x tov kotto 
" in consequence of the effort," ox to vov /xov " out of my memory." 
The genitive construction has persevered in 6xovov<s — i$ a/09; i$ 
ovpavov "from heaven," is ecclesiastical; in Icarus (e)fave/xou "from 
the North, in the North," is used. 

3. Pontic employs a9 instead of (and along with) airo : e.g. &<; 



MORPHOLOGY 107 

ifi€T€pov rrjfJL <f>v\rjv Iv "he is from our tribe," zirida-Ttv dab (i.e. ds to) 
o-etAos " he was caught by the snout." 

Improper Prepositions. 

§ 169. The improper prepositions denote mostly spatial 
relations, rarely temporal or other relations. The component 
adverbs (otherwise used as independent adverbs) are con- 
verted into prepositions by a genitive coming after or by. 
means of '9, diro, or also fie. The simple gen. is used only 
with the (enclitic) conjunctive pronoun. 

1. The line between proper and improper prepositions is more 
pronounced than in a. Gk., for the reason that in m. Gk. the 
presence of a proper preposition is necessary in the improper. 
Still no hard and fast line can be drawn ; for, on the one hand, avris 
by the occasional addition of yid (§ 165) approaches the improper 
prepositions, while, on the other hand, we find in dialects an 
approach between the improper and the proper through the former, 
like the latter, taking the simple accusative : e.g. ottlcto) rbX Xovpov 
" behind the rock " (Icarus). Neither can a hard and fast line be 
drawn between adverb and improper preposition ; thus expressions 
like fiaKpeid fjiov "far from me," irovOtvd tov "nowhere with him," 
7roTc fiov "never by me," iravTov //.as "everywhere with us," or 
/Aa/cpeta euro, irovOtva aV tyj X^P a y tolvtov a7r' o\ov$, are on the border 
between substantival and prepositional construction. 

2. The improper prepositions, compared with the a. Gk., are 
quite new formations, although the adverbs employed therein come 
from the a. Gk. or are formed from a. Gk. material. 

§ 170. The improper prepositions are divided as below 
according to the auxiliary prepositions V, airo, fie: '9 ex- 
presses a simple statement of proximity or approach, air 6 a 
■definite standpoint or point of departure, fie distinct accom- 
paniment or connection. 

The adverb sometimes comes after ; in addition to the exx, 
given passim, cf. also the Pontic and Cappadocian prepositions given 
in §174. 

§ 171. Exclusively or usually with '9: 

kovtcl \ "(near) at, by, to"; (1) of place: kovtcl o-ttjv 
iropTa " (near), at the door," kovtcl arrj \ifivq " by the sea," 
oX oi aycoc kovtcl gov " all the saints (be) with thee " ; TjpOe 
kovtcl tov " he came up to him," irepacre «7ro kovtcl tov " he 
passed near him " ; (2) of time, " about, at, around " : 1 kovtcl 

1 Also expressed by 7rdvu /cdrw, e.g. ir. k. fieadvirxra "about midnight." 



108 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

aro BeiXivo " in the course of the afternoon," /copra <tto yiofia 
yiofia " exactly at meal time " ; (3) " in comparison with " : 
tcl Tpiavrd(j)vWa ^dvovrai kovtci a eVe, crra /cdXXr) o~ov " the 
roses lose in comparison with thee, with thy fairness " ; (4) 
kovtcl (tt dXXa " besides, moreover." * 

1. cri/xa 's is used like Kovrd (but less commonly). 

/xeaa \ "within, inside, into, between, among"; (1) of 
place : fieaa arb gttlti, (or arb air It t fiecra) " inside the 
house," fieaa crrbv oipavo " in the midst of heaven," fieaa fiov 
" within, with me," tov epuraa-e fiiaa <r evav ovtcl " he led 
him into a room," jxeo-a g-tgo\ ttoXXoI yiarpot (Ios) " among 
the many physicians." 

2. Xote Texts III. 12 pea o-rrj gi6\a /xeo-ct "into the pool." 

(2) Of time and other relations : fiio~a cttt) ^earr] " in the 
(midst of the) heat," /neaa ae Bvb fiBofidBes " within two 
weeks" (cf. § 160, 2), elire /ueo-a tov "he said to himself," 
jiecra <jt dXXa " inter alia" 

3. The abbreviated form p.£<r 's is almost a proper prep., since 
\ cannot be distinguished in the pronunciation and may equally 
well be dropped : e.g. fxicr {a)rb -n-ikayo " in the sea," /^eV (o-)tt7 ftecr^ 
tov ^wptov "in the midst of the village," fiia (cf) ha ir(r])yd8(i) 
"into a fountain" (Lesbos), /xeV (o-)t6 KaXoKaipi "in the middle of 
summer." dvdpecra "into, in the midst of" is used like /^ecra, e.g. 
avdfJLeo-a ctto criTapi "in (into) the corn." 

4. to d7r<j)fJL4vo fiicro tov Upo^yrrj (TEXTS II. b. 6) "the word 
(spoken) in the prophet " is rather unusual. 

(airo) peer diro is used to render " from, from the midst 
of," or " through, through the midst of " : tov efiydXe peer* 
diro to Ktfiovpt " she brought him out of the grave," irepva to 
KopBovt jxea airo to BaxrvXiSi " he draws the cord through 
the ring," iwepace dirb pueca curb tov? i-^Tpov^ " he passed 
through the midst of the enemy." 

ZlirXa '? or 7rXd(fy)c '? "beside, at": hiirXa otto airiTt 
fiov " beside my house." 

fjuirpoo-Td '? or (i)fnrp6<; '?, o/jbirpos '? (on the '?, cf. fiea ?) 
"before," "in front of," "in the presence of"; (1) of space : 
pLTrpoaTa '? ttjv TTopTCL " before the door," eXa epLirpos ipurpb? 
cttt] Xipwq "come quite near to the pond," purpoaTa fiov 
"before me, in my presence," /evirate pnrpoo~Td aov "look 
before you," <j>vye dirb 'fivrpos fiov " get out of my sight " ; 



MORPHOLOGY 109 

also el? top Koa/xov dfiTTpos " before (the eyes of) the world " ; 
(2) in contrasts or comparisons : ra fidaava ttov elye rpaftrfgei 
co? Tore, Tjrave Tirrorevia /x7rpo<? ara arjfiepivd rov " the 
agonies which he had as yet endured were nothing compared 
with his present," tcaveh Be fiyaivei 6fj,Trpo<; rov " none can 
compare with him." 

dvTLKpv '9 or ayvdrca '9 "opposite," "over against/' of 
space and in comparison : to ^evoBo^eiov elvai dvrUpv ctto 
o-rafffjLO "the hotel is opposite the station," aviUpv rov 
" opposite him." 

5. Note e/?yav yveVra /xas (Texts III. 14. b) "they came to meet 

us." 

ire pa '9 "over (across) to": €Trrjya/xe trepa arbv e Ai- 
Tidvvr) " we went across to St. John's (chapel)." 

Xdfiov '9 or tcaro)'? "down in," "below in": %dp,ov ctttj 
povya " below in the street." 

(a)Trdvco \ (a. Gk. eV avco) or (a)irdvov (in dialects rrd 
'?) " above, upon, on " ; (1) of place : (d)Trdvco ctto rparre^i 
" (above) upon the table " (also metaphorically " at the table," 
" at dinner "), aTrdvco ara yovard fiov " upon (before) my 
knees," rrdvco ere fila yfrdOa " on a straw mat," eireae oV 
dyicdOia dirdvov "it fell upon the thorns," irkc\>Tovv kclt 
aTrdvco tol>9 " they fall upon them," Sep e^w irapdSes aTrdvco 
jnov "I have no money on my person," air' aTrdvco rov 
" away from him " ; (2) of time : fjpOev aTrdvco arrjv Spa " he 
came on the hour" (i.e. "punctually"), rrdvco ctttjv ovcria "in 
the prime of life " ; (3) extended to different senses ; cf. e.g. 
opfcos eirdvco cttov Xravpov " oath by the cross," to iraipvco 
rrdvco fiov "I take it upon me (make myself answerable)," 
aTrdvco a o\a " in addition to all, besides " ; (4) seldom 
" about, concerning " ; e.g. tcpicri dirdvco a eva rpayovBc " criti- 
cism about a poem." 

6. To render "over, above, beyond, out of" airdva) is combined 
with 0.77-0 : e.g. to criraOi rov <rKL<rTr]K€v cxirav aVo ttj <f>ov)(Ta " the sword 
went to pieces in (over) his fist," irapairdvia oltto " beyond (a certain 
measure)," oltto to Va kclI 7ravw " beyond, more than the one." 

7. Note a7rdVw0cv, TEXTS La. 2 = andyo). 

yvpco '9, Tpiyvpco '9 or rpiyvpov '9, okoyvpa '9 (also with 

airo) " around, round, round about " : e.g. (rpi)yvpco ctto (arr to) 

/3co/jl6 " round the altar," (rpi)yvpco rov " around him," Tpiyvpco 

ara ftovvd " round about on the mountains." 
8 



110 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

§ 172. Exclusively or usually with dub-. 

fxafcpeia diro " far from " : e.g. fiafcpeid jjlov " far from me." 

e£ft) (o£a>) diro, aire^d) (airo^co) diro "outside, without, 
in front of " : (1) of place : (aTr)e^co airo to airiTi " outside (out 
of) the house," 6 egco air iBco = " the devil " ; (2) figuratively 
" beyond, except, besides " (praeter) ; e.g. egco dirb to fxhpo 
"beyond the measure," egco air avTci "besides (this)," e£oj 
dirb Tov? cfiiXovs " except my friends." 

tcaTco airo, dirofcaTco airo (also TrapafcaTco ciiro) "below, 
beneath, under, from under " : e.g. (diro)KaTco airo to tcdaTpo 
" under the fortress," airotcaTco air to iroBdpi tov dXoyov 
" underneath the horse's hoof," diroXdec diroKciTco dirb tt]v 
KairoTa tov " he brings out from under his cloak." 

(o) Triad) airo, dTroiriaco diro " behind" : e.g. iriaco airo ttjv 
iropTa " behind the door," va '8179 iriaco aov " look behind 
thee." More rarely (6)irLaco '<? : e.g. iyco irdvo) iriaco a' amov 
" I go behind him " (Texts I. d. 2). 

Similarly €7recre /caroVt tov " he fell behind him," cre/ovo/A€ k<xt6tti 
fxas " we drag after us." 

air iBco airo or dirb — k iBco " on this side " : e.g. air iBco 
dirb to iroTafjLi or dirb to iroTajxi tc iBco " on this side of the 
river." 

dirb iripa diro or direicei (dire/cec } Trape/cec) airo or dirb 
— ical ire pa " on that side, beyond": e.g. aTroTrepa (dire/cei) dirb 
tcl avvopa or dirb Ta avvopa teal irepa " beyond the border," 
dirb Bco koX irepa " from here, beyond." Similarly irapairepa 
diro "further than, beyond." 

vaTepa diro "after," of time: vaTepa dirb Xiyo fcaipo 
(dirb Bvb pipes) " after a little while (after two days)," vaTepa 
dirb iroXXd yvpepaTa " after much searching." Note vaTepa 
dirb fxeva "after me." 

irpcoTVTepa a7ro, irplv airo "before," of time: k'fyiaaa 
irpcoTVTepa dirb aeva " I arrived before you," irplv dirb tU 
&€fcairevT€ (tov) 'AirpiXi " before the 15th April." 

But time past (" ago ") is rendered by (dir y ) iBco ical or 
Tcopa Kai: e.g. eyeve (air) iBco teal irevTe yjpbvia "it happened 
five years ago," Tcopa teal Be/ca xpovta fjjiovv aT-qv 'EXXdBa 
" I was in Greece ten years ago," or also elvai (rcopd) Bena 
XPovia irov eyive " it happened ten years ago." 

Kpvcpci a 7ro "secretly, without the knowledge of " (Lat. 



MORPHOLOGY 1 1 1 

clam) : e.g. tcpvfya air rrj jvvactca tov " without his wife's 
knowledge," Kpvcpd pov " without my knowledge." 

■ § 173. Usually with fie: 

jaa^l fie "(together) with": e.g. fiaQ pe tov? <£i\oi/<? 
" together with his friends," pa^i cov " with thee " ; also 
" inclusive " : e.g. to jefia fia^l fie to icpaa\ koctti^l rpei? 
Spaxfii? " the meal costs 3 drachmae inclusive of wine." 

1. Similarly avTajxa jxi "together with." 

tcr(i)a fie "till" "up to"; (1) of place or time : yepaTo 
lata fie ra %et\ca " full to the lip," Xcria fie ttjv Kopcftt] tov 
fiovvov " up to the top of the mountain," Xcrta fie to fiearifxepi 
" till noon " ; (2) in statements of measure : (fieyaXo) Icria p! 
eva (fiovvTovfci " as (large) as a nut," la a fie ivevie Spa^fit^ 
" up to, about 5 drachmae " ; (3) " like as, just like " : tov 
aya7ra) caca fie iraihi fiov " I love him as my own child," $ev 
elvat caca fie aeva "he is not like you." 

2. !Note tcria ctto ^wpto "up into the village," lata Kara tov kcx/xtto 
" as far as the field." 

(Tv(fi)cj>o)va fie "in accordance with," "after," o~v(fi)<f>G)va 
fie tovs voliovs "according to the laws." 

§ 1 74. Other formations of similar kind are found in the dialects. 
The Pontic and Cappadocian dialect, which reveals a propensity for 
placing the adverb last, gives, e.g., d7res ( = a7r' co-w) or iroirh ( = a7ro 
«ir€Gro)) "in, within," etc. ; cf. ttoios aTrotriv icrovv (Texts III. 13. b) 
" who among you," crra -n-rj-ydSia wottIs (Texts III. 14. b) "into the 
fountain " ; cf. also o~6 Tpv-rrlv /cet/ca (Texts III. 13. b) — ctto Tpvirlv Iku. 
Km.™ "into the hole," a7ro Tpia ixfjvts opirpo (Texts III. 14. a) "three 
months ago." 

THE VEEB. 

Preliminary Observations. 

§ 175. In modern Greek the verb has two voices, an Active 
and a Passive : ^rvira) " I strike," yrviteiovfiai " I am struck. 1 ' 
The passive forms are, however, much less in vogue than in 
G erman or in English. The modern Greek passive serves not 
only as passive but is frequently employed (like the ancient 
middle) to express an action, or a condition, or even as a 
reflexive. 

1. The a. Gk. middle has only formally disappeared, its original 
signification still survives. The special middle verbal forms (aorist) 



112 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

have become obsolete, the passive forms maintaining the field and 
appropriating the meaning of the middle. Thus, generally speaking, 
the m. Gk. passive covers the usages also of the old middle, only 
that the delicate distinctions between the active and the so-called 
"dynamic," or the indirect reflexive middle, are lost. 

2. A remarkable peculiarity of the m. Gk. verb is its faculty of 
forming compounds Avith a substantive or with another verb. The 
former (with a substantive) started with such a. Gk. formations as 
Oav/j.aTovpywj Kapirotfcop&j etc. However, the combinations with an 
adjective outnumber those with a substantive ; cf. e.g. fioo-KOfjLvpi£(t> 
" I smell of musk," KaAo7repvw " I live well," KaXoyvupifa " I perceive 
well," apyoa-akevd) "1 move slowly," aKpavoLyu) "I open a little," 
yXvKocjaXC) "I kiss affectionately," kovtctottiw "I drink a little," 
XafjLT]\o\oyLd£tx) "I meditate with bowed head," /fopeia/cova) "I am 
hard of hearing, hear with difficulty," //.io-avoiya> " I open half-way." 
As we should expect, participial combinations are specially frequent, 
as TroXvxpove/xivos " one worthy of many years," xapoTevTCD//.ei/os 
"stark in death," x^toTraT^/xeVos "trodden of thousands (i.e. oft)." 
Two verbs can unite to form a dvandvac construction ; as, avoiyoar- 
<£aAi£o> " I open and shut," dve/^oKare/foiva) " I pace up and down," 
Tpe/xoaftriva) " I tremble and die away." Cf. § 41, a. 1. d and 2. c for 
the verb in compound substantives. 

§ 176. The Active voice has — besides the transitive — 
also very frequently an intransitive, middle or reflexive 
meaning, and vice versa intransitive active verbs are often 
employed as transitive : e.g. 

(a) aWd^co " I change " trans, and intr., avoiyco " I open " 
and " stand open," fioGKco " I feed " trans, and intr., (£)<x7r\&W 
" I spread out" trans, and intr., yefii^ "I fill" and "am 
full," ryXvTtovco " I rescue " and " escape," yvpl£o> " I turn 
(round)" trans, and "return, turn back" intr., 0€fxe\tcovo> 
" I establish," " found " and " I have, obtain firm ground," 
Kadapi%G> " I purify " and " am pure," koWco " I glue to " (trans.) 
and tl grow to," kovvco " I move " trans, and intr., \vwv<o " I 
loose, dissolve " and " melt " intr., fe^ca/oifo) " I separate (from) " 
trans, and intr., ^eairdw "I break off" trans, and "break 
forth," vrpofidWa) " I hold forth (propose) " and " advance " 
intr., (TKopTTL^o) " I scatter " and " am scattered," aTafiaro) 
" I cause to stop, prevent " and " stop " intr. " remain," okpvo> 
or rpaftu) "I draw, drag" and "withdraw, go" intr., raipiaCp 
" I associate, pair," and raipLafa " it is becoming," r/oo^a£o> 
" I terrify " and " am terrified," %aX^w " I spoil " trans, and 
intr., x°p Ta ^ ( ° "I satisfy " and " am satisfied," ^rvirSi "I strike," 
intr. of the clock (also " dash againsu," " am flung against "). 



MORPHOLOGY 113 

(b) appcoarco " I am sick " and " 1 make one sick " (e.g. 
fxe <f)cove<; fiov " by my screaming "), da-rpd(f>r€i " it lightens " 
and d<TTpd(f)Tco " I thrash one/' fiapaivoo " I am heavy, weigh " 
and " I burden," fipex el " ^ rains " and Ppex* " I cause to 
rain," ffpovra " it thunders " and fipovTco " I beat down," 
je\a) " I laugh " and " deceive," f&> " I live," and " I keep 
alive, preserve," KaOl^co " I sit " and " place, seat." kcltclvtco " I 
degenerate " and " reduce into a state," ^virvoy " I wake " and 
" rouse from sleep," irepvco " I pass by " and " surpass," 
" exceed," irerSy " I flee " and " throw away," irijyalvco (irdyo), 
a. Gk. v7r-dyco) " I go " and " I bring," " lead," aico7ra) " I am 
silent" and "keep secret," (fyrdvco "I arrive" (cprdvec "it 
suffices ") and " I attain, reach." Note also a word of a 
different kind, fiadacvco " I learn " and " I teach." 

The causes of such numerous transitions between transitive and 
intransitive are to be sought partly in the a. Gk. itself ; cf. a. Gk. 
ayo>, ikavvto, klvu)> kXlvw, trjfu, which by the ellipsis of an object 
became intrans., or kcllu), ktvitu), o-«07rw, vw, and vei, which even in 
antiquity served both as trans, and intrans. This usage persisted 
and occasionally reversed the a. Gk. status : e.g. Trrjyaivio and -irdyo) 
"I go" (a. Gk. virdyio) is to-day predominantly intransitive, kiv£> "I 
move, depart " is intransitive only (cf. kowu>). Moreover, the formal 
levelling of verbs in -aw, -ecu, and -t£w (v. § 204) has contributed to the 
levelling of their functions. 

§ 177. The middle is found— 

1. In the so-called deponents : like alcrrdvofjiai " feel," 
direkTri^oiAcu " doubt," dfyucpovpiai " hear," ylvoiiai " become," 
Biyovfiat " relate," ep^ofiat " come," fcddo/jiai " sit," tcotfiovfiai 
" sleep," crcxaivofLai " feel an aversion," aroxd^ofxai, avWoyl- 
fyfjiai "think," <$ofiovfjiai "fear," <f>Tapfii^o/jLaL "sneeze," 
Xao-fiovpeiovfiai, " yawn," xaipoiicu " rejoice," xP et ^°f iaL 
" need," fjuiWerai " is about to." In many instances the 
middle has developed as of secondary nature from an original 
passive or reflexive meaning: e.g. tcovpd%ofj,ai "am tired" 
(Kovpd^o) " make tired "), ^eviTevofiai " go abroad," ^epaivo/nat 
" become dry " (%epaiv& " dry " trans.), tcafirJovo/Acu " feign, 
pretend," fiaarrdtofjicu " collect myself " (^aard^co " I bear "), 
opfcl^ofiac " swear " (optctfa " cause to swear "), Trapagevevofiac 
" wonder," ireprj^avevofiaL " am proud," irviyoiiai " drown " 
intr. (irviyco " strangle, drown " trans.), atd^ofiat " set about; 
begin," a-fcid^ojiai " fear," (pavepcovo/jLac " appear " (cpavepcovco 
" reveal, disclose "), ^aivopuai " manifest myself, appear," 



114 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

ydvo^ai " perish, am lost," also " am eager for, in love with " 
(xdvco " I lose "). On <jT€$av(ovofiai " wed," c/". § 49. 

1. The majority of these cases represent the same or similar a. Gk 
phenomena. Sometimes modern Greek — following ancient models — 
has increased its stock of deponents ; cf. e.g. xalpofmi for a. Gk. 
Xaipv somewhat after Xv-n-ovfiat "I regret," etc. Both are found 
together in 0a/xd£o> and Oafxa^ofiai (a. Gk. Oavfxdfa) "admire" or 
" wonder " (both with ace), <£avTa£u) and ^avTatppxn " imagine." 
Note, further, Kai(y)o[xat " I burn," intr. beside k<uo> trans, and intr., 
and a-TCKOfuu " I stand," beside the more common o-tcko), after model 

of KaOofACLl. 

Conversely the active form has displaced the ancient middle : 
e.g. in ef^yu) "explain," OvfxuiVM "am enraged," -rrapaiTw "abandon." 

2. Only a few traces of the dynamic middle are left; thus, e.g., 
beside i$o8evo> " I spend (money)," " incur expenses," we find 
££o8evopaL in the intensive sense. 

2. As Eefiexive : 

(a) Direct reflexive : vrvvofiat " dress (myself)," \o6%ojiai 
" bathe (myself)," ^ovpi^ofiai " shave (myself)," ifkevofiac 
" wash (myself)," x rev ^°f JLalf " comb (my hair)," arjfccovofAaL 
" raise myself, rise," aid^ofiai " prepare (myself)," o-wyvp%o/iiat, 
" adjust myself, prepare," aKorcoi/ofMaL " kill myself," Tafnrovpd)- 
vov-rai " they entrench themselves," (pavepcovofiat " allow 
myself to perceive," (fxypreovofiat, " load (burden) myself with," 
(pvXdyofjbaL " (protect myself), guard against." 

The reflexive sense may be emphasised by the addition of the 
pronoun "self" (§ 157): £ovpi£o/mi /xoi/os (/xoraxos) /xov "/shave 
myself" <rKOTu0r}K€ 6 iSios or d-ros tov " 7ie killed himself." 

(b) Eeciprocal reflexive : dyfca\id£ovTai " they embrace 
each other," aTro^acperecovvraL " they take leave of each other," 
<yvo>pl%QVVTcu " they recognise one another," ipcorevovvrat, 
" they are in love with each other," KaXTjfiept^ovprac " they 
bid good-day to each other," fia^covovrai " they assemble," 
iravrpevovvTai " they intermarry," tcvvriyeiovvTai " they chase 
one another," iridvovrai " they take hold of each other (to 
wrestle), come to close quarters," (pCketovvTai " they kiss each 
other." 

The reciprocal idea may also be expressed by or strengthened by 
6 €i/as tov aAAo and by (dva-) p.€Ta£v p.as, etc. (v. § 141) : e.#. jxaXuvovv 
or ju-aXwi/owTat /A€ra£v tovs " they scold each other." 

(c) Causative reflexive, generally with a negative : truiveTai 
" he allows himself to be caught," Se yeXeterac " he does not 



MORPHOLOGY fl5 

allow himself to be deceived," Se fitXeiirai "he refuses to be 
interviewed," to fcpaal tovto Bev irlverat " this wine cannot be 
drunk." 

The active may likewise express the same meaning : e.g. €x TL(Ta 
(tttiti " I got a house built," eKoij/a ra fiaXXtd fjuov " I caused my hair 
to be Cut." 

§ 178. Altogether there are eight Tenses, which are 
subdivided into two classes, simple and compound : 

I. Simple. 

1. Present. 

2. Imperfect. 

3. Aorist. 
II. Compound. 

4. Future present (Fut continuum). 

5. Future aorist (Fut. absolutum). 

6. Perfect. 

7. Pluperfect. 

8. Future perfect 

1. The tenses 6, 7, and 8 are much less in use than the others 
(<•/• § 229). 

2. Only the simple tense forms correspond to the a. Gk. forma- 
tions ; the compound tenses are m. Gk. formations to fill the places 
of the ancient forms that have disappeared. 

§ 179. There are four Moods: three simple, Indicative, 
Subjunctive (Conjunctive), Imperative; and one compound, 
the Conditional or " Unreal." As far as terminations are 
concerned the Subjunctive is perfectly identical with the 
Indicative ; it possesses a special form only in the aorist stem 
(active and passive). The subjunctive is employed always in 
dependence on conjunctions or particles (yd, dd, a?) (cf. § 193 f., 
and also the rules for subordinate clauses, § 264 ff.). There 
is a double imperative, representing both present and aorist 
mode of action (AMionsart) ; but only the 2nd person sing, 
and pi. has distinct forms of its own, the 3rd person being 
supplemented from the subjunctive. The conditional has 
likewise two forms, for present and for past time. 

Compared with the Moods of the ancient language m. Gk. shows 
an impoverishment — the optative having quite disappeared, and the 
subjunctive being considerably reduced. Indicative and subjunctive 
are only orthographically distinguished from each other in some of 



116 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

their forms in the a. Gk. fashion: (na) srdjis^ypdfais indie, — va 
ypdefays subj., (na) grdfome ypd&ofjit — va ypa^xo/Ac; but in the spoken 
language both forms are absolutely identical. 

§ 180. If modern Greek has suffered many losses com- 
pared with the parent language, it has not failed also to enrich 
its resources. It has not only preserved the distinction 
between present and aorist kind of action 1 (continuative or 
repeated action and a simplex [point] act) in the difference 
between imperfect and aorist, and in that between present and 
aorist imperative and subjunctive, but it has also developed 
further along the same lines in the analogous new creation of 
two futures, one of duration and one of simplex (point) act ; 
thus: 





Duration and 
repetition. 


Simplex act (Point 
action). 




Present. 


Present. 


3 ■ 

Q3 


Past. 


Imperfect. 


Aorist. 


H 


Future. 


Future present 
(continuum). 


Future aorist 
(absolutum). 


4 \ 


Present subjunctive. 


Aorist subjunctive. 


1 


1 ~ 


Present imperative. 


Aorist imperative. 



For the usage of these forms, v. § 186 ff. 

§ 181. The verb infinite is represented by only two 
participles, a present active and a perfect passive. For 
fragments of other participial formation, v. seq. 

There is no infinitive in modern Greek. Its place is 
usually taken by va with the subjunctive (v. § 262), or, less 
commonly, by abstract verbal nouns (v. especially § 104). 

M. Gk. has lost heavily in the department of the participles and 

the infinitives. A very serious loss is the complete extinction of the 

infinitive through a process the germs of which are already apparent 

in the beginning of our era (in the language of the New Testament). 

1 [Ger.] Aktionsart, 



MORPHOLOGY 117 

It is a remarkable fact that other languages of the Balkan Peninsula 
(Bulgarian, Albanian, Roumanian) also share in this loss. The 
infinitive survives as a living form only in the Pontic dialects. 
Elsewhere it is preserved merely in stereotyped shape in certain 
compound verbal forms (for which v. § 227, n. 1) and in a few sub- 
stantives (to <£ayt " eating, repast " = to cj>ay€iv, to <£iAi " the kiss " = 
to 4>ik£v, v. § 97, 1). 

§ 182. Augment. Verbs — whether simple or composite 
— beginning with a consonant regularly prefix an augment, 
i.e. the vowel e-, to the historic tenses (imperfect and aorist) 
of the indicative : ypdcfrco " write " aor. eypasfra " I wrote," 
yvpi^co " turn " aor. iyvpca-a " I turned/' TT7)yalvco " go " 
imperf. iir^yatpa " I went," <f>o/3ovfjLat " fear " aor. icjyofirjdrjrca 
" I feared," jxayepevco " cook " imperf. ipayipeve " he cooked," 
gecfrvTpcbvco " shoot forth " aor. i^efyvrpcoaa " I shot forth," 
fcaOi^co " sit " aor. ifcddc<ra " I sat," feaTaXaffalvco " understand " 
aor. ifcaraXafia " I understood," KaTeftaLva* " descend " aor. 
i/ccLTefirj/ea " I descended," irepipbevoy " await " imperf. eireplpLeva 
" I was waiting," irpoak^a " take heed " aor. £irp6cre%a " I took 
heed," Kare-^o) (in dialects) " know " imperf. i/careya " I knew," 
KaXoirepva) " live well " aor. eKaXoirepaaa " I lived well." 

Usually the augment is employed when the accent would 
fall upon it ; thus in cases like eypayfra fr. ypdcjtco, eSco/ca aor. 
fr. StSo) "give," e/3a\a aor. fr. fidWco "place, lay," e/ia#a aor. 
fr. /ladalvco " learn," earetXa aor. fr. crriXpco " send," ecpvya 
aor. fr. (j^evyo) " flee, depart," etc. On the other hand (when 
the accent would not fall upon the augment if used) the 
augment may be omitted : ypd^afie " we wrote," ftdXafie " we 
laid," pao-Tovcra imperf. " I was carrying " ; and in polysyllabic 
verbs : yvpicra, arevdaave " they groaned," fyojSrjOrjfca, (frrap- 
fii<TTrj/ca (aor. fr. <j>Tapfi{£oficu " sneeze "), l;e<f)vya {^e<f>evyo> 
" escape "), %6pLcra (%opc£co " exile "), KardXafia, tccneftrjica, 
err pa/3 oTrdrr} era (aTpajBo'TraTto " make a false step "), etc. 

1. No uniform rule can be laid down, because the augment is 
treated differently in different regions. Southern Greek, £e. the 
dialects which best represent the common vernacular, shows most 
regularity in prefixing the augment especially to words of two 
syllables. In many regions the augment is always employed, in 
others (in the North) it is avoided in verbs of more than two 
syllables. The augment is easier omitted the farther the accent is 
removed from it : e.g. o-Korwvto " kill " aor. io-Kvrtocra " I killed," 
cTKOT<o6r]Kavc 3rd pi. aor. pass. " they were killed." 



118 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

2. The augment is not so essential a factor in m, Gk. as it was 
in the ancient language. Even in forms like e8ojKa it disappears in 
liaison ; cf. to 'StoKa^To ISoj/ca, tov VraAa = tov corciAa : the e must 
disappear after preceding a, o, u, according to the laws of word liaison 
(§ 11). In Lesbos and elsewhere So)Ka = eSwKa (cf. also SeW, Texts 
II. 13. c) takes absolutely no augment. 

The augment having thus become practically negligible as a 
sign of tense, augmented forms were often generalised, i.e., for 
example, (tov) exavo) could be used beside kolvo) " I make," etc. 
KciTe/itaiVa) and di/e^atvw " I go down, go up," are quite common. 
Note, further, dvc^rai " I seek, inquire after " and (Texts II. b. 6) 
crvvzTrviyo) " choke." The very common verbal preposition $ c-, a. Gk. 
£-, has come from augmented forms : e.g. a. Gk. eV^cvyw — aor. 
i£l<f>vyov = m. Gk. fc^cvyto — (i)^€<j>vya. The augment has penetrated 
even into substantival derivatives : e.g. Kan/Sao-cd " catarrh " (lit. 
"what runs down"). 

§ 183. Verbs beginning with a vowel as a rule undergo 
no change for augment : clkovco " hear " aor. atcovaa, dpyoS 
" delay " aor. apyr\ca i a^-qvco " leave " aor. acprjo-a, av€/3alvco 
" ascend " aor. avefirjica, iyyl^co " touch " aor. ey<y i%a, ip7ri£co 
" hope " aor. Ipiriaa, aicrTavoiiai " perceive " imperf. alara- 
vofAovva, 6/jlcovco " swear " aor. Sfioaa, ovofia^ay " name " aor. 
ovojuaaa (also spelled w^ocra, covo/naaa). Only a few verbs' 
beginning with e- give preterite forms with an i (written el- 
or r/-) : €%c0 " have " ***%«, ep^ofiac " come " aor. ^p#a, imperf. 
tfpxovfjiovv and epxpv/JLovv, evplafcco (fipiafcco) " find " aor. rjvpa 
(but imperf. evpia/ca). Here also the defective aorists eZSa 
" I saw " and elira " I spoke." 

Also a few verbs beginning with a consonant augment 
with ^- instead of e- ; thus, 0e\co " wish, will " r/#e\a, £e'/3« 
(n&pco) " know " rjl;€pa, irlvco " drink " ^7rta, and less frequently 
<f)6pvfD " bear " rffapa. 

1. Especially in the Aegean Islands the augment * (^-), instead 
of e-, after the model of the verbs just given, has become practically 
the rule: ^aya "I ate," r^Ka^a * C I made," r^XajBa "I received," 
fjiraifr "I played," fjinacra "I took," q<£u(y)a "I went away," 
rjPyaXa " I took out," rjKdOovfxovv " I sat," r)7rp6o~Ta£a " I commanded," 
etc., for the usual e<£aya, €Ka/xa, etc. 

2. Verbs beginning with a- take likewise occasionally an aug- 
ment in rj- (r^KOvcra = aKovara, y\ydirY\o~o. = aydiryjo'a, r}Voi£a = avotfct, 
rj<j>7)Ka = acf)r]Ka "I discharged," etc.), or (in Asia Minor especially 
and in the islands on the coast of Asia Minor) instead of retaining 
the a- in the historic tenses they take an e- like verbs beginning 
with a consonant (cf. 2/<cra = aKOVcra, i7r£vTCo-a = a.7rdvTr)ara in Pontus, 
Ipxwio-CL = dpxcvco-a in Ios). Finally, the proximity of i and e pro- 



MORPHOLOGY 119 

duced a form like wre beside ct^e and ISarc beside cttSave (Ios, v. 
Texts III. 5). 

•§ 184. Eeduplication entirely disappeared with the ex- 
tinction of the old perfect : it is wanting also in the perfect 
participle passive (§209 ff.). 

§ 185. The modern Greek verb possesses for active and 
passive separate personal endings which are attached to the 
tense stem. All the terminations may be divided into two 
groups, present and preterite : in addition to which there is 
also a separate termination for the 2nd sing, imperative. 
The present terminations are valid for the present and for all 
moods, the preterite for the imperfect indicative and for all 
aorists. For details on the terminations, cf. § 213 ff. on the 
inflexion of the verb. 

1. The m. Gk. endings correspond essentially to those of a. Gk., 
although they have undergone much modification in details. The 
distinction between primary and secondary endings is maintained 
(and as in a. Gk. many endings are alike in form). ■ The uniform 
declension of all aorists and imperfects (apart from dialect variations) 
is especially remarkable. 

2. The dual has entirely disappeared, as in the noun. 

The Use of Tense and Mood. 

Present and Aorist Stem. 

§ 186. The distinction between present and aorist action 
(AJctionsart) has been carried further than in a. Gk. in the 
formation of two futures (§ 180). Even the present in- 
dicative, at least in the verb ir^yaivco and irdya> " go," 
indicates the beginning of such a distinction, i.e. the creation 
of a separate " aorist present " (irdyco) ; thus, ir^yaivo^e u we 
keep going, go again and again, go without resting," in 
contrast to irayue. a-irtrt "we are going (go) home" (single 
act). Cf., further, 6 fiaaCkea? irayalvu tcdOe vvyra a avrfj? 
t?}? <f>Tc0xf)<; to o-TTLTt (Texts III. 4) " the king keeps going every 
night to the house of this poor girl," ttov irayalv^i^ " whither 
do you (continue to) go ? " but irdyet rj irephtKa va ircfj (L a. 
16) " the partridge goes to drink " (this time, " point " action), 
or ctto cr7rLTL fxov 7T7}yaLvco t irdjco va 7rdpco to -fray/Ai (I. a. 9), 
" I am on my way home, I am going to fetch bread." Or it 
may be said of a dried up fountain to vepo iraec " the water 



120 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

is gone (goes, and does not come again)." Of course this 
distinction between Trrjyaivo) and irwyro is not consistently 
maintained ; cf. e.g. irrjyaLvet <ttov irarepa 777? koX tov Xiei 
(I. d. 1) " she goes to her father and says to him." As a rule 
the present combines cursive (durative, continuous, etc.) and 
aorist action. The latter is specially prominent in the 
historic present, which stands in vivid narrative beside an 
aorist as an equivalent : e.g. to nraihl fiirrjice fieaa, ^placet tov 
'Apdin] " the child came in, (and) finds the Arab (Moor)," 
(TT7) <f)Q)Tia xovfidei, efcoyjre Tovptcovs aTretpov? "into the fire 
he rushes, (and) slew countless Turks." The association of 
teal Xeei " and says " with a preceding aorist is very common 
(just as Xeet, " says he " in parenthesis). 

1. The vivid effect in the course of a narrative secured by the 
interchange of historic present and aorist is seen, e.g., in Texts I. a. 9, 
1. 16ff. (<f>€pv€t "brings out," afipovTazi feasts down"); but the 
present serves also for vivid description of a situation, the central 
event being related in the aorist; cf. Texts II. a. 14, strophe 9. 

2. The present sometimes has a future meaning when the con- 
nection leaves no doubt as to the time, as in K&ve to irpuiTa k vcrrepa 
/3\€7Tovp,€ " do it first and then we (shall) see," or avpio to irpm. 
7T€/3i/w obr* to cnriTi eras " early to-morrow morning I (will) go past 
your house." 

3. In Cappadocia (Silli) under the influence of Turkish the 
present continuous is expressed in a peculiar way by the addition of 
kI Kaa-ovpx, i.e. koX ndOofxai : e.g. tp^ovfxi k.1 Kao-ov/xt " I am going." 

§ 187. The present stem presents an action in progress 
without regard to its beginning or to the result (cursive 
action), and thus is well adapted to portray the circumstances, 
the duration or repetition of an action. The aorist stem 
denotes a single action complete in itself or conceived as 
complete and as a whole ("punctiliar " 1 action), and also the 
beginning (initial 1 point) or the result (final point) of an 
action (terminative, or ingressive and effective action). The 
m. Gk. vernacular shows a decided preference — especially in 
the subjunctive (future) and imperative — for the aorist stem 
against the present. 

In contrast to the classical Greek we find already in that of the 
New Testament a decided preference for both the indicative and 
subjunctive aorist, so that the process had already set in in the 
Hellenistic vernacular. 

1 The translator has borrowed this term from Moulton's Gram, of iV. T. Gk. , 
vol. i. 3rd ed. p. 109 (T. & T. Clark), the word "punctual" having been 
already assigned its duties in English. 



MORPHOLOGY 121 

§ 188. The Imperfect is employed : 

1. In a narrative to emphasise that an action (not in 
itself monientaneous) or an occurrence (of the same kind) was 
conceived as in progress, the result of the action being 
entirely left out of question : e.g. vd rov teal teareftaive rcrov 
/cd/uLTTov? teafteXXdpis " behold, there was coming a knight 
down over the fields" (Texts I. a. 8), i^e^v-^ovae dirb dydirt) 
(II. b. 3) " he was pining away of love," ttjv reXevraia rrjs 
irvor) 6 Xdpos ipo<f>ovae (II. a. 21) " Charon was about to 
sip her last breath," e'Sez/t oXa ra Bivrpa puk irercre^ (I. d. 3) 
" he was engaged binding all the trees with cords," rj SovXeid 
7rdyaiv€ teaXd " the work was progressing excellently," i£ov- 
aave teaXd " they were living well," dyairovaa eva vkov teal 
tov dyaircb iroXv " I was in love with a youth and I love 
him dearly (still)," icrrapLdrrja-e te* eirepipieve "he stopped 
and kept waiting," rpels copes iiroXepbae " he was struggling 
three hours." 

The imperfect is therefore to be employed to represent 
an action as a situation which forms the background or 
consequence of an event : fipovTovae teal aarpafyre e^re? teal 
Spurn 7rep7raTrjcrafjL€ 7roXXi) &pa " there was thundering and 
lightning yesterday, but nevertheless we took a long walk," 
ficd fiepa efiyatve ttoXl rj ^aaiXoirovXa y etc. (II. b. 4) " one 
day the princess again came forth . . .," ecpteecateav eva 
iraXdrc teal £ovaav fia^i "they built a palace and lived 
together " ; and especially when a circumstance (or property) 
is narrated : e.g. Bev rj^evpa " I was not aware," fila <f>opd 
r/rave eva? fiacriXea? " once there was a king," iteeZ itea06rav€ 
o! Bpdteoi " there dwelt (were dwelling) the monsters," rov 
eXeyav Ad^apo " his name was (they called him) L.," diroXdei 
to Xayo, 6 birolo? erpe^e iroXv (Texts I. c. 6) " he lets go the 
hare which ran (had the property of running) well." From 
the nature of such instances the imperfect is relatively more 
common in accessory clauses. 

!Note, IXtyt in Trqy fj ydra kcu (TyovpoTpiftovrav kcll /juaovpife koX 
rov IXcyc (Texts I. d. 2) is a kind of attraction to the preceding 
descriptive imperfects. 

2. The Imperfect also calls attention (a) to the attempt 
at, or non-completion of, an action, and (b) the duration of an 
action : (a) rov h'Bcve irapdBes vd top d^arj pueaa " he tried 
(wished) to give him money to allow him inside," teavkvas Bev 



122 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

dvkftawe. tzot\ arrjv Kop(f>r) tov fipaypv (TEXTS II. b. 5) " nobody 
ever attempted (succeeded) to climb to the summit of the 
rock," Sev eKivovae to icapafti " the boat would not move," 
Sev av€yvd)pi%€ " he could not perceive," Bev tov afajvi va *tnrf) 
fiio-a (I. d. 5) " he refused to allow him to come in " (but he 
came in all the same); (b) tow eftpi^e (I. a. 2) "he kept 
scolding them," cr itcvrra^a 'va^opraya k ipcoraya (I. a. 19) 
" I was gazing insatiably upon thee and kept asking," iypol- 
Kovva ra tcaXkr) gov (I. a. 24. 12) " I was (always) hearing of 
thy fairness," ifkovraive " he kept growing richer." 

This meaning of the imperf. can be strengthened by the repetition 
of the verb : e.g. tyjv Itrfiyawc ttjv e-n-qyatve " he kept leading her still 
farther" ("lead and lead"), Sovktve SovXeve "he kept working 
without interruption." 

3. Hence (from 2) arises the employment of the 
imperfect to present that which was customary or the 
repetition of an occurrence : yita? e/3ya£e irepiiraTo, fia$ 
ifiddatve (Texts II. b. 2) " he used to take us out for a walk 
and used to instruct us/' Trj$ ekeav o\ol " they all used to 
tell her," rbv ipcora (I. a. 2) " he asked him again and again" 
SofiecTTifcoc tov Bcco^vave (II. b. 4) "the courtiers used to 
chase him," crra afcorecva Trjv eXou^e? (I. a. 11) "you used to 
wash her in the dark." For the imperf. in temporal clauses, 
cf. §§ 272-275. 

Note Texts I. d. 1, <rav €<£rao-c arb (tttlti tou, tov piarayav ol 
To-Lov7rpes tov " when he came home his daughters asked him (the 
one after the other)." 

§ 1 8 9. The Aorist Indicative is employed : 
1. To portray simply an action or occurrence of the 
past ; it is therefore the usual tense in progressive narrative, 
numerous instances of which are supplied by every narrative. 
The action is not necessarily a punctiliar or uniform act 
(like, e.g., rjpOe " he came," iiriyye " he departed "), it may 
extend over any length of time, and may even consist in a 
repetition of occurrences : efieiv 6 Aidtcos ctttj cpcoTtd " D. 
remained in the fire," efoaav oXtj 777 ^cotf tov$ icaka " they 
lived well their whole life," yia fitav avoifjc . . . iTpayovSrjo-e 
t' drjhovL (IL a. 12) "throughout a whole springtime sang 
the nightingale." When a verb is colourless in regard to its 
kind of action {Alctionsart) the aorist often lends it a 



MOBPHOLOGY 123 

punctiliar (terminative) meaning, i.e. designates the initial 
or final point of the action : e.g. to fcapdfit, fclvrjae " the boat 
began to move," dppcoarrjaa " I became sick," Ko\vfj,7rr)ae arb 
vepo " he dived into the water," <=<$>vye " he went away," eirr^ye 
" he departed," efepe " he brought," iirfjpe " he took away " 
or " fetched," eireaav tcl XovkovBia " the flowers fell," ifiavpiae 
" it grew black/' 

2. The aorist indie, denotes an action just completed the 
effect of which still continues into the present. Here 
German employs the perfect or present, and English also 
the perfect or present, or more rarely the preterite : e.g. efxa9a 
" I (have) learned " and so " know," to, efepa " I (have) 
brought them " and so " have them with me," erai OeXrjae 6 
0eo$ " so God willed, so is it," to /cara^ipafie " we (have) 
attained it," 6 'AirptkL? efyraae " April came " and so "is 
here," vv^raxre " it became night, night is come," eirayfrav rd 
iraycoTid " the frost ceased, is past," ireivaaa " I grew 
hungry," " am hungry still," xddrj/ca " I am undone," dtcovaes 
" did you hear ? do you hear ? " In cases like cfrepvco " here 
I bring," dicov<$ " do you hear ? " the present may also be 
employed, but in other cases like iravovv rd 'waycoTui the 
present would not properly express the idea of completion, 
since there is no " aorist " present. 

1. The idea of completion and of the effect of an action is sometimes 
re-enforced by composition with airo- : e.g. a-n-o^aya " I (have) finished 
eating, ate up," to el8e kcu to a-iroeiSe "he saw it, and saw it perfectly 
(only too well)"; cf. § 159, 1. 

2. Even completion in the immediate future (and so the function 
of an aorist present or a future perfect) may be expressed by the 
aorist, provided the connection leaves no ambiguity about the time 
intended (cf, § 186, n. 2) : e.g. kl av fxl o-ov/SAutctc, evas TpaiKos £)(d67] 
(Texts I. a. 2) "even if you impale me only one Greek perishes 
(shall have perished)." Sometimes a ndec is placed immediately 
before such an aorist. 

§ 190. In the present and aorist subjunctive or impera- 
tive, as well as in the two futures, this distinction of kind of 
action (AJctionsart) is similarly maintained ; examples for the 
imperative, v. § 196 ; for the futures, § 191. 

1. The Present Subjunctive denotes a timeless action 
(occurrence, etc.) depicted in progress, either durative or 
repeated : Bev el/i a%io<$ k iyco riroco poSo vd (f)opa) (TEXTS 
II. a. 12) "I am not worthy to bear such a rose," t?}9 pav- 



124 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

vovXa? crov rj ev^rj vd *vai ytd fyvXa^TO gov, vd firj <re indvrj 
fidcr/caiia (I. a. 14), " thy mother's prayer be thy protection that 
witchcraft touch thee not," Be fiov Bib* 6 vovs fiov 7tXlo vd 
(f>€vyoy (I. a. 24. 12) "my reason allows me no longer to flee 
(think of flight)," rov elirav ol Bpdicoi vd Trryyaivovv fie ttjv 
dpaha ytd vepo " the draki said to him they should go for 
water by turns," Be fiiropa) tcdOe fikpa va ep^co/iai vd iralpvco 
vepo " I cannot come every day to fetch water." 

vd with the pres. subj. is always used after apx%o> (apxwu, etc.) 
" begin " ; as, apxivio-av va tyjv purovv " they commenced to question 
her," dpxtfeis va yLvtvai virXaxwr) " thou beginnest to be merciful." 
If the paratactic construction with kox (§ 261) is preferred to vd, then 
the imperf. must follow • as, apxip^ce 6 yiarpbs *' tXeyt. to 7ra.pap.vBi 
"the doctor began to tell the fable." Note also the expressions va 

TO. KOVTo\o(y)()V[JL€ t VOL fJLTJV TOL fJLaKpaiVOVfJLt " in a WOrd, tO pUt it 

briefly." 

2. The Aorist Subjunctive denotes a single action complete 
in itself or conceived as a whole, including, of course, the 
initial and the final point : Xa^rapay vd rpe^o) cnrjv dy/cdXv 
gov " I long to run into thy embrace," <re nrapaicaXcb vd 
KaOiarjs " I beg you to take a seat," /cdXXio vd cicdaco irapd 
vd pbi] eras 6vfjLi]0<o " 'twere better that I perish than not think 
of thee (forget thee)," %epei vd tyo-y fie rifir) " he knows how 
to live honourably," rov elire vd irep^arricrrj rpel? &pe$ (Texts 
I. d. 1) " he told him to walk three hours," to ^aXUi . . . Bev 
fjbiropovaa vd cttikojctoo " I was not able to lift the burden," 
irpeirei vd ^opiay^, vd fiydXr)? to ttuXto "you must put on, 
put off, your cloak." Note TEXTS II. b. 4, narefiaLve ctttjv 
TIoXl vd fioipdar) eXerjfxoo-vves " she used to go down to the 
city to distribute alms." 

The usages under 1 and 2 may be brought out more clearly 
in some contrasted examples in which the present and the aorist stem 
may be viewed in proximity : a Stv fe'/oeis koYiti, TrpeVei va pwras 
aXXovs " whenever (every time) you don't know anything you must 
ask others," and irparei va. ipwTrjo-rjs dXXove yea. to wpafxa avro " you 
must ask (once) somebody about this (definite) matter " ; ano rtLpa 
OiXia va Tptoyw <t dXXo £evo$ox£o " henceforth I wish to eat (as often 
as I eat) in another hotel," and <rc irapaKaXta va </>as avpio crro o-rrin 
fxov " I request you to dine at my house to-morrow " ; to okouo-c x^P^ 
va. KaTaXa/3aivr) " he heard it without being able to understand it," 
and x^P^ va - KaraXafir} "without grasping it"; Se fviropta irXib va 
eXwi£<D " I can no longer indulge in hopes," and 8c piiropu irXib va. 
iXTTLo-n) "I can no longer hope at all"; Sc OiXta va rove fiXi™ "I 
don't want to see him (have him before my eyes)," and 6£Xo> va toVc 



MORPHOLOGY 125 

'So> " I want to see him (catch one glimpse)," yeVccrcu TovpKos, ttjv 
tticttl o~ov v* dAAaf^s, va 7rpocrKvva<s eh to T^ajxt ; (I. a. 2) "are you 
turning Turk in order to change (once for all) your faith, and 
(henceforth) pray in the mosque ? " TrapaKakeo-e rbv trarkpa ttjs va r<f 
tuxr-fl k Ivav *Kpairr) va rbv (rrikvrj ottov diXei (I. d. 2) " she begged her 
father to give (single act) her a Moor whom she might (at any time) 
send wherever she wished." Cf, further, Texts II. a. 10 for the 
marked interchange of both kinds of action, or I. a. 17 for the two 
presents va jkwvw to, pLaraKta fjiov, va pixy ao~Tpo7r€\£Kia (practically 
" I will play the coquette with my eyes ") among pure aorists, all of 
which have "effective," or " terminative," value. 

Texts I. a. 8. 14 f. (where va \apovv and va xaipowTai are used in 
proximity and under like conditions) shows that sometimes it 
depends merely on the caprice of the speaker how he will formulate 
his ideas. 

§ 191. The usage of the two Futures is already clear from 
the fundamental distinction of the aorist and the present stem 
discussed in the above paragraphs : 

1. 6ava gov areXveo fiaXajia (TEXTS I. a. 14) "I will (from 
time to time) send you gold," avyya avyya 8a po/SoXav gtovs 
Kaymovs . . . va iridvovv Tovpfcovs " full oft will they 
descend to the plains (again and again) to seize the Turks." 

The future continuous (fut. pres.) has sometimes potential value : 
e.g. 7roto5 6a €tvai (rdxa) ; " who will (might) it (perhaps) be 1 " ttoios 
6a KTwra; (II. b. 3) "who can be knocking?" The aoristic future 
here would give no sense. 

2. Tpaiicbs 6ava ireOdvoy " a Greek will I die," 0a (frvyco, 
da ^eviTevrSy " I will depart, I will go abroad," rj akrjOeia da 
fieivr) aXrjdeta (II. b. 1) " truth will remain truth (till the end 
of time)," irdvra 6a eras /caTaSiKaGy r) liriGTiqpfl) (II. b. 1) 
" always will science condemn you." 

Cf.y further, 6a yvpi<rovfJL€ Svb rpeis ^tXtaScg x/ooVia 7ricrw /cat 6cl 
7r€p7raTovfJL€ o-ttjv ayopa va po^Tovfie ktX. (II. b. 2) " we shall turn back 
(one act) two or three thousand years and we shall pace over the 
agora (like our forefathers) in order to ask (in the usual way)," etc. ; 
to x €L t x ^ )va ® a TTYjyaivw raxriKa otto 6edrpo "during winter I will go 
regularly to the theatre," but avpio 6a 7rd<a oto 6kajpo " I will go to- 
morrow to the theatre." 

§ 192. The relative stages of time are usually — as in a. 
Gk. — marked only by present, imperfect, or aorist and future, 
the new compound forms for pluperfect and future perfect 
(fut exactum) are rather rarely employed; cf § 229. In 
ordinary narrative the aor. indie, may have exactly the 
value of a pluperfect ; cf. e.g. ri rytofidrcae (Texts II. a. 3) 
9 



K 



126 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

■" had dined." This usage of the aorist is almost general in 
dependent clauses, and is the rule in temporal clauses, v. 
5 272, 1. 

The Moods. 

§ 193. The Subjunctive has its sphere principally in 
secondary clauses, that is, dependent on conjunctions, 
especially vd. Also in principal sentences it is usually dis- 
tinguished by vd (neg. vd fitf). The independent subjunctive 
"with vd has : 

1. Deliberative (dubitative) force: xLjia^ivr^; "what is 
to happen ? what must we do ? " va to /cava rj va firjv to 
Kavco ; " shall I or shall I not do it ? " Ti^va^ <roy JjjrJh_; __ 
" what am I to say to thee ? " tl va t?}? €vktj6ov/jl€ ; 
"what shall we wish her?" (o^jTdTe^TraTO^rjKdpca, vd_ X&[i€v 

jttcl <7T€vd ; (Texts II. a. 1) " how long, boys, are we to live 

in the passes ? " 

This subjunctive is closely akin to the potential (a. Gk. optative 
with dv) : e.g. 7roios vd Vac; "who might it be? " tt<x)s v a irdvw (ttov 
■a^rrj jaov ; " how can I go to my master ? " tl vd \(x> ; "wliat~shair~ 
I then have?" rC va f Sfjs; "what can you possibly see?" ytart va //,€ 
yeXdoys; (T. a. 11. 22) "how can you laugh at me?" yia-rt va firjv 
ipQrJTt eyre's; "why then could you not come .yesterday?" For 
other forms of the potential, cf. §§ 191, 1 n., and 195. 

2. Voluntative (in the 1st person) : v dvoigco 
TrpafiaTevTahuco " I wish to open a business," va t'S<5 {yd 
IBovfie) " I (we) will (wish to) see." Very frequently it is 
preceded by an encouraging ycd, e\a, crrjicco, aivTe, etc. " now 
then ! " " come ! " : e.g. yid vd IBco " now then, I will see," 
M\a vd 7rai^o)fi€ " come ! let us play," yid, efiya va iraXe-^roi^e 
■"now come let us wrestle." a? is more frequently used 
than vd; v. § 194, 2. 

The conjunction is occasionally re-enforced by ttd ; as, iyw va 7ra 
<t to ^ipta " I want to (will) bring it to you," va ira irdpiD^ev 8a 
(Chios) "we will fetch it"; this ltd is a stereotyped 3rd sing, of 
7r<£(y)o> "I go." 

3. Optative meaning: Bo^a vd '^ o 0eo? "God be 
praised . (have the glory)," va (pvXdyeTac /caveU air 
dv6 } pd)7rov<s dyevei? (II. a. 8), "may everybody be on his guard 
against men of low birth," vd pi-q /acL$ irXaKcoarj tctoco /cano 
" may such an evil not overtake us." It may be strength- 
ened by the particles eX6e, a/>i7roTe?, or fiatcdpi : e.g. eWe 



MORPHOLOGY 127 

(fiaKapt) va ^cry ^tXca yjpbvia "may he live a thousand 

years." 

A request (in the imperative) may be politely introduced by the 
optative expression (ero-tj va t,ya-ys "may you live " = "be so kind," 
"kindly." 

4. Imperative meaning, both in the 2nd and 3rd person : 
va 7ra9 %<wp9 aWo " depart without fail," va irdy{rr}<; arb ef 779 
" cease for the future," va ypdfare ttjv iBvucrj yXwaca " keep 
on writing your national language " ; strengthened yia (or 
cnjfcco, etc.) va 7r#9 " come now, tell," o vopLos va 'vat irpcdro^ 
0877709 " let the law be your first guide." In the 3rd sing. 
a? is more common; u § 194, 2. 

§ 194. The subjunctive without vd is used: 

1. After m{v) as negative voluntative and as prohibi- 
tive (neg. imperat.) beside va fxrj (§ 193): e.g. /mrjv rpe^ovjie 
" we don't want to run," firj <j)oj3aaat " fear not," firjv d<firjvr}<s 
rbv f/ Ayio Baa-ikt va <f)v<y7) erai (Texts II. b. 3) " let not the 
holy B. so depart," /jltjv tckai<; " weep not," fjur) Xeyys " say 
not," firj <f)€vyr]<; " go not away." 

In cases like /jltj fcAaire, jjltj o-kotoWt€ (I. d. 2), /at) <j>o/3rj6fJT€, fir) 
7rto-T€^eTe, etc., the imperat. and the subj. are identical in form. As 
a prohibitive the aorist subj. is on the whole less commonly used 
than the present. 

2. With the particle a'9 (neg. a<; fxrj) to denote the 1st 
person voluntative and the 3rd person imperative: a<; ^Biov/ne 
" let us see," as firjv direXiri^ovpiaG-Te " let us not doubt," 
6tto^€l {LaTLa, a9 ftXeTrr) " who has eyes let him see," a9 epOrj 
"let him, may he, come," as ISovv "let them see." Gf. 
§ 193. 2, 4. 

This as, — which corresponds to.. a. Gk. a$€s_(fr. a<f>ir}fju = a^j/w) 
"leave, allow," or to a. Gk. lace — has sometimes purely concessive 
force : e.g. as elvat " let it be (as far as I am concerned)," as XeVe " let 
them (have permission to) speak," and so is employed to form con- 
cessive clauses ; v. § 278, 3. 

3. In a few formal expressions like 0eo9 (pvXd^Tj " God 
forbid," and with the adverb l<to><; " perhaps " ; as, icax; fipovtie 
" perhaps we may find " beside IVg>9 va (also 6a) fipov/jLe (but 
tc7&)9 a-ov elire " perhaps he told you "). 

JSTote also eXa /x,e TrAepwr/s (Texts III. 9) " now then, pay me," 
dpya vrvOfj (I. a. 12) "let her dress slowly " (followed below in this 



128 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

connection by vd with subj.) and apt ro-al pawa yib <j>i\rjcrr) kt\. 
(III. 5) " well, let the mother kiss her son," etc. 

§ 195. The Imperfect has modal force in expressions like 
eirpeire " it must (have)," " was fitting," rjdeka (vd gepco) " I 
should like to (know)," raipta^e " it was proper, becoming," 
p? efyrave "it sufficed me," e\e<ye$ "you might have said," 
vofjufa "you would think, have thought" (but Xe? "you 
might say, mean"). The imperfect is converted to con- 
ditional (v. § 230) by taking 6 a, etc.; for unreal conditional 
clauses, v. § 277, 4. An impossible (unreal) wish is ex- 
pressed by (fjLa/cdpt, or a/jLTrores) vd " that," or by a? and the 
imperfect : e.g. (jiaitdpi) va rffiovv Tfkovo-ios " oh that I were 
only rich," va fiiropovaa " if I only could," a? to 'Xeye? " had 
you but said, so," va fi a/cove " would that he could hear me," 
a? et^a/ie irapdhes " would that we had money," va (a?) pas 
e/ca/ivav ttj %apd " oh that they had given us joy," va fjurjv 
e2%a yevvrjdg " would I had not been born." Moreover, the 
imperfect or aorist may be converted by va to past potentials 
in questions and exclamations : va yeXda-rrj/ca ; " could I 
have deceived myself ? " va yjqv rjpde 6 Xdpos arb o-ttltlko 
eras ; " is it possible that Death entered not thy house ? " va 
prjv Tjaovva fiedvafjuevos ; " were you not (possibly) drunk ? " 
7roo-e? fie pes va fjrav ; " how many days might it be ? " irov vd 
7T7]ye ; "where can he have gone?" rl vd \avav ; "what 
could they have done ? " irov vd '7X47™? tfcec TrovirovXov ; (III. 
11) "how could you see a multitude there?" Finally, the 
probability of an occurrence in the past is expressed by 6d 
with the aorist indie. ; thus, 6a to \ave " he will, of course, 
have done it." 

Sometimes the last mentioned mode of expression is extended to 
an action completed in the future (cf. § 189, n. 2) : e.g. ri 6a oW/fy, 
Trpwra va (rroxao-TiJs (Texts I. b. 14) "consider first what will have 
happened." 

§ 196. The usage of the aor. and pres. Imperative (2nd 
sing, and pi.) is apparent from the following examples : 

1. 7rd(y)aive arb tcaXo "go to success " = " farewell," 
tovto fiXeire " look (often) at this," acoira " keep still," ijvirva 
" keep awake," aretea " keep standing." 

Notice, however, that the imperatives in -a (rpi\a " run," cf>€vya 
"get off," etc., v. § 218, n. 2), no doubt affected by eAa, take also 
aoristic force. 



MORPHOLOGY 129 

2. (yia) t8e? "just look," o-rdaov "stop," a(j>ae yeid " say 
good-bye," fxelve "stay," irep^drrjae (I. a. 11) "get started." 
And even an action which in its nature is durative or re- 
peated may be summed up into a whole by the aor. imperat. : 
yapryro. tovttjv tt) fatf " enjoy this life," 6v[jli]<tov fie " think of 
me (to the last)," /*& to hifco <rov <pdye fcal irth fcal irpay/xaTeta 
fir) tcdfivr)*; (I. b. 5) "with thy neighbour eat and drink 
together, but do no business (let the good fellowship cease in 
money matters)." 

Compare, further, <f>vT€\f/€ rpavTa<f>v\\id kt\. /cat irorit^i ra 
£axapi (I. a. 4) " plant a rose tree . . . and keep nourishing it with 
sugar"; ypdcf>e fiov tolxtlkol "write me regularly," and ypdij/e jjlov, 
nor* 6a *p6rj$ " write me when you are coming " ; 7rtWc Kpaari " drink 
wine (from time to time)," and Trtere ha Kpavdta " drink (now) a little 
glass of wine." 

Stem Formation of Verbs. 

§ 197. Two stems of the verb must be taken into account 
in the formation of tense, the present and the aorist stem. 
The former is simply that part of the verb which is left when 
the -&> (or -open in the middle) of the 1st pers. sing. pres. is 
stripped off; for the latter we strip off -aa or -a (1st pers. 
sing.) of the aorist. 

From the present stem are formed the present and im- 
perfect tenses with their moods and the future present 
(continmim) ; from the aorist stem are formed the aorist 
tense (active) in its different moods (subjunctive and impera- 
tive) and the future absolute (aor. future). For the compound 
tenses, v. § 223 ff. 

The stem formation of the aor. pass, and the perfect 
participle pass, is in most cases identical with that of the aor. 
active ; for details, v. §§ 205 ff., 209 ff. 

§ 198. According to the varieties of the present and the 
aorist forms, verbs may be classified as follows : 

Present stem. Aorist stem. Aorist form. 

I. Barytones (in -&>) : 
1. Labial, 
(a) simple labial: it, jitt, v 

(vl\ </> 
(&) labial + -to> (-^toj) or -vco 



labial 



+ (7 = i/r 



130 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Aorist stem. Aorist form. 



guttural 



dental 

or 
guttural 

various 
fi, v, X, p 



+ «■*£ 



+ cr = a 
or £ 



non- 
si^matic 



+ *. 



Present stem. 

2. Guttural. 
(a) simple guttural : /e, 77, 7, ^ 
(6) guttural + -tcd or -j/g> 

3. Dental. 
(a) simple dental: r, S, 0, o-, 

(&) dental + -tg> z/g>, (-cttco, 
-&cd) 

4. In -tr/cct) 

5. Nasal or liquid. 

(a) radical /x, z>, X, p + -(v)co 

(b) -atvco (a) minus -aivco 

(/3) -av- or -7]v- 

6. Vowel (a, e, i, o y u)+-vco . . a, e y i, o, u 
IF. Contracted verbs (in -w): 

(a) in -w i, e, a 

(b) in -vco a, i 

(c) semi-contracted various 

The a. Gk. division of verbs into those in -<o and those in -/jll 
holds no longer, as the latter class has disappeared in m. Gk., the 
verb cfywu " am " being the solitary survivor of the -fu verbs (v. 
§ 224, 2). All the rest have passed over into one or other of the 
above present forms ; thus, tiOyj/jll became flc'rw, Zo-rqixi became <rrfiv<* 
or ctt€vo)j LcrTafjLaL became otckw, StSoific became oYSw 8lvu> Stovw, kgi/acli 
became fceiro/xxu, 1 K<xQr)}xai became KaOofxai, Kpc/xa/Acu became Kpifioficu. 
The verbs in -vu/u became verbs in -vm (but /uyyv/u became o-jittyoj, 
Trrjywjju became ttt/^w). Others have been lost or replaced by new 
verbs; thus, Bvya/xaL by (e)//,7ropa) (beside Bvvojxai 2 ), 6lBa by fcvpo>, 
<£?7jtu by Xiyo) or AaAw, 7rijjL7rXrjfjLL by yejat^w, and so forth. 

§ 199. Present Stems. 

I. Barytones. 

1. (a) In -7Tft> (rare): ^Xeirco (also iffXe-n-co) "see," 
(i)prp€7rofiaL " am ashamed," irpeireL " it is becoming." 

In -/47ra> (rare) : Xd^irco " shine." 

In -0g) : /3a$<» " dye," ypdcpco " write," &<j>co " press," 
0pi(j)(o (rpe<j)(o) " nourish," (rrpicfxo " turn, twist," <rTpe<j)co 
" turn," Karaarpefyco " destroy." 

1 Ketrcu, Texts III. 13. c, is a solitary instance. 

2 dfoafiai, Texts I. a. 3, comes from the literary language. 



MORPHOLOGY 131 

In -£<» : navco " cease," /cofta * cut," vifico " wasb," rpifiw 
" rub," Kpv/3w " hide," <rfcv/3<0 " bow," yevofiav " eat, try," a\eif$a> 
beside aXefyco " anoint." 

Verbs in -€uo> are very numerous : £.#. dp^ivevco " begin," 
ficHjiXevas " set " (of sun), yupevoo " seek," SoiAei5o> " work," 
Kovrevco " approach," /jba^evco " collect," 77-KrTeuG) " believe," 
o-rjjjLaSeva) " mark," (ftiXevco " greet, entertain," <j>vt€vcd " plant," 
yfrapeva) " fish," rovp/cevo) " turn (act) Turk," fcafiaWifcevco 
" ride," tcovevco " stop, spend the night," fiia-evco " start,, 
depart on journey." 

In the region of the Aegean with Crete (but not in Aegina) and 
in Cyprus these verbs end, not in -vo (-/?w) but in v3o (-/3yo>) ; thus, 
vLfiyoi, Ko/3y<t)j Kpvfiyu) ', SovXevyw, //.afeuyo), 7r«rr€ijy<D, ^opcuyw " dance, "" 
etc. (in Chios cu^w) ; ^evyw " yoke " and <£euyw " flee " are formally 
identical with these, wherefore also £axo, <£ev<D, e.#. in Pontus. 

These verbs appear in Bova in the form -e#wo (plateguo " speak "),, 
in Terra d' Otr. -eo (pisteo), in Zaconian -e79#w (dulc&gu). 

Qj) -<j>Tco : avd(j)TQ} " light, kindle," aarpafyrei " it lightens," 1 
fe\£(f)Tco " steal," iri^Tco " fall " (irreg.), pd<j>Tco " sew," <7Kd<f>TQ> 
" dig," crfcecf)To/Aai " consider," yd$-T<i> " am greedy for, gulp," 
ateovrdipTco and <7Kovrd<pvay " stumble." 

The partition between the forms of a and & is not consistently 
maintained; many verbs take now the one and again the other 
mode of formation ; thus, ypd<f><D and sometimes ypa^Tw, /ca/?(y)a) and 
KavTio (kol^to)) "burn," KXij3<n, xAe^oi and jcA.£0r&> "steal," *o/?(y)a> 
and k6<J)t<0 "cut," pdSyo) and pd(f>TU) "sew," 07ca/?(y)a), o"Ka</>a> and 
<TK<icfiT<0 "dig," etc. 

2. (a) -/ao : ifKeicto " plait." 

-77&) : acptyyco " press together, squeeze," <f>iyyco " shine." 

-7&) : dvotyco " open," dpfiiya* " milk," Xeyw " say," f irvuya> 
" choke," a/uiiyco " blend, unite with," Tvklyco " envelop," 
<j)v\dsyco " watch, beware." 

-^w : /3i7%w " cough," fipexoo " moisten, make wet," Sexofiai 
" receive," ep^ofiat " come," e^o> " have," Kark\m (in dialects) 
" know, understand how," irpoGkyp " attend," t/x^g) " run," 
yfrdxco (by feeling) " search, feel." 

(&) -%to) : helyra " show," htdd^ra) " pursue," pl%To> 
" throw." 

-;^&) : dBpd^vco " seize," Sei)(vco " show," Btco^vco " pursue," 
plyya* = p£x T0} ) <nrpa>yyu> " push," yfrd^vco = yfrd^co. 

1. On the interchange of -xto) and -xvw and of 2. a and b, c/. the 
note above ; -xvco is more common than -xto>. The form -kvcd or -xvo> 



132 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

is specially wide-spread, in Cappadocia : ttXIkvo), Bolkvo) " bite/' fitfx v(1) > 
Tpe'x^w ; there, too, <£uyva) " flee." 

2. Some verbs, which properly belong elsewhere, by the insertion 
of a y (§ 23) fall into this class ; thus, 7r\i(y)o> " sail," and <£rat(y)co 
" am guilty " (for which also ^>tcu;(gj). 

3. (a) -too : Oerco " place," Keirofiai " lie." 

-dco : dXeOo) " grind," dfjuiroaOoy " push," dvayvcoOo) " read," 
yvedco " spin," /cXcbOco " spin," potco0(o " notice, feel," ifXadca 
" form." 

-So) : only in 8/8g> " give " (with its compounds), for 
which other forms are more common, v. 6. 

-crct> : apea-co " please " (beside dpifa and apeyco, rarely 
apia-Kco ; Texts I. d. 5, Syra). 

-o-<tg> : see following note. 

-fa) : iraifa " play," afcov^co " shout," \ou£a> " bathe " 
(trans.), thJ?© "become firm, curdle." 

-a£a>; these verbs are very numerous: /3pd£co "boil," 
$t,a/3d%G) " read," Kpd^co " cry," irpd^a) " do," a-fed^a " explode," 
a-rd^co " drop," a^d^oo " slay," t«£g> " promise," irpoard^cj 
" command," (jypd^co " enclose," a7o/?a£iw " buy," a\\a£a> 
" exchange," dpird^w " rob, seize," ^aard^co " endure, hold," 
8mo-/ceSa£a> " entertain," Kvrrd^a) " behold," dafid^cj " admire," 
(e)f eTagiw " prove," fiotpd^oo " divide," warded) " fall asleep," 
7reipd^co " tease," amird^w " cover," airovZd^co " study," 
<TT€vd%co " sigh," Tpofid^co " fear," (pavrd^co " imagine," (fxovd&o 
" cry, shout," dyKaXid^co " embrace," fiovXidfa " sink " (trans, 
and intr.), /3pa8vd£co "it becomes evening," 9v/jud%co "sprinkle 
with incense," Koiudfa " try, take pains," \oywi§» " consider, 
meditate," ^eXoyod^co " seduce," (6)fiotd£<o " resemble," 
ifKaytd^ay " go to sleep," (rid^co " arrange," crvvve^id^oa " be- 
cloud," (fxoXid^a) " dwell, nestle," ^peid^o/iat " need," opBivcd^oy 
" command." 

1. Many verbs in -fo> are transformations of a. Gk. verbs in -crcrw 
(Att. -ttg>) ; the latter present form occurs still in some regions, as in 
Crete and other Aegean Islands and in Cyprus ; thus, Trpdcr<ru) " do," 
rdorcra), Tapdcrcru), etc. Also KaTavvtrcrofxat " am excited " belongs here. 

-/£&> (-vf«) : KaOi^w " sit," cr/a£et) " split," %ti£g> " build, 
found," dvTuepv%G) " meet with," a£/£a) " am worth, cost," 
dpfi€v%co "vacillate, swing," dp^ay "commence," ye/x/£a> 
" fill," yefiari^co " dine," yvcopc^co " know, recognise," yupt^oy 
" turn (back)," Sa/cpvfa " weep," Bavel^co " lend," iyyi^ay 



MORPHOLOGY 133 

" touch," KaXorv^L^o) " congratulate," kokklvi^co " blush," 
vofjLi^co " think," ojck£co " command," wcurictfa " endeavour," 
a-KopTTi^a) " scatter," o-^vpt^a " hiss, whistle," raafcl^co " smash," 
(v)ftpi£cD "insult," x a P% m "bestow," dfcovinrlfa "rely on," 
J3vy\%co " keep watch, lie in wait," kocttIZcd " cost," <r€pyiapi£<o 
"go walking," TafiiraKi^co "smoke tobacco." 

2. -cfco (in dialects) : apefco " please," cvKatpitp "am at leisure," 
<j*opiC«> " wear." 

(&) rare : <tkl^v(o (Pontus) " split," fipiarw " find," fiaplaToo 
"strike" (c/. 4). 

4. The present suffix -(7#&> is rare in the ordinary 
language ; besides the commonly used (iplcr/co) (evpia/cco, also 
ftpeafccj) " find," cf. also iLvr\<iKu> (also /wicr/cm), dirofivrjaKay = 
{airo)fi€v<o " remain (behind)," a7ro0vr}crtcco " die " = diroOaivco, 
ftoa/cay " feed," 7rp7jaKco " swell," fiapiaMco and fiapicrKoo 
"" strike " (usually fiapa)), yacncu) " gape." CJf. also apeaKa, 3. a. 

The usage is only locally further extended ; thus, e.y., in Cyprus 
the suffix -vi<TK(D is in vogue : TrAwiV/ca) = ttAwo), Trkovrvvlo-Kw = 
ir\ovTvvu>, etc. In Pontus the suffix -o-kcd is commonly employed 
to form the passive : e.</. rayl^m " nourish," ray l<tkov pat " am 
nourished," but is also otherwise employed ; as, Xd&Kovjxai (Texts III. 
13. c) "I seek aimlessly." 

5. (a) -/jlco: Tp€fio) "tremble" tcpefiofAcu "hang" (intr.). 
-five* : fcdfivci) (beside tcdvm and icdfiaj) " make, do." 

-vco : aTTOfievco " remain (over)," irepifievay or irpoaixevco 
"' expect, await," yivoji,cu and yivofiai " become, take place," 
^&g) and ff/rczw " speak " (also " judge ") ; -fiaiv® " go, 
march" in ai/e-, icare-, Sia- } ae-fiaivco, ftyaivco "go out," 
juralvco " go in," yiaivco " heal," Joiwa and fava) " card wool," 
ireOaivco (and diroOdvco) " die," cjxiipofiai " appear " (" show my- 
self"). 

-\(X)w : pdXkco " place, put, lay," fiydXXco " take out," 
~7rpo/3d\\<o " bring forward," yJrdXXco " sing." 

1. Instead of /SaAAo), etc., we find also /Savo, pydvo), Kara/Saw 
*" cast down," and even /?aiva> (Aegina), also /?a£o), /?yafa). The latter 
is really a different verb (a. Gk. /fy8a£a)), which has in meaning become 
identical with fidXXw, /BydXXa) (and from the same verb di/e/?a£o) " set 
up," Siapdfr "read," [i]fxwd& "bring in"). 

-Xvco : 7rapayyiXvco " order," areXvw (also crrepv(o accord- 
ing to § 31) "send," -tyeKva ( = yjrdXXori). 



134 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

2. The ancient forms in -XXo> are still to be found in those 
dialects that can enunciate double consonants ; thus, e.g., in Cyprus, 
Chios, Rhodes, and the surrounding islands, v. § 36. 

-pea : 7rpo(j)€pa) " pronounce " (from the literary language), 
yaipto and ^aipofiav "rejoice." 

3. Cf. also itvpto, £epu> "I know," and Italian loan-words like 
appifiapti) (pi/?apa)) " arrive," KovfiTravLapoi " accompany," Kovvrpacrrdpi* 
"go to meet," ^pLirapKapm "disembark," o-tpfiipu "serve," etc. But 
these verbs in the rest of their formation do not belong under this 
category. 

-pvco : Bipvco " whip," yBipvco " flay," yipveo " bow," ava- 
yepveo " search all over," iraipvco (in dialect also Traipco} 
" take, fetch," aepvca (in Bova sdrro) " draw," avaaipveo " draw 
up," a-iripvco " sow," <f>€pvco " bring." 

(&) Present suffix -auw : (a) with -a^i/- vanishing in the 
aorist stem : Xaftaivto " obtain, get " (for which, however,. 
iraipvco is more common), KaTaXafiaivco " understand," £ai>a- 
\af3aiv(o "acquire again," XaOatvco "am concealed, escape 
notice," Xa-^alvco " obtain by lot," fxaOaivto " learn, teach," 
irr)<yaLvco (and Trayatvco) " go," iraOalvas " suffer, endure," 
TvycLiv<o " hit (get) by accident," airoTvyxiiv(o " have ill-luck," 
iirirv)(aivay " am lucky." 

Forms like KaraAa/z/Java) and /xavOdvt) belong to the literary 
language; only atcrTavo/xat has survived unaltered (but dtj'ratVou/xt 
= *al<rTaivoficu in Velv.). 

(yS) with -z/- also in the aorist stem : dvao-alvco " breathe," 
fiaOovXaivco "hollow, excavate," ^eo-raivco "make warm," 
fiarcpalvco " am prolix," fiapalvco " wither " (trans.), tjedvfialvco 
" give vent to (anger), subside," %epaiva> " dry," irucpaivay 
" embitter," fieyakaivco " magnify," ifkovTaiva " become rich," 
<f)T(o^aLvco " become poor." 

6. Vowel + *>«. 

iridvco " seize, catch," (frrdvco " arrive, attain," irpo^rdvay 
" overtake," (piceidva) (f>Teidvco " make," %ai>&) " lose," dfMaprduco 
" commit sin," /3v£dvco " suckle," Sayfcdvco " bite." 

Sez>&) " bind," ifkevco " wash," arevco (araivco) " place/" 
KaTacrykvw " seize, appropriate," d/3yaTaiv<o " multiply," 
a(v)^aivco "increase," {Pava)f3\a<naiv(o "shoot forth," 
fcep&aivca " gain," (Twiraivto " keep silent," yopTaivay " satisfy." 

afyrjvw " leave, allow," 7S7W) " put oh'," j/ti/i/g> " put on," 
8tW (also S/Sco) " give," KXeivco " shut," \ui>6> " loose," 7rtW- 



MORPHOLOGY l 135 

" drink," pvvco " pour in," cr{5r\vw (spelled also <rf3vva>) " ex- 
tinguish," yypto " pour." 

Verbs in -(ov<d are quite numerous : ^copco " gird," a-rpcovco 
" spread (out)," ydypw " penetrate," dficlopco " swear," dirXcopcc 
"extend," yXvTcopco "release, rescue," Scopdccpco "mend," 
" improve," tcpvcopco " freeze," Xvcopq) " dissolve," fjuaXcovoy 
" wrangle," 7r\€pd)pco " pay," arjKcibvG) " raise," (Tkotcopco " slay," 
cj)opTdovco " burden, load," fiovkcopG) " seal, lock up." 

1. Some verbs fluctuate between the present suffix -avw, -cuW 
(-cVw) and -171/(0 (-wa>) ; thus, ftv^atva) and fiv£dvo) " suckle," orqvw 
and ot€v<i> "put," ^i/o> and i/reVw "roast," fiW and IcVw "scrape," 
irAwo) and irXivta " wash." Occasionally also Swj/w is employed for 
8iVa> (in the region of the Aegean). 

2. In the Cyprian dialect and wherever twin consonants are in 
vogue (§ 36) the suffix -vou becomes -vvo> : 7rtVvo> " drink," iridwia 
"seize," x^vyw "lose," ^exaww "forget," irrjawvo} (xaaivvw) "go," 
<n?Ka)vvo> "lift," cfaavepuvvo) "reveal." 

3. The class in vowel + vu> has supplanted many of the a. Gk. 
verba pura together with verbs in ~/jll (-vv/u) and the old contract 
verbs in -dw. The verba pura which have not taken this or another 
present suffix (like /cActVw, \ov£d> or Xoww, 7raAeva) = 7raAauo " wrestle," 
<£Tai'yw, etc.) have wholly or partly passed over into the conjugation 
of the contracted or semi-contracted verbs, v. II. 

Interchange among various present forms for the same 
verb takes place not only within - the same class but even 
between different classes ; cf. e.g. the collateral forms avvd^co 
and cvvdyco, irprjGKG) and irprjfa, rivaled and ripdyco, tcepSalpa), 
fcepSevco and KepSi^co, endveo and crid^co, (i^pLirephevw " en- 
tangle " beside Sevco " bind," poudpco beside polcoOco, ^opraivco 
and ^oprd^w, Xovpco and Xovfyo, irayaipco and 7rdvco, (e)foSeua) 
and ^oSid^co, fjia^evco and pLa^copco, pl(f>Tco and pi-)(Tco y 6erco t 
in Asia Minor drffcai Be^rco and re/cva, ftplcr/cco /3piarco 
fipLxyco evptffcco, etc. 

II. Contracted verbs : the stem vowel had already in 
ancient Greek mostly become blended with the present 
endings. 

(a) In -w : dyairSy " love," diroka) " let off," kvK& " roll," 
fieda) "am drunken," jutjpco "announce," povj>a> "suck in," 
$i\a) "kiss," jSoXet "it is possible," 7raprjyopco "console," 
itopco " am grieved," irapairopovixai " lament," <j)op£> " wear 
(a garment) " ; yekw " laugh," irerch " fly." 

(b) In -pay : dird\p<o " let off," yeppco " grow old," yvppfo 
" turn back," /ee/ww " pour in, give a drink," Kpefipcb " hang," 



136 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

%6pvco " vomit," &X V ™ " forget/' Trepvw " pass by," %a\z/a> 
" spoil," (ftvpvco (also <j)vpa>) " lessen," a<j>a\v& " close, lock," 
tcakvco " call." 

(c) Half -contracted : dfcovco " hear," /ea/co " burn," k\cligj 
" weep," /cXetft) " shut " (beside fckeivay), fcpovco " knock, strike 
against," (pratco " am to blame," TrXew " sail." 

For the peculiarities of the contracted verbs (e.<7. the analytical 
forms in -aw for -to) in the present system, see below, § 237 ff. Sub- 
division a contains the a. Gk. contract verbs in -aw, -c'w ; b is a new 
formation (intermixture of verbs in -w and -i/w) ; c contains remains 
of the verba pura, for which also other forms (see above) are in 
use. Some of the verba jpura have been converted completely into 
contracted verbs (of subdivision a) (ef. kvAw = a. Gk. kuAiw, awoXu = 
a7roXvw, fxrjvai — firjvv(j) t /xe#w = tieOva)) ; to the semi-contracted belong 
also some forms of the verbs Xe(y)w, 7ra(y)w, rpw(y)w; cf. § 251 f. 

The contracted verbs have also quite frequently secondary 
forms like the barytones, just as vice versa the barytones take 
secondary forms similar to the contracted. The interchange 
is specially frequent between -d£co or -ifo and -co : e.g. ^acrrd^co 
and (Sacra) " stop," 8iyjrd^a> and Bcifra) " thirst," ^rjrcb = 
eger/ifa, elimonizo ( = dXr}(r/jiovco) "forget" (Otranto), iruvdfyo 
and ireivco " hunger," upe/Ad^co, /cpe/juti and Kpepvco " hang," 
crtcd%<D and o-«w " burst asunder," /3oyyi£(o and fioyycb " groan, 
roar," gecr/cl^co and ^eaKoy " cleave," crvWoyi^ofiai and crvWo- 
yovfjuat (crvWoyeii/nat,) " consider," yaipcri^w and yaipvr& 
" greet," ^rrj^c^co and y}r7j(f)a> " value, esteem," dpird^co, a piracy co 
and a/07ro) " plunder " ; £uj>o> (%€V(d), %v%w (Pontus) and £a> 
" scrape " ; d/3yarco and dftyaralvco " increase," dp^c^co (also 
dpxevco), dpxivco, dpyivl^ua (and dp^tpL^co) " begin " ; ^tyy™ 
and gexdvco, Oappco " think " and dappevco " take courage," 
0tXo> " kiss " and faXevco " welcome, regale," ftapio-tca), (3apa> 9 
fiapaLvco " strike," /36<tkod, fiocrfci£co and poafcdco " feed." 

1. The verbs <£wj/a£w (£e<£wvi£w "cry out"), 7mpafw "tease," 
fwypa<£ifw "paint," have generally supplanted the corresponding 
ancient contracted verbs. Similarly, in Asia Minor (Pontus and 
Cappadocia) /xeflrfw = /a€0w, o-€t£w = o-etw "shake," fv£w — £ww. 
In the Peloponnesus, on the other hand, verbs like <£uAa(y)w have 
passed over into the conjugation of contracted verbs (v. also § 239). 

2. 2%e interchange and variety of present systems assume 
much larger proportions in the different dialects than could be 
brought out in the above survey. 



MORPHOLOGY 137 



The Aorist Stem. 



(a) Aorist Active. 

§ 200. The aorist active of a verb — so far as it is in 
use — is formed either with or without c Aorists are thus 
divided into sigmatic and non-sigmatic. The -a- merges 
with the original stem ending into a, £ or i/r, so that all 
sigmatic aorist stems must end in one of these three sounds. 
The non-sigmatic aorist stems differ from the present stem 
(1) in the loss of the present formative suffix (TraQ-aLvw : 
ewaO-a, <$ep-v(o : efap-a), or (2) by vowel change in the stem 
(fyevyw : efyvya, fievco : e/juecva, gepaivco : i^epava), or (3) by 
the combination of both characteristics (areXvco : earetXa). 
Deponents have an aorist passive. For other less common 
formations, see below. 

§ 201. The large majority of modern Greek verbs form 
their aorist with a cr. This holds, with few exceptions, of the 
present systems under I. 1, 2, 3, 4 (partly), 6, and II. The 
blending of the cr with the radical consonant produces the 
following aorist forms : 

I. Barytones. 

1. {a and b) -t|t- in place of the final radical of the present ; 
thus, eKa{fJb)y^a, akettya, eypa-tya, eTratya, eKotya, efcpvifra, iiri- 
o-reyfra, irovpKeyfra, e^ope^a ; ava-tya, eerKcnfra, etc. ; ^evyco 
gives e&yjra, and irpeirei irregularly eirpeirtae. The verbs 
/3Xe7Tft), 7recj>T0} and favyco belong to a different aorist system ; 
v. § 203, 2, 4, 5. 

The spelling iSovXcvo-a for -\j/a does not represent the real pro- 
nunciation, but arises from the literary language. 

2. (a and 6) -£- in place of the present final : ewkega, 
avoi%a y i(j>v\a^a, efSpega, iirpocre^a, %Tpe^a y etya^a ; aSpaga, 
eSeiga, epptlja, eSicoga, etc. Notice especially €a<j>if;a from 
crfyiyyco, e(f)€^a from (peyyco ; for tftevyco, v. § 203, 2 ; for ^evyco^ 
v. 1. On epxofiat, v. § 203, 5 ; e^o> has no aorist, v. §'224, 1. 
On v'lrocr'xppai, v. § 205, I. 2. 

3. (a) usually <x, though many verbs in -§g> give also £: 
eOeaa, akeaa, eyvecra, evoiaxra, eirkaaa, ctpecra (also ape%a). 

Verbs in -§o> : eirac^a, ecricov£a y eirrjfja, but ekovca. 
Verbs in -d%co (a) with aor. -era : efipaaa, iScd^aaa 



138 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(avi/3a<Ta } KaTeftao-a, epuracra), i^erd^co " prove," i^eraaa, 
jcaraSLKa^co " condemn," KaTaBtfcaaa, eo-fcacra, dyopacra, BcaaKe- 
Sacra, iOdfiao-a, i/AOLpcHra, ecrKiiraaa^ dyKaKiaca, ^Koiriaaa and 
the majority in -td^co. (/3) with aor. -£a, the most commonly 
in use are : etcpa^a, era^a (iirp6(TTa^d) y €<f>pa%a, aKka%a, 
apiraga, iffdcrTa^a, epSovkiat-a, ifcvTTaga, evvara^a, i<77rovSa!;a, 
iireipa^a,, icreva^a y e<r<pa!;a, irpo/na^a, i<f)CQvai;a. 

1 . Many verbs show both forms ; as, e^eVaf a and e£eraara, cKVTra|a 
and -o-a, l/jioiacra and e/^ota^a (/u,oia£w "resemble"). 

Verbs in -££a> (-i5£a>) usually have -era : e^rtcra, evtaaa, 
eicdQicra or (usually) 6KaT<ra y avri/cpvaa, apyi<ra y iyvwpiaa, 
iyvpicra, eBd/cpvaa, optaa (oopicra), iarokicra, irad/ciaa, i^dpeaa, 
iftirfkiaa. 

2. Here, too, some verbs take -£a beside -era: fipifa "insult," 
eflpiia, dyyi£<o "touch," ayyi£a, cr<£a\i'£a) "lock," ecr<£aAi£a, o-<£ovyyi£a> 
" dry off," €cr<£ouyyifa, cr<f>vpi£<o " whistle," icr^vpi^a. Especially in 
dialect -a£a and -i£a have been carried far beyond their original a. 
Gk. usage. 

3. In North. Gk. dialects notice the expulsion of the unstressed i ; 
as, yvptrw = iyvpicrev, yovvaro'iv — lyovaricrtv. In e/caTcra = iK&Oicra the 
expulsion of the i is quite usual. 

4. Verbs in -€'£o> give -ccra; as, <£o/)c£g) i<j>6pc<Ta; on ape£a), see 
above. 

3. (&) either like a (<riet£vco) or like the corresponding 
verbs of the following system. 

4. Here belong Trptjo-Koo %Trpr}%a y ftaplcricco (fiapea/cco) 
ifidpiaa and i/3dpeaa ; iftocncica (pres. fiocrKco and fioencityo) 
and i^da-Kiaa (from ^dcrKco) are irregular. 

5. (a) Only the loan-words given in § 199, I. 5. a, n. 3 form 
sigmatic aorists : appif3api<ra } ^e/jwrap/ca/ncra, crepfiipLo-a, and the 
solitary Oi\<a " wish, will," rjOeXrjo-a. 

(b) likewise belongs to a different aorist system (§ 203). 

6. Vowel + <j ; thus, -acra, -ecra, -loa, -wcra, -ovcra : 
eiriaaa, ecpracra, eepicetacra, e^ao-a, ifiv^acra, iSdy/cacra, and 
afidprrjaa from a/jLaprdva). 

e&ecra, ecrrecra or ecTrjcra, etcephecra and eicepBicra. Other 
verbs of this class in -atvoy (-even) give only -isa ; as, eirkvaa, 
•a(v)^7]cra f (J;ava)j3kdcrTr}cra ; trwiraivw and yopraivto have also 
icrcoiraaa and i^opracra (in form aorists from acoird^co and 
XopTagw). 

1. For the fluctuation among e, a, and $, c/. also that among -eno, 
-dno, -ino in the present system, § 199, I. 6, n. 1. 



MORPHOLOGY 139 

2. The verbs d/Aaprdvco, au£aiVa>, /3\ao-Ta(y(t) } KepSatvo) belong in 
their origin properly to 5. b. Occasionally also ir-qyaww (7rayaiVco) 
gives an aorist lirdy-qcra (in place of the more common iirfjya, 
§ 203, 1). 

a<f)7)(7a (see also § 202), eySvaa, eteXeiara, ekvaa, ea^rjaa, 
iyyaci) eyfrrjaa ; Blvco (Scovcoi) : eSaxra or (in dialect) tfSaxra (on 
which see also § 202). For ttiW, cf. § 199, 1. 

e£a)<ra, ecrrpaxra, e^ooaa, a7r\(oa m a i iykvTaxra, etc. 

3. In the -vw system also -£a forms are sometimes to be found 
beside the usual -era; as, if3v£a£a, e/idfw^a (fr, /Aafwvo)), ^/AcydAwfa 
(/^cyaAawa)), €<f>Ta£a (<^rava)). /Accfwva) — in addition to e/x,d£co£a — has 
also an aorist tfxao-a, a present to which (6)/xafa) occurs in dialect 
(Cappadocia). 

II. Contracted verbs. 

These have without exception sigmatic aorists ; that is, i-, 
e-, a + or. 

(a) Usually- in -isa (-rjaa) : dydirr)Ga % airavrSy " meet/' 
airdvTrja-a, diroyrto " acquire," diroyrrjo-^ y\i<TTpSs " slide," 
eyXiarp^aa, ipcorcb " ask," ipoorrjaa, £3 " live," etyjaa ; ^tw 
" seek," " ask," i^rrja-a, irepiraro} " go walking/' iirepTrdrrjo-a, 
<f>tX(o i(f)i\7)(ra } etc. Notice the spelling a7roXv<7<i, ifiedvaa 
because originally diroXvco, fieOvco ; ifi7Jvvaa y itcvXtaa because 
originally jjltjvvcd, kvXlcd. 

-esa is rare : /3apw " strike " ifidpecra, fioXet "it is 
possible " e/3oXe<7e, fnropco "am able" ipuiropeaa, iraivtb }Jo^ 

" praise " (fyi raivexr a, irapaKakcb (irepiicdXoi) " request " irapa- 
KaXeaa (also irapeicdXeo-cL), 7rapr)yop(o " console " 7rapr)y6p€<ra, 
irov<0 " am grieved " iiroveaa, <f>opco i^opeo-a, ifkavS* " deceive " 
€7r\dve(ra, o-vfiirovco " sympathise " o-vftTrovecra, avycopo) 
" forgive " crvytop&aa, $eX<£ " am useful " </>eXeo-a, %g>/><w " hold 
(of space) " ey&p€<Ta. 

-aaa is likewise rare : 7eX<S iyekao-a, Snjr<5 " thirst " 
iBliJraaa, nreivco " am hungry " eireivaaa, Trerco " flee away " 
i7reraaa (and iirira^a). 

1. For the Pontic €7T€VT€cra = airdvTrjcra, iTpvir€cra = Irprnrrja'a, cf, 
§ 6, n. 2. 

2. In North. Gk. unstressed i drops out ; thus, aya7nriv = ayd-irqo'c, 
yeVvro-iv = iyewrjere (yevvw " bear, give birth "), (Lesbos) rjbopcroL = 
rjfjLTroprjcra (for usual €/A7ro/>eo-a) etc. (c/. above). Through the accent 
of the sing, being generalised plural forms resulted like £p\<rap 
(Capp.) = (€)£dA.i(nty<,€ for (e)£aAicraju,€. 

(&) Commonly -aca: as irepvS) eirepao-a also iyipacra, 



140 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

i/cepacra, ifcpe/juaaa, ifjepaaa, i^e^aaa, ckoXvco (also <rtco\a)) 
ecricokacra, i<fivpa<ra f eyakacra. 

-isa : aTToXvca, eyvpicra, i<r<j>d\i<ra. 

~€<ra : iicdXecra. 

(c) dfcovaa, etckeiaa, eKpovaa ; (f>Tai(y)(o e(j>raiaa and ecf>- 
TCLt%a y 7r\i(y)(o eifke^a. eKayfra (/caion, usually tcdfico, etc.) and 
efc\ay}ra (fcXaiya)) are quite irregular. 

Analogous to the interchange between contracted verbs and other 
present systems, especially those in -£w (-a£<o, -t£a>), we find in the 
aorist also sometimes -a£a and -rj£a instead of -acra and -rjcra ; thus, apart 
from i-irira^a : e.g. OLTravTio aTravTYjia, dpcoTU) " ask," ap<x>Tr]£a (TEXTS 
I. d. 5), f3a<TT(x> " carry," c/Sao-ra^a, fioyyu " groan," efiovyyrjia, povcfrio 
"suck in," ipov<f>rj£a, (tkovvtu "push against," io-KOvvraia, Tpafio* 
" draw," iTpdf3r)£a, <£ucrco " blow," icj>v(rr]£a, crcfxiXvu) " close," €o-</>a\i£a, 
etc. The number of such forms may be easily enlarged from the 
different dialects. 

§ 202. Three verbs form aorists in -k- in addition to the 
(T- aorist forms : eSooxa (in dialect tjBcoko) beside eScoaa from 
Siva) (BcBco, Sdovco), eQeica beside the more common eOeaa from 
Oerco, dcj)7]Ka and a§r)ica (North. Gk. afiica) or r\$T)Ka y rarely 
d(f>7jaa 9 from dcftrfvco. 

1. The three x-Aorists are a. Gk. In some dialects (Aegina, 
Athens, Cyme in Euboea, Scyros, Maina, Epirus, and elsewhere) the 
aorists in -*a- spread to such an extent as to supplant the -era- form : 
e^ri?7r^Ka, eycAa/ca, aKOu/ca, €7riaKa, €Ka6iKa, €<^>K€6a/ca, (tjyvptKa, 
(€)£v/x<dKa, etc. On evprJKa, cf. § 208. 

2. Notice Pontic cvtgW " I struck " from (e)vToiWco, (tjiroiKa " I 
made, did " from <£tclw. 

§ 203. The non-sigmatic aorists fall into three groups 
according to § 200, together with a few isolated formations. 
The non-sigmatic aorist formation is, with few exceptions, 
confined to the present system of barytones under class 5. 
rpe/jLG) (I. 5) has no aorist. 

1. The aorist stem differs from the present in the loss of 
the present suffix : 

Loss of -i<tic(d (I. 4) : evpio-Koo " find " : T\vpa (beside evptffca, 

v. § 207 t). 

Loss of -vco (I. 5. a) : Kafivo (fcdfj,a) y tcdvw) " do, make " : 
e tafia, (ftepvco " bring " : efapa. irivco " drink " : r\iria (eVta). 

Loss of -cllvco (I. 5. b): Xa^aivco "receive," Kara-, %ava- y 
7rept,-\a/3alvcD : eXa/3a, (e)/caTa\a/3a, (i)%avd\afia, {e)TreplXa^a. 

\adaivoy " I am concealed, escape notice " : e\a0a. 



MORPHOLOGY 141 

Xaxaivco " obtain by lot " : eXa^a. 

fiaOaivco " learn " : e/iada (which serves also as aorist to 
gevpco u I know "). 

iraQalvoy " endure " : eiraOa. 

TTTiyaivco "go": iirrjya (accent!); cf also iirdyrjo-a, § 201, 
6, n. 2, and ivrdyqica, . § 207. 

Tv%aivc0 " chance " (a7ro-, iin-Tvyaivm "am unlucky, am 
lucky ") : erv^a. 

2. The aorist stem differs by radical vowel change : 

(I. 2. a) favycti " flee " : %<pvya, 

(I. 5. a) /^ei/a) (or fjusrjaKco, fiveaKco, I. 4) " remain " (a7ro-, 
vrepi-j Trpoa-fxevco) : efieiva, 

(a)Tro6aivcD, (ayiredaivco " die " : anroQava, aireBava, iireOava. 

%aiv(o " card-wool " : egava. 

The vowel difference between aorist and present is not 
always clearly expressed if the present has two forms : 

(I. 5. a) yivofiai and usually yivojicu " become/' eywa and 
also eyeva {cf., further, § 207). 

Note the Cappad. ewe (with both consonants pronounced) from 

Kpivto and Kpevco "judge, speak," eicpiva. 
(I. 6) Tfkevco and ifXvvco " wash " : (in dialect, in Amorgos) 
eiikvva, but commonly eifKvaa. Cf also ftpahvvei " it is 
growing evening": (i)/3pdBvve. 

Besides ^Vw : K/xciva there exists also a present /xctW 

Here belong also all verbs in -aivto (I. 5. b) which have 
not been given already under 1. The e in some converts to 
a, in some to i. 

-aiv<0 : -av-a : 

dvaaatvco " breathe " : avacava. 

/3a0ov\aivco " hollow out " : (i)/3a0ov\ava. 

ryicLLvco " heal " : eyiava. 

^ea-raivco " heat " : i^earava. 

fxapaivco " make to wither " : ifiapava. 

fxoipalvco "appoint one's destiny": ifiolpava. 

^eOvfiaivco " give vent to my rage, compose myself " : 
iijeOvfiava. 

!;€paiv(D " dry " : i%epava. 

TTiKpaivio " embitter " : eirUpava. 

rpeWaivco " drive crazy " : erpeXkava. 



142 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

{•ava<f>atv(j) " I appear again " follows the model of these : £avd<j>ava 
{but more usually ^avacftaivo/xaL : £ava<t)dvr}K(i). 

-atvo) (-fcVoj) : -rjv~a : 
Xovrpaivco " become thick " : i^ovrprfva. 
fiaKpaLvco " am diffuse " : ifjLdtcpTjva. 
7r\ovTaivco (ifkovrevco) " become rich " : iirXovrrjva. 
Tpavaivco (rpavhco) " become great " : irpdvrjva (Pontus). 
(^Tco^aLvco (<f>Tco^ivcD) " become poor " : ityTmyiyva. 

3. Where the aorist stem differs both in the dropping of 
the present suffix (-uco) and in radical vowel change (all in 
I. 5. a) : 

yepvco " bow " : eyetpa ; dvayepvco " search all over M : 
uvdyetpa. 

Bepvco " whip, beat " : eSeipa. 

y&ipvco " flay " : eySeipa and eySapa. 

Tralpvo) "take": eVr^a. (accent I) and (less commonly) 
€7rr)pa. 

irapayyiXvco " order " : irapdyyeCXa. 

aipvco " draw " : eavpa. 

cTrepvco " sow " : eaireipa (pres. also airevpoy), 

ariXvco (aripvfo) " send " : eareCXa. 

yfreXvco " sing " : eyfraka (pres. also tyaXXco). Likewise 
fieXvco, though more commonly ftdXXco (/3ydXXco, 7rpo^dXXoo) : 
efiaXa (efiyaXa, for which also eftyava). 

Even in f$aX\w e/JaAa, ij/dXXm eij/aXa, o-<£aAAa> "am mistaken" 
rjo-cjiaXa the aorist and the present stem become absolutely identical. 
The two forms are distinguished only in those dialects which 
pronounce double consonants (§36). 

4. The aorist formation (I. 1. b) of eirecra from ire^ro) 
" fall " stands solitary ; it serves also as the aorist to kelto/mli. 

5. A number of aorists that belong here take presents 
from a quite different root (defective verbs), viz. : 

/3\eira> " see " : elSa (eSia, Texts I. d. 5). 
epxofiat, " come " : fjpOa {rjpra^ also in the Aegean rjpx a > 
in Pontic epOa, in Capp. yXra), 
Xeyoy " say, speak " : elira. 
But hmXiyw " choose " : 8iaAe£a. 
rpcoyco " eat " : efaya. 

Note also in Pontic the aorists icriyKa " I brought, led in," and 
4£4yKa "I took out" = a. Gk. cicr-, i£-r}V€iKa (-rjveyKa) from -cf>ipo) = 
m. Gk. cjiipvoi. 



MORPHOLOGY 143 

For the formally middle aorist active of -fiaivcD, see 
below, § 207. 

§ 204. The historic relation of the aorist and the present stem. 
The m. Gk. aorist active corresponds exactly to its a. Gk. predecessor. 
M. Gk. on the whole reflects the a. Gk. phenomena in the sub- 
division of the different aorist systems (sigmatic, aorist of liquid 
verbs, and strong aorist). Only in a few cases the sigmatic aorist 
has encroached upon the territory of the non-sigmatic ; thus, eVepSccra 
fr. KcpSatva), iavva^a fr. avvdym (crwd£w), €7rpoo-efa fr. 7r/ooo-€^co, 
dfidprrjcra fr. d/ta/orava) (^Liapro = a. Gk. ^fxaprov has become stereo- 
typed to mean " pardon, beg your pardon "). The two a. Gk. groups 
of the non-sigmatic aorist — the a. Gk. strong aorist and the aorist of 
liquid verbs — cannot any longer be sharply discriminated from the 
m. Gk. standpoint ; thus, aweOava fr. diroOaivui is formally identical 
with i&a-Tdva fr. ^eo-raiVw, although the former belongs historically 
to the "strong" aorists, the latter to the liquid aorists. Conversely, 
xJ/dWo) : eif/aXa is formally identical with fidXXuy efiaXa, although the 
former originally came under the type of eorciAa. Consequently 
further interchange of the two forms is not surprising: beside 
TrapayyiXvo* TrapdyyeiXa one may also employ wapdyyeXa on the 
analogy of /cdjuvw e/ca/xa. The origin of the new creation cj>ipva) 
ecfiepa (for <j>4pw rjveyKa) is to be attributed to such models. 

While in general the ancient aorist has maintained its place, the 
present stem has been quite frequently remodelled, and that on 
the basis of the aorist. Thus the type fi£va> efiewa, a-reXvoy ecrretXa 
set the model for Kpivoy (/cpu/o)) 2/cpiva, irXivio (ttXvvio) tTrXwa, cnripvo* 
€o-7T€tpa, o-epvca ecrupa, etc. The most numerous examples are found 
in verbs with a sigmatic aorist : the phonetic identity among expi^a : 
imo-Teij/a : €KO\j/a : aXuxpa : eKauj/a : typaxf/a : exXei^a gave rise to such 
analogous series as T/>i/?a> : mo-reviii : Kofiw (a. Gk. ko7ttou) : dXeifiu) 
{a. Gk. dAet^xo) : /ca/?o) (a. Gk. /caiw) or ko^toh : ypdcfaru) : /ca<£rco or 
dA.et<£co : ypdcfxti : KX4<fxa (a. Gk. /cA,€7ttw). eKpatja : dpira^a : erafa : 
erdpafa, etc., produced the series Kpd£a> : dp7rd£co : Ta£a) : rapa£o> 
(for a. Gk. rdo-crto, rapao-o-w). As -isa may be aorist to verbs in -i£<i> 
or verbs in -w, so fioyyifa and /3oyy<x> or even $€o-kw for feo-/afa>. 
iyiXao-a from yeXw, etc., set the analogy for eo-Kacra: cr/cw (beside 
<7Ka£a), a. Gk.). 

Sometimes the present system was still further affected by the 
form of the aorist stem; thus, 7ra0atVo) for 7rd<Tx<0 from eiraOa on 
analogy of fiaOaCvta : Zp,aQa. The a. Gk. i£evpov came to be regarded 
as an imperf. and a new present (i)^€vpu> was formed (which then 
received 2/xa0a as complementary aorist). In several dialects 
(Aegean Sea and Pontus) from ecrretXa, l/^etva there arose a areiX.a>, 
fX€tvo) for o-TtXXtti (oTcAroi) fievoy like crirupm (o-iripvoi) from Zcnretpa. 

The imperfects V7rrjya, eirrjya (y7rdyo)) and e<f>epa were conceived 
as aorists (thus exactly the contrary of what took place with igevpov) 
and took presents 7rr)yaivo> and <f>epv<j> according to existing models. 
Certain present suffixes (e.g. -vw, -atVw, -i£a), -[i]d£a>) are especially 
productive, as may be seen in the crop of new verbs. 

The confusion reigning in the present sometimes affected also the 



144 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

aorist : ra£a) (a. Gk. Tcuro-a)) : era£a, Tapafyo (rapaa-a-a)) : erapa^a, etc., 
caused ef cra£u) : ef craf a, o"iroi>Sa£w : eo-7roi>8a£a. II^w (Trrjyvvfu) : 
€7T7]$a } etc., carried iyyifa : eyyifa, etc., along. And, finally, -co and 
-i£<o, -a£o> and -avco being frequently interchangeable, there arose 
types like pov<j)io ipov<f>r)$aj <z7ravTaj aTrdvTrjtja, /?u£ava> £fiv£a£a, which 
here and there spread apace. 

Thus the m. Gk. present and aorist systems are manifestly the 
evolution of older forms aided by the action of widely ramified 
analogies with the aorist as a fixed centre. Still greater variety 
obtains if all the different dialect forms were taken into account. 
It is enough to have discussed the principle in some examples, as 
with this principle there is no difficulty in the majority of cases in 
explaining the deviations of the modern forms from those of ancient 
Greek. 

(b) The Aorist Passive and kindred Formations. 

§ 205. The aorist passive (indicative) is regularly formed 
by attaching -0rj-/ca (1st pers. sing.) or less commonly -tjkci to 
the original verbal stem, that is, that stem which forms the 
basis of the o--aorist. If a spirant (cr, <£, %) precedes the 
-drj/ca, then -Orjfca converts into -ttjko, (according to § 18), 
although the spelling with is often retained (§ 18, n. 1). 
The following examples show how from the several present 
systems the corresponding aorist passive in ~0rjfca is formed 
(for verbs with aorist in -rjfca, v. § 207) : 

1. 1. The final radical </>, and so -(j>T7)tea: 

i/3dc{>TT]fca, (i)aTpi(j)T7jKa } eKavTJjica, i/c6(f)TrjKa y iwavryKa, 
ifcpvcj>T7jKa (less commonly irreg. Kp[o]v^i]07]Ka), iyevTrjtca, 
iiravrpevTTjKa (jravrpevco " marry ") ; io-fctyrrj/ca. On ftXeTro), 
v. § 206 ; on ypdcjxo, 0d/3co f 0pe<fico } tcdficOj vrpeirofxai, arpicpco, 
T P LJ3a) t v. § 207. 

iravrpevKiVy in Velv., etc., is a phonetic transformation of iravrptv- 
t(tj)kc according to § 7, n. 1, or § 37 n. 

2. Pinal radical %, and so -x^"n Ka • 

€7r\e\;T?7Aca, itr^i^TTjKa, dvoiyj r lK<*>> i^vXd^rrjKa, ehex T7 l Ka > 
€/3pe^T7jKa ; iheiyrriica, iStcbxTTjfca, ippi^rrfKa {ippi(j>T7]Ka). — 
imoaypiiai {biroaKoiiaC) : viro<ryk0T)tca " promise " is irregular. 
On \eyco, cf. § 206 ; on ftpix®, irviyw, § 207* 

3. Final radical <r, and so -arrjtca : 

i/c\co(TT7]Ka, €7r\d(7TT)K(i t iXovcrrtj/ca, i/3pd<TT7)rca, ayopd-" 
GTTj/ea, igerdcTTTj/ca, cnc67rd<TT7)Ka, (i)TOt/JidaT7j tea, aroxdaTTj/ca, 
dy/caXtdo-Trjtca, %peid<JTr}Ka t 

Verbs with aorist in -%a form the aorist passive in -x T V Ka : 



MORPHOLOGY 145 

eTtaiyrrjica (irai^co), tcpdyriqKa, irdxTrj/ca, i^pd^rrjKa, 
dpTrd^Trjfcay k(Sa<J r rdyr t r)Ka, €7r€tpd')(T7}Ka y irpo/jbd^TrjKa ; icncui- 
yrrjKa beside l<JKidcrTr\Ka (a/ad£ofiat " fear "). On acpd^co, 
v. § 207. 

KdTavvcrcroiJLai : Ka.TCwvxTr}Ka. 

i%TtaT7}Ka } e<rfci(TT7)Ka y iyvcopio-TTjica, iafcopTriCTTjjca, icrroXi- 
<TT7)/ca, i£a\LGTr)fca (£a\i%ofiai " become dizzy "), opKiaTtjKa 
(6pfcl£ofiai " swear "), i^Tap/itarrjKa ((f>rap^L^ofiai " sneeze "). 

1. -txTrjKa is rare ; as, io-<f>aXt)(TY]Ka (o-<£aA.i£o) "lock"). 

2. Without -o*- only in o-atrifa " putrefy " : IvaTrrjQyjKa (beside the 
more usual lo-dirura with the same value). 

3. 0€T<o takes aorist passive hiO-qua (rare) ; StSco : iSoQyjKa. 

4. ftpLo-fcco (/3p/aTft)) : €vpi07)Ka ; the form (i)/3ap€07]fca 
belongs formally to papicr/cco, fiapeaKco, but according to its 
meaning to the middle fiapeiiftai " am weary of " ; Trprja/cofiat : 
iTTptfo-Trj/ca, /36<tkco : i/3oafci]$7}Ka. 

5. "When an aorist in -0??/<;a is found the forms are : 

(a) (a)7roicpi8r)Ka (airoicplvoiiai " answer "), i/3d\6r]ica 
(eftdpdrjrca), tyaXOrjica (iyjrdpdrjfcaj iyfrdpTrj/ca), eavpdrjica, 
€<j)€p9r]Ka. 

1. £efjL7rapKapi<rTr]Ka from ^epirapKapu). 

The vowel of the present (a) is changed to a in : 
(i)Bdp0rj/ca, (e)<y§dp8r)fca y iirdp0r)Ka (serves also to \a/3- 
atvo)), iaTrdpdrjtca, iardXdrjKa. 

2. Ka/xi/w " make " appropriates the aorist passive from </>r€taj>a> 
(£<j)T€Ldo'Tr]K(i). On North. Gk. irdpKa^=irdp0rjKa 9 cf. § 37 n. 

(&) (a) alardvofiai : alcrrdvdrjKa (used as scarcely different 
from Xa^drj/ca, or like fiadevTrj/ca from juadaLvco from a 
different present stem). 

(/3) i^e&TdOrjfca, ipLapdOrj/ca, i^epddij/ca, iac^dOrjfca, 
iTpeWdOrj/ca. 

6. Partly in -Orj/ca, partly -<tt7)kcl : 

-6rj tea (with vowel modification in some cases) : %ai/&> : 
€ydQr\Ka^ Bivo) : iheOrj/ca, irXevw (ttXvvco) : €7T\v07jfca f /cep&aiva) : 
etcepBidrj/ca, d%aiv(o : d^rfdrj/ca ; d<ptfvco : d^idrj/ca and a</>?7- 
drjfca, ryhvv(t) (vtuvgo) : i^BvOrjKa (ivTV07]fca), Bcvco (Scjovcj) : 
ih66r}fca y \vvco : iXvdrj/ca, %vvco : e^vOy/cci, yjrrjuco (yfrivco) : 
iyfrrjOrjfccij arrjvco " place " : ia-rrfdrj/ca {i<jrd6r)Ka, which be- 
longs to the same verb, serves as aorist to aretca " stand "), 



146 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

crrpcovco : icrrpcoOrjKa, aoovco " attain, finish " : icrd>0r}Ka, 
%covay : i^c60r}fca ; also airXcbOTjfca, fjLa^ooOrjrca, lirXep^07]Ka y 
<TfcoTco07)fca, icfroprcoOrjfca, etc. 

-artjica : Say/cdvco : SayKciarrjica, Tridvo) : i'Trcda'TTjKa, 
(j>T€ulvco : i<f)T€idcrTr)!ca, further io-coTrdcrTrjfca, ^pprdcrTrjKa ; 
/c\€lvq) : i/cXeiaTTjfca, j;vvco : i^varrjica, a/3rjvo) : ia/3rjcrTr]Ka t 
%cbvco : i%d>crT7)K.a. 

-yTT)ica rare : ^v^dyrr]Ka from fiv^dvco. 

II. -0r}fca (-<rT7]fca) is attached to the radical vowel (there 
are here no -rj/ca forms). 

(a) -rj-drjica : dya,7rr)0r]fca y yevvrfOrjica (" I was born "), 
ifcOL/jnjOrjfca (kol/jlovjacu "sleep"), ityTrjOrj/ca, icpiXtfOrjfca, ev/crj- 
Orjfca (ev/covfJLcu, " bless "), i(f)o/3r}07]tca ((f>o/3ovfiai " fear "). 

-i-0r)fca : tcaracfrpoviOrjfca (Karacfrpova) " despise "), iraivi- 
6r)KCL y e7r\av€07]/ca J r irapairovk07]K,a i crv^ovedrfica, (xv^copedrjfca, 
i(f)op€0€fca. 

-GTTjtca is rare : iyeXdaTrjfca, dpvrj(TT7]Ka beside dpvrfdrjfca, 
(apvovnai " I deny "), /cav/ajaTrj/ca (/cav/cov/iai " I boast "), 
tcaTapTqarrjKa (Kaiapetiyiai " curse "), i/caXicrTTjfca (fr. ko\o> 
and KoKvoi), irapaica\e<TTr)ica. irero) takes Trerd^rrjKa. 

(b) Mostly -cTTrjfca : i/cepdcrTTjKa, ifcpefidaTrj/ca, i^e^daTTjKa, 
ij(aXd<TT7}Ka ) i<T<paXiarr)Ka, (e)fcakecnr}ica (jirapa-). 

So also Pontic eireXvcrTa = a.7ro\v$r)Ka. 

(c) dfcovcTTTjfca, ifcXeLcrTTjKa, ifcpovaTTjfca,, ifc\avT7]fca. 

The two forms -rjBrjKa and -rjo-TrjKa correspond to the double 
forms in -a> and -£w. The aorist pass. -x T V Ka from the ~£a form is less 
common ; apart from the usual tTreraxr-qKa notice also c/xa^ctj^TTy/ca 
(beside e/xa£a>0?7Ka already cited, or also ifxalevTrjKa from /xa£evw) and 
Tpa/?w " draw," eTpa/3^x T V Ka ' 

§ 206. A separate stem increased by o> is employed as 
the basis of the .aor. pass, in the following verbs : 
jSA.€7ro) " see " : l$do07)tca (BtcoOrjKa). 
\eyco " say " : beside iXe^rrjfca also eliroyO^Ka. 
ircvco " drink " : (i)7rcd)0r]fca. 
rpcoyco " eat " (aor.) €<f>aya : (i)(f)ayd)0r}fc€. 

§ 207. The aorist formed with -rjica (without 0) is found 
in the following verbs : 

(I. 1) ypd(fxo " write " : iypdcjyq/ca, but usually iypd(}>Tr}/ca. 
0dBco " bury " : eratyqica, but usually i0d(j)T7)fca. 



MORPHOLOGY 147 

Opecfxo " nourish " : iTpdcfrrjfca, €0pd<j>7}ica. 

fcdfta) (fcavrco) " burn " : i/cdy/co, (beside i/cavTrjfca). 

fc\€(j)T(o " steal " : eKkdir^Ka (and ifc\€<pTr)Ka). 

k6/3(d (tco 0to)) " cut " : efc6ir7)ica. 

vTp€7ro/jLcu " am ashamed " : {e)vTpdirr}ica. 

GTpecjxo " turn " : iarpd(f)7]Ka {jcajaarpe^xo " destroy " : 

KaTa<rrpd(j)7}Ka). 
rpifico " rub " : iTpiftrjtca (and irpi<})Tr)fca). 
"(II. 2) fipexw " wet " : kfipayi\Ka (and kfipkyrviKa). 

irviyco " drown " (trans.) : iirviyrjKa (and i f rrvLX T V fca )- 
(II. 3) a"(f)d^a) " slay " : io-tydyrj/ca (and ia^d^TTjKa). 
(II. 5) ^aivofiai "appear": i<pdvr]Ka. 
Xaipofxat (^atpco) " rejoice " : ixaprj/ea. 
ytvofiat " become " : iyivrj/ca (North. Gk. iyivfca) and 
ij6V7]fca (beside eytva, see above). 
The verb -fiaivco (only in compounds, see p. 133) forms 
its aorist active with violent modification of the stem — like- 
wise in -17/ca : 

ape-, /care-, hia-ftalvG) " I go up, down, past " : dvej3r)ica y 
fcaTt&rjKa, htdfSrjKa (North. Gk. Karrj^Ka, hidfiita, v. 
Texts III. 12). 
ftyaivco " go out " : (i)/3y?}tca. 
inraivay " go in " : (i)/jL7rr]Ka. 
<re/3aivcD (in dialect) " go in " : (etycefirjtca. 
On some other forms of -fiaLvcD, cf, § 208. 

(Tw£f3r)K€ "it happened" belongs to cru//./3aiW (borrowed from the 
literary language, instead of which the ordinary people use -yiVeTcu). 
The model of dpe/fcuW : avi/3rjKa, etc., gave rise to a irdyrjKa from 
iraycuvci) ; c/. 7ra2/ kciv€, i.e. i7rdyrjKav y Texts III. 10. 

The word in general use evpyKa or {e)j3prifca beside ??upa. 
from evpla-Kco formally belongs under this category (c/; § 208). 

§ 208. Historical note. The m. Gk. aorist passive (together with 
avi/3r)KaL, etc.) corresponds to the a. Gk. aorist in -^-v or -77-v, the stem 
formation being based entirely on a. Gk. (c/. especially the vowel 
system of icrrdXOrjKa, iySdpOrjKa), Innovations on analogy took place 
only in a few cases : e.g. in the formation of ipdXOrjKt for a. Gk. i/SXrjOrj 
after the model of the rest of the stem /3a\-. Moreover, the relation 
between the formation in -Oyjv and in -yjv has altered only slightly in 
favour of the former, cf. ioTdXOrjKa, cySap^/ca = a. Gk. io-TaXrjv, 
iSdprjv; to which are to be added some new formations which lack 
any corresponding a. Gk. form : e.g. iyivrjKa and the aorists in -60rjKa 
cited in § 206. 

The enlargement of the -6rj- by the addition of -*a (which is 



148 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

inflected exactly like a -era- aorist) is practically but not absolutely 
universal. The unenlarged form is also found particularly in the 3rd 
sing. : e.g. cvpcOrj, d7roKpL$rj 9 yjx^PV (l° s )> T0 ^ (kolko^olvt}, Kare^, 
iSidrj beside iiSidrjrare (Maina) = cSta/fyx* ; the unenlarged form is 
usual in Pontus and Cappadocia ; cf. in Texts III. 13, 14, lirzkvo-Ta 
"I was left behind, remained behind," io-KuOev "he rose," cj>o/3rj0aLi 
" we feared," IvK&Oav " they rose," eKXctSwOav " they were locked in," 
ixdpav "they rejoiced," i£e/3ev "he went out," iBefSev "he went 
away" (similarly in Syra, Texts I. d. 5, r/fXTre; Chios, Texts III. 9, 
r}fjL7rev = ifjL7rfJKe), e/3ya//,(ev), Zftyav "we, they went out." Besides the 
formation in -Otj-kol there is another -Orj-va ; thus in Aegina IkvirrjO-qva^ 
iSeOrjva, €VKr}6r)va beside -OrjKa ; cf. also the inflection of the aorist 
passive in § 221. Finally, an enlargement in -era is found, v. 
Texts III. 2, n. 22. 

The form evprjka comes formally under the type of aorist in 
'Tjkol ; it is identical with the a. Gk. perfect active of the same form, 
and is therefore the only certain remnant of the ancient perfect. 

(c) The Perfect Participle Passive and kindred Forms. 

§ 209. Immediately connected with the aorist passive is 
the passive participle of the past tense, a form considerably 
more in use than the aorist passive. Besides the usual form 
in -/jiivos there is also a less used form in -to? (§ 212). 

§ 210. The ending -pipo? is regularly attached to the 
same root as -Orjfca. The connection of this ending with the 
verb stem results in the following forms : 

1. 1. -(n)ii€vo<i: 

ftafjLfjiivos, ypa/jL/ji€VO$, o-TpifAfxevos, arpi/xpLevo^ ; Qa\i- 
(x&vos (ddj3(D " bury "), 8\ifj,pL€vo<; " afflicted " (dXifico), ko/a- 
Lievos, rpi/jLjjLevos, /epvpLfievos ; tia%e(tJ,)fi€vo<; y i/Jt,7riaTe(fj,)fj,€vo<z 
(" trusted "), ipcore{p)fievo^ " beloved/' cj)VT6(pL)fjL€vo<z, avafifievos, 
k\€fji/jL€vo$, pa/jifjiivos, etc. 

K&fico has besides the normal participle /ea(/x)/4€z>o? also 
another ^oj/xeVo? (from ifcdrjtca), used in the figurative sense 
" poor, unhappy " ; but even fca(fju)fxevo<; may take this sense. 

7ri(f>Tco: 7r€(r/uL€vo<;. On /SA-€7Ta), V. § 211. 

2. -(y)fxevo<;: 

7r\e(y)fA€vo<; y avoi(<y)fi€VO<;, irvi^y^pevos, rv\i(y)/jL€VO<;, 
/3pe(y)fjL€vo<; ; Secy/ievo?, hiayypbho*; ; pcx ro) (pi<j>Teo) : ptf^fievo^ 
(like 1) or even piyjikvos, so also airpc!>x v ^ ' o-Trpco^/jbej/o^. 
On epxopat,, Xiyoo, rpcoyco, v. § 211. 

The phonetic combination -y/x- is retained only in North. Gk., 
elsewhere y before li disappears (cf. § 24). 



MORPHOLOGY 149 

3. Usually -cr/xe^o? : 

deafievos, aXecr/uivo?, kXgjg fiivos (ap6<rpi,evo$). 

Xov^co : Xovapievos, irai^co : Tracy puevo<; or izaidp.kvo^. 

j3paafjL6V0$j ayopao-fiivos, (e)l*6Ta<jpLkvo$, Oafiaafiivos, 
<TfC€7ra<TfMevo<z y cnrovhaapikvos, Tpojiao-fievos, aytcakLacrfievos, 
apayyiacyikvo^ " filled with cobwebs," fiovXiao-pikvos (in spite 
of if3ovXia%a). 

Corresponding to the aorist forms in -fa and -x n l Ka some 
participles end in -(y)/jLkvos : 7TY)(y)pkvos (from irrj^oi), Ta(y)/AcVo?, 
<£pa(y)//,ei>09, apayfiivos (dpa^to " land," from a ship), dp7ray//.ei/os, 
Karacnrapayfjiivos ("torn, rent," metaph.), 7retpay/A€^os, prj pay pkvos 
" isolated " (beside prjpao-pkvos), also Tpo/xaypkvos, fiovXiay/xkvos. 

'XTHT/jLevos, GKianevos, /ea6i(Tfi€vo$, yvpiafievos, Ba/cpva- 
/-teVo9, ei-, 8vo-Tv%i(Tfiivo<$ " happy, unhappy," %aXio-p,kvo<$, 
opicrfievos, <TKop7ncrfievo% rcraiacr pikvo^ a/covpLirtcrpievo*;, etc. 
o-<£aA,iy/x€vo9 beside a^>a\icrpkv s. 

4. (e)f3pi(TKQ) : fipefievos and /3pr}fiivo$, TrprjaKco : nrprja- 
fievo?. /36<tk<d : fioatCMrpbevos, fHaptariccd : /3a,pL<rpi,kvo$. 

5. -fiivos. 

(a) tcpivw : /cpi/xevos, yiaivco : ycapikvos, %aLvu> : %afi€vo<5, 
ireOaivco : {a)ire6apbfxevo<; } /3aXXa> : (SaXpukvos, ^aUo) : i/raX- 
ftei>09. 

dve-, KaT€-fid£o), e/A7rdf<o : dv€-, /caT€-j3aoy/-evos, (c)/A7racr/Jt€VOS. 

crreXvco : araXpbkvo<;. 

fe///7rapKapo> : f €pTrapKapi<rpkvo^ crep^Sipco : crcpy&ptcrfievos (TriKapu- 
ju.cVo5, Texts L d. 5 = TriKapia-^ivo^ " embittered "). 

(y)Bepva) : (y)Bdppbevo<;, iraipvco : irappkvo*;, ykpvco : ye^/)- 
fuevos (also yep/uevo<s) } airkpvoy : <nrappi,kvo<$ y cripvo) : <rvppkvo<; i 
(fiipvco : <j>ep/jL€vo$. On yivo\xai y /cdpivco, v. § 211. 

(5) (a) XaOaivco : XaBcupikvos, Xa^atvay : Xa^aipikvo^ ; 
pia0aiv(o : pLaOrjpLevcx;, Trrjyaiva) : irr}yaiixevo<; t On TraBaivco 
as also on ivqyaivay, v. § 211. 

(/3) ZecrraivG) : ZearapLevos, similarly pLapapukvos, %epa- 
pLevos, TrifepapLivoSj Giyapikvo^. 

6. -pikvos and -apLevos. 

-pLtvos : yapikvos ; dpLaprrjpLevo^ ; Sepiivos, irXvpuevo^, fcepSe- 
pbivos (and fcepSrjpLevos, /cepSicrpiivos), dfypiivoi;, d<f>r}pL€vo<;, vrv- 
pevos, Softe^o?, XvpL€vo$, crT7]pLevo$ (and crre/jez/09), ^f/xeiw, 
-^T7]pLevo<i ; o-rpcopLevos, ^(M/xe^o?, airXtopukvos, KpVO)pL€VOS y 
pLafopbevos, irXepwpievos <rKOT(opL€vo$, etc. 



150 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(rpuevos : inacriievo^y cfrTacrpLevos, <f>Tsia(TpLevo<; ; (3v%acrpL€vo<$ 
(less commonly fiv^aypLevos), Say/cao-pLevos (also Saytcapievos;) ; 
yopTaapbkvos ; KkeLG}i£vo<s y £ycr/jez/09 (and !;vpt,ivo$), a^rjapbevo^ 
(and o-j8i?/ieVo?), £W//<ez>09 ; also hoapevos beside Sofievo? (from 
8tW, Bcovco). 

II. (a) Usually -/xo>09 : 

-Tj-fjuevos : aya7ri]fjL€vo$ } ev/capicrTrjpLevos (" satisfied," from 
€Vfcapi<rT(b), appcD<rT7)fjL€vo<; " sick," etc. 

-e-pbevo? : Trovefievo? " troubled " (Trapa-), avy((opepLevo^ > 
(f>opefAevo$. 

-afiivos : KaXeafikvo^ ; yekao-pLivo?, SiyjraapLevos, ireivaa- 

fjLe0(b : pLedvapuivos, y}ro(f)co " die " : yfrofaapLevos. 
7T6TW : 7r€Ta(y)piivo<;. 

Cf. also aKOVp.7ri<TpL€vos f r. aKOvp-rru) and aKovpirifa and KOi/xioyxevo? 
"sleeping," from Kotftou/xat, together with other verbs in -a> = -afw, 
and -t£a) (cited p. 137 f.). 

(&) Usually -apbhos : 

K€pacrpL€po$ } KpepLaapiivos, %epaapLevo$> £e^a(cr)^ei>09 (" for- 
getful"), 7T€pao-pi€PO<i ) xakaapL€vo$ ; yvpiapbevos (cf also 
yvpi%co), crfyaKiapLevo*; (cf also o-^aXc^co) ; Ka\e<rpLevos. 

But airoXvpuiuo^ (from Xi/pa). 

(c) -apievos and -puevos: 

afcovcrpLevos, KpovcrpL&vos, tckeiapLevos (cf fcXelvco) ; rcXaicD : 
fcKapuivos " bathed in tears " (<?/*. /eata), /ea/3o) : /ca/xez/09). 

§ 211. The following are the participles corresponding to 
the aorist formation given in § 206: 

/SXeirco : IScopLevos (8a>pLevo$). 

ep^opuai : ipxcopievos. ' 

\eryo) : eiircopuevo^ (and \e[y]pLevo<;). 

rpcoyco : (paycopiepos. 

ttlvco : 7Tico/xe^o9 " drunken." 

yivopicii : yivcopievos. 

/cdpLvco : fcapbcop,evos. 

7ra0alvco : 7ra6(opL€vo<;. 

irriyaivco : Traycopuivos (usually TrrjyaipL&vos). 

1. KapwvopaL, Kafx(x)$rjKa means "act as if, pretend." Similarly, 
yewrjuivos (fr. yei/j/w) represents the aor. pass, participle of ywopcu. 

2. v7ro(r)(opai : v7rocr;(€/x€i'09. 

3. What has been said about the aorist passive [§ 208] applies 
practically to the relation between the m. Gk. and the a. Gk. parti- 



MORPHOLOGY 151 

ciple formation. The passive participle is (with the same limitations 
that apply to the aorist passive) the continuation of the same a. 
Gk. form, i.e. the ancient perfect participle passive. 

§ 212. The verbal adjectives in -ro$ belong by their 
formation to the aorist passive and participle (-to? instead of 
-detect or -fievos respectively). They are found, however, to 
only a few verbs, and have become for the most part pure 
adjectives. Of. e.g. dvoiyros " open/' fioXeros " possible," 
fyXevro? " enviable," fcXeicro? " shut," rrXovfitcrro^ " adorned," 
o-firjGTos " extinguished," crfcvcfrros " bent," a^aXv^ro^ " en- 
closed," a-<f>t^To<; " fixed," dyeXaaTo? " without laughter," 
aTrdrrjTos "untrodden," dirpoae^ro^ "inattentive," arlfirjTo? 
" inestimable," . d^copcaro^ " inseparable " ; rrpayrofiyaXros 
" brought out for the first time, ddbutant" 

From these forms inherited from the v a. Gk. must be dis- 
tinguished those (few) formations in -aros (Lat. -atus) which are 
used as adjectives or sometimes even in the function of a participle : 
yejjL&Tos " filled, full," 7r€/x7raTos " sent " (fr. irefiTro)), T/oe^aTos " run- 
ning, precipitate," favydros "flown" (favyu)) ; the last three 
verbs are defective in the participle in -fxivos. (Cf. § 227, n. 2). 
The suffix -aros is appropriated also for derivatives from substantives : 
e.g. d^paros "fresh" (from a(f>p6<s "foam"), pvpovftaTos "perfumed, 
fragrant" (from fivpovStd "perfume"), x L0V< * T0<5 "white as snow" 
(from x i ° vl " snow "). It has even produced another suffix in -ariKos, 
the usage of which may be seen in examples like TrpuToxpovidriKos 
" relating to, of the New Year," ^et/AwvtartKos " wintry." 



CONJUGATION OF VEEBS. 

I. BARYTONES. 
Paradigm : Sev<o " I bind." 

Simple Tenses. 
Active. 
§ 213. Present. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Sivco " I bind " vd Siva) " that I may bind " 

SeVet9 "thou bindest" vd Sivy? etc. 

Sevet etc. va Sevrj 

Sevofie, Sevovfie vd Sevcofie, Sevovfie 

Severe vd Severe 



Sevovv, Sevovve vd Sevovv(e). 



152 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



1. Indicative and subjunctive differ merely in historic ortho- 
graphy : both forms may be spelled quite alike. 

2. In the North. Gk. territory the paradigm runs : Se^ov, SeVs, 
8cV or SeV, ScVou/Ai, SiviTt, 8ivv(€); cf. e.g. the Pontic forms orpciW 
= (TTpwvovv 9 6£\.v€=^$€\ovv, etc., or also Yelv. r<raKwv = To-aKuvovv. 

3. Sometimes also outside the North. Gk. territory {e.g. in the 
Peloponnesus) the 1st sing, ends in -ov instead of -w. 

4. The -s has dropped off in jpezzi and so forth in Bova = 7rat^€ts 
0. § 29 n.). 

5. In Cyprus, Crete, the Maina, Aegean and Lower Italy, the 
3rd pi. takes also the forms hivovvi (Crete), hlvowa (cf. rpex^a, 
7re(£j/a, Texts III. l2 = Tpixovva i 7T€<£rowa), or according to the 
ancient way Sivovo-i, 8£vov(nv(e). 

§ 214. Imperfect 

eSeva " I bound, was binding " - 
eSeve? etc. 

€$€V€ 

iSevafie 

iSevare or iSevere 

eSevav, £Sevav(e). 



Aorist 

Subjunctive. 
va Biaco " that I might bind " 
va Seary? 
va heart} 

va $€<rc0fi€ y Seaovfjie 
va Severe 
va 8e<rovv(e). 

Similarly also the non-sigmatic aorist : 

fcardXafta " I understood " va KaTaXdftco 



Indicative. 
eSeaa "I bound" 
eSeo-69 
eoWe 
iSearafie 

eSecrere (also iSecrare) 
eBeaaVy eheaave 



fcardXa/3e<; 
KardXajSe 
/caTa\d/3afjLe 
KaraXd/3eT€ (also -are) 
KaTa\a/3av, KaTaXd/3av(e) 



va fcaTa\d/3j]<; 

va KaraXdfir} 

va KaTaXdfioofie (-ovfie) 

va Kara\dj3ere 

va KaTaXd/3ovv(e). 



So also eorretXa " I sent " va crreiX(o y ecpaya " I ate " va (frdyco, 
etc. 

1. On the augment, v. § 182 f. The position of the accent is 
sometimes the same throughout; that is, indfia, e<£aya, etc., may also 
be employed (but seldom) after analogy of iKdfxa/x€ f i^dya/xe or 
(North. Gk.) e<£aya/A€, etc., after c<£aya (cf. § 38 n.), which explains 
forms like £aAo-a/* (§ 201, IT. a, n. 2). 



MORPHOLOGY 153 

2. The imperfect and both aorists have therefore taken identical 
inflection. The aor. subj. is inflected like the pres. indie. 

3. The North. Gk. forms result from the phenomena given § 7, n. 1. 
Cf. e.g. from Yelvendos : hripvi% = hratpv^j 8ov\l/3lv = iSovXevev, yvpcriv 
= iyvpi<r€(v)y iraiviv = €7rdya(v€v, SovAn^d/xi = cSouAci^afic, to 3 <f>ayap,L = 
to i<j>dyap,€ ; vd <f>Ktaarov = va </>Kido-a), vd 7rdps = va irdpr}^ vd SetJ=va 
8eif #$, va TTiOdv'' = va irzOdvrj, va 7r^ta(rov/xi — va 7rtacra)/x€, va Kpifxaav = 
va. Kpcfidaovv, On va cr l xovp€7]<z = erv^ojpeo^s va Tr\^pwnrj% = irXcpdicrrjs, 
etc., with expulsion of the or, r/. § 29 n. 

4. In many dialects {e.g. Pontus, Macedonia, Naxos, Epirus) the 
3rd sing, ends in -cv (thus cSevcv, eSecrev) or in -€vc (e.gr. in Naxos, 
Cythnos) : rj/covevc — aKove, rpraitfvs. = €7rat^€, r]/3ovko)cr€V€ = e^SovAaxre. 
This -ve has occasionally (particularly in Naxos) been carried over 
also to other personal endings, e.g. to the 2nd pi. ; cf. dicouTeve = 
clkovtc, 64t€V€ = 0€T€ (to fc'Aa)). The 1st and 2nd pi. end also in 
-a/jiav, -€Tav (-arav), the 3rd pi. in -a»>i and -acri(vc) (eSevavi, cSeVacrt), 
the last in the same dialects that give -owi. Note further en-e^rdva, 
Texts III. 12. In Cappodocia (Texts III. 14. b) the 1st pi. ends in 
-a/jt, or -a/ATi : e.g. rjAeya/A, £dAcra/x, iropKap, (n. 6), eiTra/m, and the 2nd 
pi. in -eo-Tt : e.#. rJAeyeori. 

5. The -Ka- aorist is inflected exactly like the -era- aorist : d^rjKa 
a<f>7]K€$, etc. €/ca^tTo-€, etc. (Texts III. 14) = eVdfliKc ; cf. § 17. The 
subjunctive of acfarjKa, coWa is usually v d^o-a), va S</>o-a), &.e. after 
the manner of the sigmatic aorist; likewise aKovKa — v' olkowo), 
eyeAa/ca — va yeAdcra), €<f>K€iaKa — va ^Ketdcro), etc., though side by 
side with these are found also vd 8<o/cco (Naxos, Epirus, Aegina, 
Cappadocia), v' d<j>^Kov (Velv.), v 9 ol^ktj (Naxos), vd cj>KudKU), etc. 
(Epirus). Likewise (in Asia Minor) vd 7tkw, vd tt/o}? ( = ttoik& for 
7rotKo>) from (e)7TotKa (§ 202, n. 2) and vd evp^Koy (3rd sing, vd cv^tJk, 
Texts III. 13. c) from evprJKa (or ^vpa or evpa). 

6. There are some peculiar imperfect forms in Cappadocia, thus 
in Pharasa imperfects in -(i)yKa, or -Ka : e.g. <£epiy*a = cd!>€pa, irvuyKa 
"I slept" from Trvtovto, iropKa "I was able" from inropta, KaT^i<f>Ka 
" I conversed " from /carf eva) ; in Sili in -icr/ca, -ivocnca, and -wovd^iaKa : 
e.^. TJaiA'tcr/ca or o-eA'ivocr/ca = -tytfeAa, 7rayaivvivov^£io"Ka = iirdyawa. 

§ 215. In some verbs the subjunctive of the non-sigmatie 
aorist differs from the indicative in the radical vowel (cf. 
§203): 

iirrjpa " I took " : va irdpay 

iirriya " I went " : va nrdyco 

rjpda "I came " : va epOco 

(eytva " I became " : va yivco, usually va yivco). 

1. The reason for this — except in the case of cytva — is the re- 
tention of the ancient augment (w-^yov, iir-rjpa) in the indicative. 

A few dissyllabic aorists take final accent in the sub- 
junctive : 



r 



154 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

elira " I said " : 
va elirS) va elirovfie 

va €i7rr}<; va eiirfJTe 

va elirfj va elirovve 

or va Vw, etc. (beside va eXirm). 

Likewise eiha " I saw " : va 18&, va } Sco and va, Scco (St?}?, 
and so on), ^avaelBa (%avae/,8a) " I saw again " : z^a f*avai8S>. 

rjpOa (rjpX a ) " I came " : pa '/o^w, va 'pTw (^a i\0a>) beside 
va y p6co ) va epOco (va eXdco, va ep^co, va, 'px 03 )* 
rjvpa " I found " : va fipw beside va evpco. 
f}7Tta " I drank " : va ttlw. 
eyiva " I became " : va yevSs beside va yevco (and va 

2. On va epOov, va Vov (Texts III. 3), cf. § 213, n. 3. 

§ 216. Imperative. 

Present. 
(a*, va him " let me bind ") 
Se'pe " bind thou " 
a9 (or va) Se'vy etc. 

a? (pa) hevayfxe (hivovfie) „ 

SeWre „ 

a<? (pa) hevovv(e) „ 

(a?, pa Secrca) (a?, pa fieivco) (a?, Pa <j>dyco) 

Beae fjuetve cj)dye 

a? Se«777 a9 fieivj) a? </>a7?7 

a? Seaeojue (Seaov/jLe) a? fxeivcofie as (frdycofie 

Be(7€T€ /JL€IV€T€ <f>dy€T€ 

a<? Beaovv a? fxeivovv a? fydyovv. 

In polysyllabic words the accent of the 2nd sing, with- 
draws unto the third last syllable; as, irriyaive "go thou," 
tcdOicre (or icarae) " sit down." 

Only the 2nd sing, and pi. correspond to the ancient forms, 
with this difference, however, that the terminations of the present 
(-€, -ere) have been carried over also to the aorist. The Pontic forms 
like ypdij/ov, iroivov (7rotrj(rov) 9 and such forms from the Terra 
d' Otranto as krdtiso (Kpdrr}o-ov\ piste/so (irtarTevcrov), correspond 
exactly to an a. Gk. ypd\j/ov, etc. The other forms of the impera- 
tive are constructed with the aid of the particle as (negative as pirj) 
•or vd (va ixrj) and the subjunctive, cf. § 193 f. 

2i ? «*{** 

2 5^ £./.<* 



MORPHOLOGY 155 

§ 217. The initial e of the 2nd pi. termination is quite 
frequently dropped : atcovcne " hear," airfare (sometimes 
a<f>r]T€ or aare) "let, allow," ypd^rre, Ko-^rre (and Kofyre), 
~Xvctt€ " loose," 6pi<TT€ " command " pl^re, fiakre " put," " lay," 
pcoTrj<TT€ " ask," irdpre " take " Qiraipvai), avpre " draw/' ^epre 
" bring." Even the termination e of the 2nd sing, is occasion- 
ally dropped, particularly if a conjunctive pronoun of the 
3rd pers. follows : d^rja to (also a<£ to from a</>9 to, c/*. 
acpcre = a(jyr)<r€, or a? to from acre, TEXTS I. a. 9), /eoS/r to 
(fcofi to), (pfcetdc y rov (Velv.) " do it," /3a\' to, <f>ep ra. So? 
" give thou " (as in a. Gk.) is quite common (beside Scoae) pi. 
Sware, 0e? " put, place " pi. fleore. 

1. Occasionally 86 fxov for 86s pov; 86s and 0c's are, of course, the 
a. Gk. forms, but, as Sucre, Swore, and 6£<ttz show, may be treated 
exactly like the above cited forms. 

2. The employment of 6lkovctt€ and so forth for the subjunctive, 
i.e. va (hit. 6a) olkov(tt€ for v<i (Oa) aKov<r€T€ (cf. Texts II. b. 6), etc., 
is rare. 

§ 218. The following imperative forms of the 2nd sing, 
and pi. belong with the aorists cited in § 215 : 
eirrjpa : Trape, irdpre. 

eirfjya : either va iras, va Trdre (i.e. subj.) or dfjue, apere. 
rjpda: e\a (in dialect vi\a y Texts III. 15, Lada), eXare 

(in dialect also eXacrTe). 
eywa : <y(ve t usually va <ytvri$, va yevere. 
ebira : elire, Ve, 7re?, pi. eiirere, irere, iriare (and irrjTe). 
el8a: I8e, Se, (7 )oVs, pi. ISere, SeVe, (t)8e<TT€. GWt£ 
rjvpa : evpe t fipe, /3/oe9, pi. ftpere, fiprjre. 
fjiria : irt,€(<;), pi. iriire. 

1. The imperat. to epaOa (fxaOaLvay) is /*<£#€ ; fxaOi or /xaOes is, 
however, used in a parenthetic way, "that is to say," "then" (cf. 
§ 259). 

2. On analogy of eXa iXarc a few other imperatives in -a, -are 
have been formed : crre/co, o-reKart (beside orc/cov) from otckojucu 
"stand" (aor. crrdcrou crra0i}T€, V. below), rpe^a rpe^arc from T/oe^w 

■ "run" (aor. Tpcfe Tpe&re), <f>€vya favyart from <f)evyoi "flee, go 
away" (aor. <£vye <£vy€re): the forms of the compounds of /?cuVto 
(§ 207), which belong to another class of aorist, also come under this 
-category : avefia dvc^are (less commonly di/c/^acrre), e/3ya c/Jyare, 
SiajSa 8ta/3aT€ i e/x,7ra ifxirare (beside plurals avefirJTe, /3yr]T€, 8ia^rc, 
etc.). Even the particle vd " there is (are), behold " takes, according 
to such models, a plural vdre. A -s has attached to the final of the 
sing, in the forms efxiras, <j>evyas, Texts I. d. 5 (Syra), pi. <£i/?yao-'Ti, 
i.e. </>€uyacrfe, Texts III. 11 (Velvendos). 



156 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

3. The imperative a/xc a/xere is properly a stereotyped form of 
tt(ya>)/x€. So likewise ttcl/ac "let us go, now then" takes a pi. 
7ra/x€T€. 

Passive. 1 
§ 219. Present. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Bevofiai (Bivovfiai) " I am bound " va Sevcofiai 

Beveaac etc. 

Severac like the indie. 

Bevo fiacre (Bevov fiacre, -fiecre) 
Bevecre 
Bevovvrai. 

The North. Gk. forms Bevovfit y Bivuri, etc., arise from § 7, n. 1. In 
Southern Gk. Bevovfiat is less in use than Bevofiai. In Saranda Klisi^s 
yiVrcu, etc., occurs for yiWai, Texts III. 12. 

§ 220. Imperfect 

eBevovfiov(v), e8ev6fiovv(e) 
eBevovcov(y\ eBevocovv(e) 
eBevovvra(y), iSev6rovv(e), eBevorav(e) 
iBevovfiacre {-fiecre, -fiecra), iBevo fiacre 
iBevovcacre, eBevocacre, eBevovcre 
iBevovvra(v), eBevovvrav(e), eBevovrovcav. 

1. In addition to these forms there are also numerous further 
variations, e.g. : 

1st sing. kBkvofirj (Karpathos), iBevofiovv, iBtvovfwvv^), iBivov/iovve, 
cScvojuoli^c). 

2nd sing. iBivecrovv (Cyprus), iScvovcawfa), eBivovcrovve. 

3rd sing. co7v€to(v) (e.g. in Calymnos), iBiverow, iBlvovTa(v), iBivov- 
Tov t £B€vovt<iv€, kBtvovvTav(<e) (also kBivovvravc, Naxos). 

Instead of the final € sometimes also a is found (iBevofiovva and 
so on). 

1st pi. eBcvovfiacrTtv, iB4vovfi€arrav€ 9 IBivovfiadTav, (k)Blvovfiao'TOvv. 

2nd pi. eScVeore (e.g. in Calymnos), iBevovaTaVy iBevovaacrev, ZBevov- 
croLO-rav, kBivovo-ao-rovv. (Spellings with <rQ for err, as in eBivovcrOav, 
are due to the literary language.) 

3rd pi. iBivovvro (e.g. Calymnos) IBivovrav, IBwovvracrw. Notice 
also Ivrav = ly ivovvrav (TEXTS III. 13. c) and 6afia£dava (from -tpvv- 
rava), Texts III. 12. 

2. The various forms have arisen from the a. Gk. (the forms of 
which are still well maintained in dialect, v. n. 1) through the 
mutual action of the different persons on one another and by the 
action of the active upon the passive. 

1 So also the deponents like fyxo^cu, etc., § 177, !• 



MORPHOLOGY 



15, 



§ 221. Aorist 

Indicative. 
iBiOrjfca " I was bound " 

ihidr/K€ 
ehedrjKafxe 

iSeOrj/cav, iBedrjKav(e) 



Subjunctive. 
va hedw 
va SeOjjs 
va BeOfj 
va BeOovfie 
va BeOrjre 
va heQovv, Zedovve. 



Similarly : i<f>dvr)/ca va (f>avu), avk- KaT€-/3r)tca v' avejiS) va 
KaT€/3a>, i/jLirrj/ca va '/jlttco (less commonly va efxiro), va ' p/iru*), 
ifiyrjfca va y /3y<o. The subjunctive endings take the place 
of -jj/ca. 

1. North. Gk. iStOKa, cAcvTC/ow^Ka, iravTptvKa ( = 7ravTp€VTr]Ka), 
(a)KOV(rKa ( = aKovaTrjKa), <j>KYj(TKa ( = evKrj[(r]Tr]Ka) y etc.: in the plural 
the accent remains on the same syllable as in the singular ; thus, e.g. 
■^a0Kafxi = xdOrjKaiie for ^a^Ka/it, ^o.6kiti — )(d$rjK€T€ for ^aOrfKcre. 

2. The 3rd sing, also in -tv : e.g. o-kiott/kcv, 7ravTpevKiv (Velv.). — 
iStSrjTcre for i&idrjKt, etc., according to § 17. — The 2nd plural occa- 
sionally runs also iSeOyJKarc instead of -ctc (cf the active), the 3rd 
pi. also -a<ri (iStdrJKao-i) instead of -ay, likewise as the active; cf 
§ 214, n. 4. 

3. The subjunctive corresponds exactly to the a. Gk. form. On 
the addition of -k<x in the indie, v. § 208 : it appears in dialect also 
in the subj. in va brJK<a (Texts III. 12) = vol fnrd (fr. ifj,7rrJKa, § 207) ; 
cf on this point § 214, n. 5. The form iBiOrjva (Aegina) inflects like 
ihiQrjKa. On unenlarged formations, cf. § 208. 

§ 222. Imperative. 

Present 
Zevov " be thou bound " 



a? Severat 

a? SevcofMaare 

Seveare 

as hivovvTai 

Zeaov 
a? ZeOfj 
a? BeBov/xe 

as $€0ovv(e) 



etc. 



Aorist 



vTpdyJrov " be ashamed " 
a? vrpairfj 
a9 VTpa7rov/xe 

VTpa7T7]T€ 

a$ vrpairovve. 



Before -<rov of the 2nd sing, aorist imperat. the same stem 
form is used as before -a-- of the aorist act. (yeyjrov from 



158 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

yevoficu, crTo^daov from <TTO)(a^ofiaL). Final accent in the 
2nd sing, with -ou instead of -crov occurs in,: (paivofiai 
i(j)dvr]Ka " appear," <f>avov (beside <pdvov), yaLpoyuai i^dp^tca 
"rejoice," %apov (beside xdpov). jlvo/uai " become " takes 
<y£vov and yivov (and even <ylve). 

1. As in the imperat. active, vd may be used instead of a?. The 
imperat. passive is not common, apart from that of middle verbs like 
yevofiou, crvWoyL^ofiai, ^atpo/xat. The most commonly used impera- 
tive is (ttolctov (North. Gk. cr-rdcr'), pi. crTaOrjTe "stop" (fr. <TT€KOfxai 
iardSrjKa), 

2. On the 2nd sing, and pi. aor. imperat. of dvej&uVo), etc., v. 
§ 218, n. 2. The other persons (a? avefifj, etc.), and di/c/ftjrc, etc., 
beside av€/3aT€, formally come under this head. 

3. crrjKw or cttJkov " rise (up) " beside cnjKwcrov o-TjKwOrjTe f r. 
<rr)KO)va> is used almost like a particle. 

4. In Cyprus (and kindred dialects) the 2nd sing, imperat. 
(while maintaining the tense characteristics) ends in -Oov (-rov) ; as, 
XvirrjOov — Xv-tttjo-ov "regret," crrdOov = ordcrou, crro^dorTov = crTOxacrov. 
(7/., further, Pontic x«f (Texts III. 14. a), i.e. x^tov (subj. va x aT <*>) 
for xdcrov (fr. ixdOrjKa). In Saranda Klisi£s (v. Texts III. 12) the 
imperat. ends in -Tore; as, XovOrare, KoifirjOTcre (from *\ov8r)<r£, etc., in 
active sense). 

Compound Tenses. 

§ 223. The auxiliary verbs e^&> "I have," elfAcu "I am," 
6e\a) "I will," and the particle 0d (0evd, 0avd y 0ekd) are 
employed to form the compound verbal forms (futures, 
perfect, pluperfect, future perfect, and conditional). 

§ 224. Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs. 

1. ex<o is found only in the present, imperfect (eZ^a), 
future (0d '^a> = 0d e^tw), and first conditional {0a eZ^a). The 
conjugation is quite regular. Usually the circumlocution 
with vd is employed for the 2nd person imperative. The 
aorist is sometimes supplied by that of \aj3aivco (e'Xa/3a). 

2. eljiai " I am." 

Present 
Indicative. Subjunctive. 

elfiai va el/nai (yd 'jiai) 

elcrat, vd elcrai (vd 'cat) 

elvai (elve) va etvat (vd 'vat) 

€ifiaaT€j etfjtecTa vd CL/jLacT€j et/jtecra (va ^jxacre), 

elare va elcre (vd 'crre) 

etv(at) vd elvac (vd 'vat). 



: 4 MORPHOLOGY 159 

1. The subjunctive is also written va rjfiai, etc. (3rd sing, va yvai). 

2. The older forms of the 3rd pers. still survive in some dialects 
(e.g. Maina, Pontus, Cyprus). The intermediate step between hi and 
dvai y namely li/at, is met with Texts III. 14. a. Moreover, eh and 
even cl (Chios) are found. 

Imperfect 

T]/JLOVv(a) 

r}GOw(a) 
rjTOz>(e), f)rav{e) 

ijaaare, rjcre 
, fjTav(e) y ijaave. 

3. The following additional forms occur: 1st sing, rj/jtowe, ^owi, 
7}}iav{<e). 2nd sing, rja-ovvt, rjo-ovvi, ycrave. 3rd sing, rjro, tjtovv, rjrovi, 
(Lesbos, Saranda Klisies) rjdav. 1st pi. rj/xetfa, rjfLa<TTav, rjfxao-Tov. 
2nd pi. yjo-tolVj ^o-aorav, rjcrao-Tov. 3rd pi. rjvTOVcrav, rjvTOvcrave. Forms 
like 1st sing, rjfx or rj/xva, 2nd sing. rj<s or rjora, arise in North. Gk. 
dialects. The forms rjpyv, rjao belong to the literary language. 

Imperative. 

va elaai (or va Vat), also elaov 
a? elvai 
a? elfxa<TT€ 
(va) el<TT€ 
a? elvai. 

4. ecrruxrav (Texts I. a. 21) "let them be" is a word from the 
ecclesiastical language. 

The future present and conditional are regularly 0a el/tat, 
8a 'fiat, (6ava ' fjuac) and 0a fjiiovv(e) 7 r)0e)C elfiat respectively : 
on their formation, v. §§ 225 f., 230. The defective forms may 
be supplied by the corresponding forms of are/coy " stand \ 
(aor. iard07]Ka ) etc.). 
3. 0ek<o " I will." 

Present 
0e\a> 

0&ei<;, 0k<; 
0e\6i, 0k 

0€\o(v)/JL€, 0€fJL€ 
0€\6T€, 0€T€ 

6e\ovv(e), 0iv€. 

1. The abbreviated forms are less in use than the full forms. 
Notice, further, 6t = 64\€t(<>) Texts III. 9 (Chios). 



1G0 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Imperfect. 

tfdeXes 

TjOeke 

rjdeXa/ie 

rjdekere (r)0e\are) 

i]$e\av y (rj)0ekave* 

AorisL 
r]06\r]O'a, etc. 

Imperative, 
The 2nd pers. is little in use, otherwise regularly (a? 
BeXy, a? 0eXr}arj). Also the other parts of this verb are 
regulai"ly formed so far as they are at all in use. 

2. The particle 6d and the forms closely akin with it (§ 225} 
were phonetically evolved only partly out of 6e\u> and vd "that":. 
6£(\ei) vd to $€vd (0cAa), 0avd y 6d. Oil the forms Sd, %d t a, ivvdy V. 
§ 20, n. 2. 

3. Sometimes other verbal forms (partly stereotyped and of the 
nature of particles) are employed to express a definite modality ; thus, 
e.g. suzi (soni) pi. sozune in Otranto to denote " can " (sozifondsi " he 
could cry," sozune yeldsi " they could laugh ") or ?ra (a stereotyped 
Tract) vd " am about to, going to " (va 7ra va <rov rr} <£epa> " I am going 
to fetch her to thee "), or Aa^ in Pontus to denote a wish (\a^ e^w = 
a. Gk. e^ot/xt). 

Active. 

§ 225. The Future is a combination of 0a (or in dialect 
Sd, x c ' l > &)> o r dialectically or archaically 0evd (less commonly 
0avd, 0e\d, Cyprian ivvd), with I. the present subjunctive or 
II. aorist subjunctive. The first (I.) is the present future, 
the second (II.) the aoristic future. On the usage of both 
forms, v. § 101. 



I. 


II. 


0a x 8e//ft) 


0a x Seaco 


0a Sivy? 


0a Se<rg<i 


0a Sivy 


0a Se'077 


0a Sevafie 


0a Se'crcofie 


0a Severe 


0a Severe 


0a Sevovv(e) 


0a Seaovve. 



If the verb begins with a vowel the final -a of the particle blends 
1 Or one- of the equivalent forms deva, etc. 



MORPHOLOGY 161 

with the following initial, v. § 11. Analogous to vdv and vd (g 34, 
n. 2), sometimes also Odv is used beside Od. 

§ 226. In addition to the forms given the following 
circumlocutions for the future also are found : 
J) (1) BeXto ypdcpco (ypdyfrco), deXew ypd(py$ (ypdyjrys), etc. 

(2) deXcorypdfet (ypdyfrei), OeXeis ypd(j>ec (ypdyjrei), etc. 

(3) 6eket ypd<pco {ypdy^co), deket ypdcpt)? (ypdyfrys), etc., 
before a vowel 0eV e^o), and so on. 

(4) va (also 6 a) ypd<f>co (ypd-slrco) 6e\co y va ypd<f>rj<; 
(ypdyjrys;) deXew or #e'9, etc. 




These forms, however, are not expensively in use. 

Notice Texts III. 1 (Bova) the future formed with c^w : elvyi na 
erti " he will come." 

§ 227. The Perfect and Pluperfect are formed with the 
help of €%« and the passive participle, or with e^w and an 
(invariable) root form similar to the 3rd sing, aorist 
subjunctive : 

Perfect 
ej£G) Be/xevo " I have bound " e^o^e Sejxevo 

e%et9 Se/xevo ^X eTe Se/^eVo 

€%ei Se/xevo e^ow Se/iivo 

Or : e%o) Secret, (Secrrf) 

e^et9 Seaet 

>/ £ r 

e^ei 0€CT€L 
if £. / 

€%o/xe ceaet, 
€%eT€ Secret, 
eyovv Secret. 

Pluperfect 
el^a Se^ievo " I had bound " 
eZ^€9 Se/xevo 
€i^e Se/xevo 
et^afie Se/xevo 
et^ere Se/xevo 
etj(av{e) Se/xevo. 

Or : **X a ^ <r€C 

e2^e9 Secret, etc. 

The second method is limited in popular usage to localities, 
though a favourite with the authors and poets. The differ- 



162 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

ence which exists in German between, e.g., "ich &mgegangen" 
and "ich habe gebunden," or in French, "je snis arrive" and 
" }'ai trouvc ," applies in modern Greek only to the first but not 
to the second method; thus, elpat, ^Taafiivo^ t( I am (have) 
arrived" (usually aorist ecfrraaa), fieacipv^ra elvai irepaa jieva 
"midnight is past," etc. ; but for other forms only e%a> (eZ^a) 
7rdyet "I have (had) gone," e^co (prdcret, "I have arrived," 
etc. 1 

Se/xiva is also used in place of the form BeLievo. If the 
accusative of a conjunctive pronoun precedes, the participle 
agrees with it in gender and number ; thus, rrjv e^w IBcofiivr) 
" I have seen her," tov$ e^&> IBcofiivovs " I have seen them." < 
Sometimes, however, the participle remains invariable ; cf. rrjv 
exo) IScofxiva, Texts III, 4. 

1. Secret resembles only on the surface the 3rd sing. subj. This 
form conceals the remnant or the transformation of the ancient 
infinitive in -etv (Secretin for SeVat after the present). The preterite 
sense of exw with the infin. is of quite recent date, and was evolved 
out of the scheme er^a -f infin. after the latter had taken on pluperfect 
meaning. 

2. Occasionally (particularly in Zaconian) instead of the participle 
in -ficvo the verbal adjective in -to? is employed : c^w olkovotol " I 
have heard," e^et <r(j>a\ixTr) rrj ywatxav tov " he has closed in his 
wife" ("keeps his wife closed in") (Texts I. d. 5). Sometimes 
even a real adjective serves in this function : e^co 7re/A7raro " I have 
sent," cW favydTos "he is fled" (cf. § 212). 

§ 228. The Future Perfect is a combination of the future s 
of eyo) and the same form which serves also in the perfect 
and pluperfect : 

da e^co BeLievo or da e%co Beaei " I shall have bound " : 
0a e^co is conjugated quite regularly. 

In place of 0a ex * the other future combinations are also 
possible. 

§ 229. The tense forms given in § 227 f. are not 
frequently used, since the aorist can represent also perfect 
and pluperfect (and even future perfect), v. §§ 189, 192. 
The simple vernacular has little need for these forms, which 
define more accurately the temporal course of an action. 
The use of the perfect e%<» Secret, is least common, the aor. 

1 [In English the auxiliary have is universally employed to form the perfect 
and pluperf., but the auxiliary be may be employed with some intransitive 
verbs (of motion), " I am come" or "I have come."] 



MORPHOLOGY 163 

indie, quite frequently having the force of our perfect 
(§, 1 89, 2) ; cf. e.g. Bh exovfie Tro\vavvr}6laei (Texts II. 7) " we 
have (not yet) accustomed ourselves." The pluperfect el^a 
Seaei is employed to throw into relief the completion of one 
action in contrast to another past event, or when the 
expression of the past idea is required to understand clearly 
the connection : tov efyave (pepec fiia fi€pa, ttjv &pa ttov 
eftyaive rj fiaaCkoTrovka (II. b. 4) " they had brought him one 
day at the hour when the princess used to go out," Ov/jLrjBrj/ce 
Kelvo 7rov eZ^e rd^eo (I. d. 1) "he remembered what he had 
promised," oi fioipes ttjv et^ave irpoiKMrei ft oAe? t/9 dfiopcfrtes 
(II. b. 4) "the fairies had endowed her with every beauty." 
The pluperfect is, further, the correct usage when an action of 
the previous past is to be depicted in its course (a function 
for which the aorist is manifestly unsuitable); e.g. oka ra 
fiacrava ttov eZ^e t pa fidget, w? Tore, fjTave TtiroTevta fnrpb? 
. . . (II. b. 4) " all the trials which he had until then endured 
were as nothing compared with . . ." 

The form e^w (el^a) hefievo denotes only by way of 
exception a simple action of the past, but emphasises rather 
the circumstantial result of an action. Thus, while e%w 
rypdyjrei to ypdfjL/jia is akin to eypai/ra, the sense of to e^ca [ 
<ypafifi€vo to ypdfifia is something like " I have the letter / 
written ; here it is." Cf. y further, to \a fiepwfievo (to 
nrovkdia) (III. 15) "I have (the bird) tamed," i.e. "I have 
in it a tamed creature," tov ttKl a £$, to \ov Kpvjifxevov 
(III. 11) "thy bird lives, I have it concealed (in a hiding- 
place)," cftov &jxo el^€ Kpefiaafievo €va cclkkovKi (II. b. 3) 
" on his shoulder he had a bag hung." In most cases the 
participle is little more than an adjectival determination 
(complement) of the object. 

The same applies to the perfect passive el/xai Sefievos 
and the pluperfect yjijlovv hepevos (§ 232): e.g. tfrav <ypafx- 
fieva o-to airaOi "it was (could be read) written on the 
sword." 

§ 230. The various forms of the Conditional are formed 
either (1) with 6d and the imperfect (or pluperfect), or (2) 
with the imperfect of diXoy and an (invariable) basal form in 
-a, like the 3rd sing. pres. or aor. subjunctive (the time in 
question deciding whether present or aorist stem). 



164 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Present Conditional. 

0a eSeva " I should bind " 0a iSevafie 

0a e'Sef e? 0a iSevere 

0a eSeve 0a eSevav. 

Or : tf0e\a SeW (al. SeVet) " I should bind." 

tfdeXes Secret (Sevet) 
rj0eke Secret (Sevet) 
(rf)6e\afie Secret (Sevet) 
(rj)0e\eT€ Secret (Sevet) 
(rj)6ekave Secret (Sevet). 

1. The following combinations are also possible : 

(1) r/Oeka Se'vco (Sccrco), TJ0eXes Sivrjs (Sccnys), and SO on. 

(2) ^j0eXe Sevo> (Secrco), iJ0eXe Sivrjs (Sev^s), and so on. 

(3) 0a rjOeka (va) Sevw (Secrco), 0a ^0cXcs (va) SeV^s (Secnjs), 
and so on. 

(4) 0a ^0eXa Se'vet (BeVei), 0a 7/0eXes Se'vet (Secret), and so on. 

(5) 0a rjOtXe (va) Se'vco (Secrco), 0a ^0eXe (va) Sev^s (Secr^s), and SO on. 
The schemes (3), (4), and (5) emphasise the idea of contingency. 

(6) ^0cXa eSeva, rjOtXes eSeves or 0eXa (l)Seva, 0eAa (ejScves, 
and so on. 

(7) ^0c\* eSeva, ^0eX' eSeva, and so on. 

2. On the sense of 0a eSecra, 0a eSecres, e/. § 195. 

Past Conditional. 
0a eSepa, etc. 

Or : 0a 1 el%a Sefievo or 8e'<m " I should have bound " 
0a, et^e? Sefievo or Secret 
0A et^e Sefievo or Secret 
0a et^a/te Sefievo or Secret 
#a et^ere Sefievo or Secret 
0a et^ave Sefievo or Secret. 

3. Instead of 0a et^a the various combinations of the present - 
conditional may be used, St/iivo or Secret remaining : ^0eXa l^ei Sefiivo 
(Secret), "§0eXa e^co Se/Aevo (Secret), etc. 

On the usage of the Conditional, cf. § 277, 4. 

Passive. 
§ 231. JWttfe. 

I. . II. 

0a a Sevcofiat 0a Se05> 

0a Sevecrat 0a Se0$5 

1 Or one of the equivalent forms Oevb, etc., § 225. 



MORPHOLOGY 1G5 

da Beverai da Bedrj 

da Bev(i>fiaare 6a Bedovfie 

6a Beveare 6a Bedr^re 

da Bevovvrai da Bedovve. 

Corresponding to the future active schemes given in 
§ 226 the following are possible for the passive : 

(1) deXco Bevcofiai (Se&w), deXeis Beveaai (Bedys), etc. 

(2) deXco Bedel, deXei? Bedel. 

(3) deXei Bevcofiai (Beda), deXei Beveaai (Bedrj?) 

(4) va Bevcofiai (Bedcoi) deXco. 

§ 232. The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect are 
formed (1) with elfiai and the passive participle (declined 
like an adjective), or (2) with e^to and a form like the 3rd 
sing. aor. passive subjunctive. 

Perfect 

elfiai Befievo? (Bejievr), Befievo) " I am (have been) bound " 

elaai Befievo*; 

elvai Befievo? 

etfiaare Befievoi (Befieve?, Be/ieva) 

elare Befievoi 

elvai Befievoi. • 

Or : e^co Bedel (Bedrj) 
exei? Bedel 
eyei Bedel 
e%ofie Bedel 
e^6Te Bedel 
e%ovv(e) Bedel. 

Pluperfect. 

rjfiovv(a) Befievo*; " I was (had been) bound " 
i]o-ovv(a) Befievo? 
yrave Befievo? 
Tjfiaare Befievoi 
> ffcraa-Te Befievoi 
rjrave Befievoi. 

Or : elya Bedel 

el%e? Bedel, etc. 



166 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Future Perfect 
6a (or 6eva, etc.) etfiac Se/xei/o? "I shall have been 

bound." 
6a elaai Befjuevos, etc. 

Or: 6a e^co Be0el, 0a 6^779 Be0el, etc. 

he$€L is the transformation of the ancient infinitive SeOrjvai. This 
scheme is, like that of the active, limited to certain localities. 

§ 233. Conditional Present 

0a l eZevovfjiovv 2 " I should be bound " 
6a eBevovaovv 
0a eBevovvrav 
0a iBevovfiacTTe 
0a eBevovaa<ne 
0a iBevovvrav. 
Or : rj0e\a Be0el # 

rj6eke<$ Be0el 
7]6eXe Be0el 
(rf)0€\ajjL€ Bedel 
(rf)06\€Y€ Bedel 
(rj)6ekave Be6el. 

1. As in the active, the following additional combinations are 
possible : 

(1) rj&Xa ScVto/iai (Setfto), ^jtfeXcs SeVecrai (Be6rj<s)y etc. 

(2) rjOeXe Several (8e#a>), TjfleXcs Bivecrat (BeOfjs), etc. 

(3) 6a r}Qt\a (va) ocVw/mi (Sc&o), 6a ^fleXcs (va) Bevtarcu (Sctfw), etc. 

(4) 6a yOeka 8e0€i, 6a fj$€\e<s SeOei, etc. 

(5) 6a rjOeXe (va) ScVw/juh (BeOw), 6a rjOeke (va) Serecrat (Be6rjs), etc. 

(6) tJ^cX' iBivov/xovv, tJ^cX* cScvoucovv, etc., or #eXa Scvov/aow, 0eXa 
oYvouo-ouv, etc. 

2. On the meaning of 0a iBl6rjKa, cf. § 195. 

Conditional Past. 
6a eBevov/JLovv 

Or : 6a rjiiovv{a) Befievo? " I should be (have been) bound " 

#a i]aovv(a) Befievo? 

aa ijTave cefievos 

6a Tj/iaare Befxeioc 

6a fjdaaTe Bepevoi 

6a rrrave Befxevot. 
Or : 6a et^a Bedel 

da el%e<; 8e0€4, etc. 

1 Or one of the equivalent forms devb, and so on, § 225. 

2 Or one of the other imperfect forms, § 220. 



MORPHOLOGY 167 

3. Once more the various other combinations may be inserted for 
$a Yjjjiovva and 0a ct)(a. 

The Participles. 

§ 234. Modern Greek has the following participle 
system : 

(1) Active present participle in -ovtcls : Sevovras " bind- 
ing" (indeclinable). 

(2) Past participle passive in ~/nevo<; : Sefiipo? " bound," 
on the formation of which v. § 209 ff. Sometimes also in 
the same sense a participle in -to?, v. § 212. 

This participle in the case of intransitive verbs has an active 
■value; as, ^raor/xcVos "arrived, 5 ' avOto-fievos "flowering," and even 
<j>aywfji€vos " having eaten, satisfied " (ei/more <j>ay(Dp.€V0L " we have 
eaten, are satisfied "). 

(3) A number of middle (or passive) present participles 
in -ovfievos or -dfievos, of which those more commonly used 
are: 

A. KaOovfievo? " sitting " {jcaBoiiaC) 
KeiTovfjLevos " lying, bed-ridden " {Keirofiai) 
to fieXKovfievo " the future " (fiiXket,) 
Trerovfievos " flying " (7rercu), neut. " bird " 
to irpeirovfievo " what is proper" {irpeirei) 
TpexpvjMevos " running, current " (Tpi^co) ; to Tp€%ov- 

/^a "what has taken place, event" (a. Gk, ra 

yeyovora) 
%apovfi€vo<; " joyful " (^alpa*) 
Xpeta&vfjLevos " necessary," " needful " (xpeidtyixai). 

B. yevd/uLevos " becoming " (yepofjuai) 
ipxd/jt,€PO$ " coming " (ep%ofj,cu) 
fC€iT(ifjL€vo<; beside K€LTov/jLevo<z 

\eydfi€vo<; " what is (being) referred to," " aforesaid " 

(Xeyo)) 
TreTa/jLevo? beside TreTov/juevo? " flying " 
TTTjyaivdtAepos " going " (ir^yaipoy) 
<TT€/cd/jL€vo<; " standing, stagnant " (of water) ; to areicd- 

jxeva " chattels " (cneKco) 
rpepbdfiepo^ " trembling " (rpe/xco) 
rpe^afxevo^ "running, flowing," particularly w. 

" running water " beside rpexovpepos 
%at,pdfjL€vo<; " enjoying (a husband)," i.e. not a widow. 



168 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

1. The participles in -ov^cvos were taken from the contracted verbs, 
those in -dfitvos from ancient models like (l)a-Ta.fji€vo<s, Sc^a/icros. 
Some a. Gk. participles in -ov/xevos have completely lost their original 
meaning; as, 6 rjyovfxevos "the abbot," ra XaXovficva "the musical 
instruments." 

2. There are only solitary occurrences of other participial forma- 
tions ; thus the Greek of Lower Italy still retains a participle from 
the aor. active, the pres. Xvvvovra (-a?) giving an aor. Xvo-ovra, 
yipvovra giving ycipovTa. Others again are retained only as adjectives 
or as substantives : e.g. rj iXcovaa " the compassionate " (sc. nowayta 
"mother of God"); 6 7rapw(v) "present" (indeclinable) is taken 
from the literary language. 

§ 235. The participle constructions are very limited 
compared with ancient Greek. The most common is the 
participle in -yitepo? (2), which is employed as an adjective, 
and sometimes even takes the place of a (relative) dependent 
clause; cf. e.g. III. 8. 1. 

1. An absolute construction occurs in Texts I. a. 8 : rbv 
TT€ptKaX(i> to. x*P ia o"favp(i)fX€va " I beseech, him with folded hands 
(the hands folded)." 

The participle in -ou/^eiw or -dfievo? (3) stands either 
attributive, as ra nrerdfieva nrovXtd " the flying birds," 6 
Xeyd/jLevo? Wv^aptafio^ " the so-called P.," or converts to a 
substantive (see above), or is confined to fixed expressions, like 
era KaXa KaOoifxeva " at random." 

2. In the employment of the vernacular for literary purposes an 
effort is made to extend this principle or to introduce the literary 
form (in -opizvos) into the vernacular usage {e.g. rd ypa^>6p,€vd rov 
"his writings," Texts II. b. 7, or Acyd/xcvos = Xcy dfitvos). 

§ 236. The participle in -oi/ra? (§ 234, 1) is never em- 
ployed attributively, but serves (like the French en with pres. 
participle) as an absolute form, and mostly to complement, 
illustrate, or explain the verbal action : e.g. fiXeTrovras hev 
ftXeirovv " seeing (with their eyes) they do not see," tou? 
elire Xeyovras " he spoke to them saying," fcXaLovra? Xiei 
" weeping he says," 6 Xdpo? irereierav to hpeirdvi Kpara>vra<; 
<tto ykpi " Death hastes, holding the sickle in his hand " ; 
notice 6eXovra<; fifj OeXovra? "whether (he) will or not." 
Further, it may express the contemporaneous occurrence of 
two actions ; as, avrb dttovavTas eytve d(f>avTo<; " hearing (as he 
heard) this he became invisible." Constructions like ovras 



MORPHOLOGY 169 

St^w? pi£a !;€pd07)Kav (Pallis) "being without root they 
withered," are rare. 

1. The participle does not of necessity relate to the subject; cf. 
KAaSciWras . . . tov KcVrpwcrc . . . iv ayKaOaKL "stripping (as he 
stripped) (the bushes) a thorn pricked him," Kaprepovv rrjv ovol^l . . . 
v aKovcrovv to. l$\a)(07rov\a Xakwvras T€9 <£A.oyc/)€s (TEXTS La. 5) 
"they waited for the spring in order to hear the shepherd children 
playing (when they played) the flute." 

2. A nominative absolute construction is rare. The writer 
e E</>TaAt(ori7s, who throughout his historic prose ('loTopia rfjs 
Pa>/uo(rvv?7$, 1901) manifests a certain propensity for participial con- 
structions, and introduces into the vernacular after the model of the 
pres. participle in -ovras aorist forms like Oapiif/avra^ fiaOovras (cf 
§ 234, n. 2), fj>ofir)6£vTas, writes also, e.g., yivercu. jxeydko <rvv48pio <tto 
TraXdn, Trapovras kl 6 Trarpidp^rj^ kl o\ol ol irpov^ovTcs "a great 
assembly is held in the palace, at which the patriarch and all the 
dignitaries were present." 

II. CONTRACTED VERBS. 

§ 237. To the contracted verbs belong all verbs in -w, 
that is, all those which bear the accent on the final in the 
1st. sing. pres. Also the "semi-contracted" verbs given 
under present system II. c follow the contracted verbs in 
some forms. The contracted verbs are divided into two 
classes, the characteristic of which is found in the 2nd sing, 
pres. (1) in -«, -a?, and (2) in -<&, -e??. 

Both classes correspond to the a. Gk verbs in -aw and -co). Some 
are new-comers : e.g. cvkov/acu for efyo/xai (evKrjOrjKa), together with 
such as <tkC)i apiru) for a-Ka^ta, ap7ra£<o, etc., v. p. 136 f. The two 
classes of a. Gk. verbs in -aw and -co> merge in many points in their 
conjugation, the verbs in -dw having appropriated forms of the -c'w 
conjugation (cf. ptarovfie, pwrovve, ipuyrovo-a, ipwTovva, etc.). The 
ancient -dw verbs have converted into barytones in -wvw, v. § 199, L 
6, n. 3. 

The first class in -w, -a? is considerably more common 
than the second, v, § 250. 

Contracted verbs differ from the conjugation of barytones 
only in the present (including imperative and pres. participle) 
and the imperfect, all the other forms being identical with 
those of the barytones (taking into account the stem forma- 
tion of the aorists act. and pass, and the passive participle 
given under § 201, II. and § 210, II.). 



170 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



FIRST CLASS. 

Paradigm: pcora) "I ask." 

Active, 



§ 238. Present 




Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


pcorco 


va pcorco 


pcoras 

pcora 

pcorovfjie 


vet pcora? 

va pcora ^ 

va pcorovfie ^JjJ^ 


pcorare 
pcorovv(e) 


va pcorare 

va pcorovv(e), J*bJ& 


pioTovcri like Sevovcri, § 213, n. 5. 




Imperfect 




(£)pCdTOV<Ta 

(i)pcorovcre$ 
" (i)po)TOvcr€ 
(i)pcorov(TajX6 
\e)pcorouaere (ipcorovaare) 
(e)pcorovaav(e). 


(e)/>a>TOVcracri like eSeVacrt, § 214, n. 4 





§ 239. On the Greek mainland (e.g. in Epirus, Central 
Greece), in the Greek of Lower Italy and that of the Ionic 
Islands and in the Peloponnesus, the following scheme of 
conjugation is found : 

Present 



pcoraco 


pcora fie 


pcoraei^ 


pcorare 


pcorciet, 


pcorav(e) pcoraai. 




Imperfect 


ipcora(y)a 


ipcord(y)a/j,e (ipcorape) 


€pa>ra(y)e<; 


ipcord(y)are (ipcorare) 


ipa>ra(y)€ 


ipcora(y)av (ipcorave). 



The so-called " analysed " (called also incorrectly " uneontraeted ") 
forms are most in vogue in the Peloponnesus. They are new 
formations on the basis of the a. Gk. contracted forms which 
survive in the regular inflection of the present (apart from the 



MORPHOLOGY 171 

infection by the -eta-conjugation). The analytic forms arose through 
the addition of -« and -c to the 3rd sing. pres. cpwra, and imperf. 
cpwra on analogy of the barytones (pwra-ci, cpwra-c), and these forms 
consequently reacted by analogy on the 1st and 2n4 sing. The 
characteristic vowel -a- was finally carried over also to the 1st and 
3rd pi. The -y- in cpwraya is secondary (to avoid hiatus). Such -y- 
forms were then placed on a par with <£vA.ay<*> c<£v'Aaya, etc. The 
regular imperf. fpwToSo-a is also a new formation, suggested by the 
3rd pi. of the e'uo verbs. A more faithful continuation of the a. Gk. 
imperfect is found, e.g., in the Aegean, in the inflection of the sing. : 



ipu>TOvv(a) 


(ipioTovcrafxe 


ipioras 


CpWTOVO" CT€ 


€/30>Ta(v€) 


ipidTovaav). 



§ 240. Imperative. 

pcora (pcoTa[y]€) 

a? poara (a9 pcorcieL) 

pcordre 

as pcoTovve (a9 pcorav). 

Passive. 
§ 241. Present 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

pcoTovfJLat, (also pctiTcifiai) pa po)rovfiac y etc 

pcoraaac 

pwrarai 

p<0Tovfi€<TTa {pcardpLeara) 

pcordare 

pcoTovvTcu (pcordpTac). 

Imperfect 

(i)p(DTOvfiovp(a) 
(i)pcorovaovp(a) 
{e)p(OTovprap{e) 

(i)p(OTOV/JLa<TT6 } (i)pCOTOV/Ji€<TTa(p) 
(i)pG)TOV(TaaT€, (i)pC0TOV<TT6 
(i)pC0TOVPTap(€). 

Besides forms like the following : 

ipO)TU)fJLaV€ cpO>TWJLtaCTT€, iptoTttipLaCTTCLvfa) 

ipioTio(rav€ cpwraoTC, cpcDrwo-acrrc, ipu)TOv<TTav 

cpajraroi/(c), epwnoTCU^c), cpwTwvTai/. £pa)Tu>vTovcrav } ipwTtavTrjaav. 



172 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

§ 242. Beside the conjugation given above, many verbs 
take also the following : 

Present 

dyairetovp.ai (rarely dyaireiiiiai) 

dyaireikaai 

dyaireieTai 

ayaTretovjjLedra 

dyairetiaTe 

aycLTreiovvrai. 

Imperfect 

dya7T€tovfiovv(a) {dyair€t(opLovv\a\) 

dycnr€iov<rovv(a) 

dyaireteTOv, dyairetovvTave (Jiya^et(i}[y\Tav[e\) 

dyaTrecovfxeara, dyaireiovfxaaTe (dyairetdofiaare) 

dyaireieaTe, dyaTreioiKTacrre, dyaTreiova-re (dyaTretcocre) 

dya7reiovvTav(e) (dyairernvTovvav). 

These forms are found (commonly along with the first 
scheme of conjugation) mostly in those verbs which have 
both active and passive forms; as, dyairS) "love," @ovtw 
"dive," /3a<7Tw "hold," Ye\a> "laugh," ttovXc* "sell," Tifio> 
" honour," Tpaft5> " draw," ^a\w " destroy," etc. The deponent 
verbs show a preference for the first form (in -ovfiai or -afiai) ; 
thus, dvfjLodfiat " remember," Koifiovfiat " sleep," \v7r0vfiat 
" regret," <j>o/3ov}iat, " fear " ; though also yKpefieierai " he 
collapses," KarapeUrac "he curses," /cavKeiodfiai "I boast" 
beside KavKovjiat. 

Both the first and also particularly the second scheme of conjuga- 
tion have arisen from an intermixture of the ancient verbs in -au> 
with those in -ca>, on which see below. 

§ 243. Imperative. 

poyrov (dyaireiov) ptardcre (dya7reii<TT€) 

a? pcoTUTai a<? pcorovvrat. 

The . passive or middle imperative forms are rare (e.g. 
Koifiov "sleep"), being replaced by vd with the 2nd pers. of 
subjunctive. 

§ 244. The other forms of contracted verbs not belonging 
to the present system have no peculiarities : 



MORPHOLOGY 17; 



A ovist 



Act. ipcoTTjaa, subj. va pcorijaco, imperat. pcoTrjae. 
Pass. ipcoTijdrjfca, va p&TTjdco, poyrrjaov. 

Compound Tenses. 
Active. 

Future : (I) 6a pcoTco, (II) 0a pcoT^aco (or one of the 
other variations). 

Perfect : e^&> p(07rjfi€vo t e^G> pcortjaeL 

Pluperfect : elya pcoTTjfi&vo or el^a pcoT7]<T€i. 

Future perfect : 8a e^co pcorTjfjbivo or da e^co pcDTijvei. 

Conditional : 6a 'pcorovora, fjdeka pcoTa or r)6e\a pa)T7]a€L 
(or one of the other variations) ; 6a el^a pcoTrj/xivo or 

pa)TT]or€L 

Passive^ 

Future : (I) 6a pcoTOvfiai, (II) da pcoTrjda). 

Perfect : etjiaL peon] fxevos, e^co pcoTrjdel. 

Pluperfect : fjixovva pcorrjfjLivos, ei^a parade!. 

Future perfect : 6a elfjuac pcorrjfiivo^ or 6a €%co pcoTqcrel. 

Conditional : 6a 'pcorovfMovv, rjdeka pcoTrjdel (or one of 
the other variations); da i]fiovv(a) purri/ievo?, 6a etya 
ptoTrj6eZ. 

Participles. 

pwTayvras, pcoTrjfievo^ : cf. also § 234, 3. 



SECOND CLASS. 


Paradigm 


: 7rarco * 
Active. 


< I walk." 


§245. 


Present. 




Indicative. 




Subjunctive. 


irarco " I walk " 




va iraTco 


TrareU 




va Trarfj^ 


irajel 




va 7rarfj 


7rarov/ji€ 




va iraTovfxe 


irareZre 




va irarr^Te 


irajovvie) (jrarovai) 


va 7raT0vv(e) t 



12 



174 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Imperfect. 

Q 
eyrarovaa 

enraro vcres 

eTTCLT0V<T6 

eirarova-afie 

€7rarov(7€T€ 

eiraTovaav(e) (eirarovaaai). 

Besides this the following scheme of the imperf. is 
found (particularly on the islands of the Aegean, Crete, and 
Cyprus) : 

eirdreia (iirdrecovv) eiraTovaafieiy) 

eirareie^ eirarovaeTe 

€77 arete eirarovcrav (iirdreiav). 

1. Notice also (after p) y)fxir6piya or (rj)fjL7r6peya, €<£opiyct, iOwpiya 
(lOwpiyzs iOwpiye) heside iOupeia, e<£dpaa, rjp.7r6p€ia, etc. 

2. On forms like iiraQcia errafleics, cf. § 16, n. 3. 

3. These forms originated in a maimer similar to the "analysed" 
in ~ao> : the ending -c attached to the 3rd sing. cWtci following the 
model of the other verhs, and then created analogous forms for the 
1st and 2nd persons. irovXeiovcra (Texts III. 12) is a cross between 
the type cVaroucra and l-rraTeia. The present reflects correctly the 
a. Gk. scheme. The corresponding a. Gk. inflection of the imperfect 
still survives in different places (e.g. in Cyprus and the Aegean), 
lirdrovv(a) en-arcts lirdrei (liraTtv or €7rctT€ve) c7raTo9/>tc €7rar€tTC 
iirarovo-av. The form lirdrovva was transferred also to the first 
class (cf. § 239 n.). 

§ 246. Imperative. 





ira^ei and irdrete 








a? 7rary 








irarelre 








a? nraTovv(e). 








Passive. 






§ 247. 


Present. 






Indicative. 




Subjunctive. 


TTdTOVfiai 


7rareLovfiat (iraTei&fiai) 




va TrarovfAai 


irarelaai 


iraTeieaai 




etc. 


irarecrai 


iraTeikrai 


and 


so on like indie. 


iraTovfMeaTa 


irareLovfieara 






irarelcTTe 


TTaTeieare 






irarovvrat, 


TrareLovvTai. 







MORPHOLOGY 175 

Imperfect 

6iraTOViiovv(a) €7rar€LOVfiovv(a) 

iiraTOvaovv{a) eiraTeiovcrovv(ci) 

iiraTovvT(iv(e) iirareieTOV^ eTTaT€iovvTav(e) 

iiraTovfiaare eTrareiovfieara 

iTTarovaatTTe iiraTeieore 

6TraT0VVTav(e) iiraTeLOVvravid). 

1. Also other variant endings as in the paradigm, § 220. 

The second scheme of conjugation is more in use than 
the first, although the first is more nearly akin to a. Gk. 
Deponents have become mostly exactly identical in their 
inflection with that of the first class (§ 241); Ov^iovfiat, 
Xvirovfiaiy <j>o/3ovfiat, belong under the first class according to 
their origin, but follow the second in their inflection. On the 
other hand always fiaOeiovfiai or fiapeiefiai " I am weary." 

2. Cf. also cnAXoycu'/juu, o-vAAoycteVat (Texts I. a. 14, Velv. 
o-vWoveo-i) beside the 1st person <rv\Xo(y)ov/jiaL " I think." 

§ 248. Imperative. 

iraretov (ya Trareieaai) 
a<z iraTTjTai, a? irareikrai 
7raT€iicrT€ (ya irareieare) 
a? TTCLTOvvrai, a? iraTetovvrai. 

§ 249. All the other parts are formed according to the 
same rules as in Glass I. (§ 244). Notice particularly the 
participle Traroovras like pcDT<ovTa$. 

§ 250. The list of verbs which follow Class I. or II. respec- 
tively cannot be definitely fixed, as the same verb frequently 
gives double forms for the same part. In general the second 
class of contracted verbs is much less prominent than the 
first ; only apya> " am late," ifiwopco " am able," dappw 
" believe " (but dappevco " I am brave "), f<w (also £i<b) " live," 
<j)i\a) " kiss " (but (ptXevo) " greet kindly, regale "), are 
universally (or practically universally) conjugated like* 7raT«. 

1. From tfi note the spellings £#s, £#» &? TC (further, regularly 
£ovfi.€, £ovv[e\, i£ov<ra). This verb has become identical with iro/ru in 
the pronunciation of its endings, only orthography still maintaining 
the a. Gk. peculiarity of the verb. 

All the rest of the contracted verbs may be conjugated 
after Class I. This is quite usual in the Peloponnesus and 



176 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

in Northern Gk. (cf. § 7, n. 1). while in the Aegean region 
(except the Northern part) Class II. is more plentifully 
represented, though still less prominent than Class I. Thus 
in m. Gk., e.g., the following a. Gk. verbs in -eo> are regularly 
conjugated like Class I. (-co, -a?) : cikXovOco " follow," fyrco 
" request," 8or)0co " help," Kevrco " prick," kvvtjjco " hunt," 
fxerpco " measure, number," rroXefxco " make an effort, struggle," 
TTpoaicvvto " greet respectfully," ^aiperco " greet," %tu7tw 
" strike." 

The following verbs usually (especially in the region of 
the Aegean) inflect after Class II. (-w, -e£<?) : /3<zpw " strike," 
0G?pw " see, consider," Kaprepco " await," xekalSco " warble," 
Kparco " hold," XaXw " speak," Xyafiovco " forget," /u\w 
" speak," rraprjyopco " console," irapaicakto (rrepiKaXco) " request," 
rreprrarco " go walking," 7ro^eZ " it pains," av^copco " pardon/' 
<£op<w " wear " (a garment), ^pcoarco " owe " ; but also /u\o> 
jjuikas, Kaprepco Kaprepas, Kparco k paras, xpcoarto ^pcoaras, 
akrjtr/jLOvdto, Karacppovdto, av^copdco, etc. Notice fiaarei, 
Texts III. 6 (Calymnos), for the regular ftaara. 

2. Also mostly all the verbs in original -«o, which are borrowed 
from the literary language, follow Class II. ; as, koltoikC) " dwell " 
(vernacular /xcVw, KaOofiai), 7rpo£cvQ> "cause," irpo&KaXi}} "invite," 
v7rr]p€T(i) " serve " (SouAcvw), and others. 

3. The secondary contracted verbs £ai " I scrape " (beside the 
usual £vvw), </>toj (usually ^tww) "expectorate," cr/Sto (o-^w) 
" extinguish," and similar verbs, p. 136, inflect like Class II. ; but 
also tt7roAa) (a. Gk. Xuw) : diroAaei, //.€#o> : //.€0ei9 and p-eOas, {ltjuu) : 
firjvas. 

Semi-contracted Verbs, 

§ 251. A few verbs with a vocalic final in the stem 
blend this final in some cases with the ending : 
(1), ukovco " I hear " aieov/te (aKOVfxe) 

clkov? (cikov?) CLKOVre 
(a/covei) ciKovve. 

Imperative clkov aKovre. 
(Imperfect aKov[y]a, etc.) 
Similarly Kpovco " beat." 

(2) K\aico " I weep " /ekai/ie (jcXaipe) 

Kkafc (K\at$) Khaire 

Kkaiei (less commonly /r\a/) K\aiv(e) (jckaltri). 
(Imperfect e/e\cu [/y]a, etc.) 
Similarly tpraico " I am guilty." 



MORPHOLOGY 177 

These forms appear also uncontracted with a y inserted (cf. § 23), 
d/covyw, Kpovyo), /cXatyoj, ^raiya). 

§ 252. Through the dropping of a y (§ 22) in some verbs, 
vowel sounds come together and are contracted : 

(1) 7rdco usually instead of ircvyco irdyei^, etc., " I go " 
(alongside ir^yaivw, to which it serves as aorist stem ; cf. 
§§ 186, 204) with the following forms: 

Ta(y)<w — 

7rq£i<; ird<s (tc5l<$) 

Traei ird (tto) 

7rdfie (trape) 

Trdre 

irdv{€). 

Subj. va Traco va iras, and so forth, future 6 a 7rdo) 6a 7ra9, 
etc. On a>e, u § 218, n. 3. 

Likewise va (8a) $dto beside <£ay«, etc. (aor. subj. of. 
rpdoyco " I eat ") : 

va <pd<; (<^«?) 

va (pay 

va cf)dfie ((f>afjL€) 

va cf>dr€ 

va <f>dv(e). 

The aor. indie, runs regularly ecf)o(y)a e$a(y)€9 e'(£a(y)e 
i<f>d(y)afJL€ i<pdyere €(f>a(y)av. 

Also the Pontic verb </»raw " I make," fads, etc. 

(2) rpco(y)co " I eat " 

Tp(i)€l<; TpCO? (t/30)9) 

Tpcoep (less commonly rpco) 
rpdo(ry)ofi€ rpcofie (rpcjfie) 
rpco(y)€T6 Tpcore 
Tpd)(<y)ovv(e) rpct)V€ 
(Imperfect €rpco[y]a €Tpa)[y]e$ } and so forth), 

(3) Xe(y)o) " I say " 

Xia, (less commonly Xe) 
X€(y)ofi6 Xifie 



178 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Xe(7)ere Xere 

Xe(fy)ovv€ Xe^(e) (\eovai Xecri) 
(Imperfect e\e[y]a- or tf\€[y]a, e\e[y]e9, etc.). 

1. Also OeXo) 6£s follows this model, § 224, 3, and even ^epw £ £<s. 
Likewise pew "flow" sometimes gives a 3rd pi. pcVe. 

2. Cf., further, from Chios (Texts III. 9) the 3rd sing. U and 11 
(in unaccented position) and 3rd pi. Vim. 



PART THIRD. 



SYNTAX. 

PRINCIPAL SENTENCES. 

(a) Form and Content. 

§ 253. Sentences without verbal predicate are not un- 
common; they either express a maxim with epigrammatic 
brevity or serve to portray an event or circumstance vividly 
and picturesquely. Cf. fuas 0-7*7//.% virofiovr) Sitca yjpov&v 
pe^dn " one moment's patience (means) ten years' rest," airy 
Karaov(f)a (Texts III. 12) " she (continued) peevish," atrro? ov 
\6yov$ airo %€tX l al %et\ l teal £d ^aa^Xia rov '<£t& (III. 11) 
" this word (passed) from lip to lip and (reached) the king s 
ear," iravrov rpo/idpa ical a^ayijy iBro fyvyrj, iicei TrXrjyT] 
"everywhere (raged) consternation and carnage, here flight 
and there wounds "; cf. also Texts La. 19. With imperative 
force kcltg) <j)i(ria teal tcair&Xa " down (with) fez and hat." 

Even a single member of a sentence may * form a 
sentence by itself: the greatest animation of expression is 
secured by a series of such simple sentences in asyndeton : 
apyava, Tovfnrava, %a/?€? fieydXes "organs (played), timbals 
(sounded), great joy (prevailed) " ; ra -jroXXa iroXXa tcoufidvra, 
to teapafii fie rrjv irdvra " too many commands (make) the 
boat ride on one side"; fiepoBovXc fiepocpayi "day's work, 
day's food," i.e. " living from hand to mouth." Notice also 
TrpwTo $£kl — 9 vaareval;€, etc., Texts I. a. 14. Abbreviated 
sentences are, of course, specially liked in exclamations; v. 
§ 256. 

§ 254. Sentences without a subject or impersonal sentences 
like /3pi^ec " it rains," yiovifyi, " it snows," ttdvet aatCT^io tcaipo 

179 



•180 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

" il fait mauvais temps," call for no special remark. The in- 
definite subject " one," " they," " people " [Ger. man, French 
on] is expressed (1) by Kavefc (fcaveva?) " one, some one," as 
top el$€ /cavivas " somebody has (they have) seen him " ; (2) by 
the 2nd pers. sing., as Xe? "you might say," etc. (cf. § 195); 
(3) by the 1st or 3rd pi., as yXrjyopa Xrjafiovovfie tow ireOafx- 
fievovs " people soon forget the dead," Xeve "they say/ 1 on dit, 
fjbov elirav " it has been (they have) told me," iG/coTcoaav rbv 
fc\i(j)T7j " they slew the Kleft " ; (4) by the passive voice (rare), 
as ol ireOafMjievoL yXrjyopa Xtjg fioveiovvrcu " the dead are soon 
forgotten." 

§ 255. Interrogative sentences. A question to which the 
answer may be either yes or no (Lat. ne) is marked by the 
tone of the voice, and requires no special interrogative word, 
not even a special arrangement of the words, though that 
member of the sentence to which the question relates (aud so 
mostly the predicate) may be thrown to either extremity of 
the sentence : tfpOe 6 <£/\o? gov ; or 6 tplXos gov ?)p06 ; " has 
your friend arrived ? " to BXiiret^ fcelvo to fiovvo ; " do you 
see yon mountain ? " elv r) OvyaTepa aov tctoml ofjtop(j)7j ; or 
elvai T€Toca o/jLopcfyrj r) TGiovirpa gov ; (TEXTS I. d. 1) "is thy 
daughter so fair ? " ^xedva^evo^ elaat, fj (also yia) TpeXXos ; 
" are you drunk or crazy ? " eva (sc. cf>iXl) gov 'Scotce r) /irj gov 
'Scofce iroXXd ; (La. 21) "did he give you one (kiss) or 
several ? " 

1. On the other hand, through contact with Turkish in 
Cappadocia (Sili) and elsewhere (as in Adrianople), the Turkish 
interrogative particle mi is employed : e.g. x aorT( *t h l T/ orov > " were vou 
sick?" 

A question expecting an affirmative answer (cf. Lat. nonne) 
is introduced by Biv ; as, Sev elv Sfiop^o to poho ; "is the rose 
not beautiful ? the rose is beautiful, is it not ? " Such 
questions have sometimes the force of a mild (polite) request, 
particularly in the idiom Se /jlov Xe? ; " you tell me, do you 
not ? " i.e. " tell me, please." 

2. The idea of doubt (and also of refusal) may be expressed by 
rax a ( T ^X aTts )> *- cr(0S (avwrcos), /jlyjv(o), /xT?7ra)s, //,?7yapi(s), etc., apd 
(apaye[s]), firjv 7ra(s) (i.e. 7ray€t[?]) Kat, jjltjv 7ra(s) va, fXTravd ; as, Tcr^a 
Skv KaTa\af3aLV€i<s ; "perhaps you don't understand?" fJLrjv erases 
rtVore; "did you perhaps promise something?" fxrj &*v to '^epes; 
" and did you not know it then ? " /Jirjva ra <£ayia fias $€ eras apecrav ; 



SYNTAX 181 

"can it be that our fare lias not pleased yon?" ixyJttws or /xr;yapi(?) 
crovet7ra; "have I perhaps told yon?" i.e. "I have not, of course, 
told you," apa Sev tovv a\ l 7ra<n; (III. 11) "can it be that thou 
deplorest him not?" fnrava </>i%7<xes rrjv Koprj ; (III. 5) "then did 
you kiss the girl ? " 

On the modus potentialis in questions, v. §§ 191, 1 and 195. 

Questions why! what! (supplementary questions) are 
introduced by interrogative pronouns (§ 151 f.) or inter- 
rogative adverbs (jcarl; "why?" irov, 7roTe, etc., § 126, irov 
Tci^a; "where then?"); the particle cap before the inter- 
rogative word has the force of " well, exactly " ; as, aav rl /xe 
OeXeis ; " well, what do you wish of me ? " aav irw tov Xe rj 
Xoyovs ; (Texts III. 11) " how then runs the proverb ? " 

§ 256. Exclamatory sentences have a partiality for the 
form of abbreviated sentences of predication, command, or 
interrogation : 7 tarpon kclXos ! yiarpiica tcaXd ! " good physician ! 
good physic ! " and other ordinary exclamations : ri /caXd I 
" how fine ! " tl %c°V x a P°vf Jl ' evr } • " wnat an enjoyable life ! " 
The exclamatory nature of the sentence may be emphasised 
by irov ; as, rcopa Ba irov efoye ! " just this moment gone ! " 
rjav^a irov elvai tcl fiovvd, tjctv^ol ttov elv oi fcdfnrot ! " how 
still are the mountains, how still the plains ! " tl fidaavo irov 
elvai ! " what a sorrow it is ! " 

Cf. also salutations and benedictions : kclXy) jxipa " good-day," 
kclXtj vvxtol " good-night," KaXrj cnrkpa " good evening," wpa KaXrj (<rov) 
"welcome!" kclXy) avrdynDcri "au revoir," ctto koXo "adieu," koXo 
Ta£i'8i, KaXb kolt€v6$io " bon voyage," yeta aov "(to your) health," 
KaXrj ope^i "good appetite," ircpaariKa »" speedy recovery," o-Kao-e "go 
to the deuce." 

§ 257. Abbreviated exclamations, commands, and vocatives 
have occasionally converted to interjections ; cf ttov ! " how ! " 
(e>7r/w! "forward!" irlaa ! "back!" ardaovl "stop!" 
Sid/SoXel 1 tl MftoXol "the devil!" Qe fiovl "my God!" 
TIavayid fjuov ! " holy Mother of God ! " nrpoaoxfi ! " attention ! " 
KapZid ! " courage ! " yfrefiara ! " cheat ! " dXrjOeia ! " truly ! " 
adyjra ! " quiet ! " 

Genuine (old) interjections are: (calling) e! ov\ vre\ 
" forward ! " (surprise) a ! ov ! trio, ttco ! eo, col (doubt) fiird ! 
(lament and pain) a% ! co% ! q$ ! eo£ ! (coijjiipa " alas for me ! ") 
/3dZ, fidi ! /3d% ! (anger, refusal, horror) ov ! </)tov ! ovcj> ! govt \ 

1 Also in several mutilated forms like, e.g., di&vrpe, didrave. 



182 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(joy) &% ! (laughter) yd, yd, yd ' Notice also the onoma- 
topoeic forms KpaK ! ttov$ ! Trdcj> ! [Mirovfi ! fi7rdfjb ! 

From the standpoint of the m. Gk. vernacular also words like 
£rjTa> ! cvyc ! €j8t/3a ! " up ! " fnrpd/3o ! (frequently employed as a sign 
of consent, generally with a pronoun pLirpdfio arov, fnrpdfio <ras) or 
JSdpSa ! " attention ! " are treated as pure interjections, because such 
words — borrowed from the literary language or from the Italian — have 
for the m. Gk. vernacular lost all sense of connection. The same may 
be said of such interjections as owe their origin to the violent mutila- 
tion of words which had an independent meaning ; as, dAAot ! a\\oi- 
fxovo ! " alas ! " yarpk ! " hallo ! " beside fitapi ! (fjn^prj ! sometimes used 
to address a woman). Here also we may reckon the ironical ex- 
pression orTToWdryj "much obliged " = cis iroWa errj. The serious 
expression of good wishes (congratulation on special occasions) is cts 
lrr\ -iroXXd ! " (may you live) many years." 

(b) Connection of Sentences. 

§ 258. Sentences may be connected without any kind 
of connective word ; in this way sometimes a special effect 
(vividness, grandeur) is obtained; cf. e.g. Texts I. a. 11. 
22—23 or va puf} hei% irovOevd yddtcafu (III. 11) "show it to 
nobody, (if you do) we are lost." The repetition of a verb in 
asyndeton heightens the pictorialness of the course of an action ; 
as, Trivet, Trivet "he drinks (and) drinks" (cf. also § 188, 2 n.). 
The repetition of another member of the sentence produces 
the same effect ; as, fiavpo? rjrai^ /caTa/xavpo^, puivpo teal r 
dXoyo tov (I. a. 8), " black was he, all black, black too (was) 
his steed." 

Occasionally in the progress of a vivid narrative a ques- 
tion or an exclamation does duty for a connective : e.g. ov 
Trapaytos, tl elirev pu tov vov t ; (III. 11) = " the adopted son 
said . . . ," similarly I, ri elinv kl avros (ib.), or ttov clvtos I 
tov ttXl . . . tepvft'' (ib.), "and he, he conceals the hen." 
Hence jmitl and ti " why ? " often have the force of " for, 
then " ; ytaTi in this sense may precede even an interrogative 
sentence ; cf. yiaTi elpuai afja 'y<i> ; (III. 4) "for am I worthy ? " 

§ 259. If sentences thrown together in asyndeton stand 
in close logical dependence on each other, one part of the 
entire series may be reduced to an accessory sentence or 
even to an adverbial qualification or take the force of a 
particle : e.g. eyovve Bev eyovve TrapdSe?, to lSlo tovs navei 
" whether they have money or not is all the same to them," 



to 



SYNTAX 183 

#€? Be 0es, Oct fie irkepoiar)*; " whether you will or not you 
shall pay me," a? ehac, to irXepcovco " let it be (as far as I 
am concerned), I pay for it," rjrave eW? tBao-Ckeas" Twos t' 
ovofjid tov " there was a king named Sleep," Xotirov, etye Bev 
el^e, 6vt6$ avefialvec (Texts I. d. 5) " well, at all events, he 
goes up," Tp€%a pcora, to 'fiaOe = " by running and asking he 
learned it." Likewise dyfre afiijo-e " light, extinguish " = 
" without much ado, in a trice " (oi yajnrpol Be yivovvrab a. 
aft. " sons-in-law do not come without much ado "), fia8e(<;) 
(§ 218, n. 1) " that is (to say), then " (imde\s\ Be pie Trio-revets 
" that is to say, you don't believe me," Bev r\Tav k\ fiitcpb? p,a8e 
"he was, then, not young"), Oekeis — 6ekei<; (dekrs — 0e\r9, 
Velv.) " whether . . . or." 

On the expression apow 5pow=" with all haste," cf. Texts III. 
11 footnote. The following examples show how completely an 
independent sentence may be obscured (e.g. made into a substantive) : 
to -irpoifxa Scv €tvat 7rat£e yiXaae "the matter is not for amusement 
and laughter," to *Aa/?€ jxe to ypaxf/t ypa^c " he obtained it after much 
writing," imperat. to c/x,7ra= " the entrance." 

§ 260. Co-ordination of sentences is effected by the 
following conjunctions : 

(a) Copulative: ical (before vowels tct) "and, also," teal . . . 

kcli "both . . . and," "as well as"; cf. § 261. 

/cat is also the ordinary conjunction with which single words are 
connected. Sometimes it simply throws into prominence a single 
member of the sentence; cf. £epu> /c' iya>; "am I to know it?" tl 
tjXljlv kl olvtos; (Texts III. 11) "and what did he say?" irav /cei /cat 
brjKa (III. 12) "there above (and) I entered," ere tl dpdBa etpwr' 
ipLUSj /cat vol /x.a? Sokr 6 /^acrtAtas ttj OvyaTepa tov; (I. d. 2) "in what 
position are we that the king should give us his daughter 1 " Cf. 
also the expressions TiSpa /cat fxio~rj <5pa " half an hour ago " and /cat 
/caAa "right now, exactly," "just" (also ironically); as, Oikei /cat 
KaXa /cat ow€t = "he will, come what may (just now), finish it" (lit. 
"and finishes "), So, tov *ftpovv /ct /caAa ! $tv to *<j>ayap.i /ct /caA.a t/A€ts 
lif/is; (III. 11) "they will find it indeed! did we not eat it only 
just yesterday 1 " 

ovre (fJLrjre, obBe, firjBe, or fiovBe), 1 ovre (and so forth) 
K(iv " neither, nor, not even " ; as, ovre (kclv) ifitXrjcre " he did 
not even speak," purjBe tov elBa " neither did I see him," fir]Be 
TiTTore "nor anything, nothing at all"; ovre — ovre (jxrjre — 
firjre, oiBe — ovBe, firjBe — /^Se) 1 ) " neither . . . nor," cf. 
§ 285; TTore — 7roVe"now . . . then" "at onetime . . . anon." 
1 Without any difference even in affirmative sentences. 



184 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(&) Disjunctive : f) (7?;), also ytd " or," r\ — 77 (ycd — yia) 
"either ... or"; BiKeis — fl&ew, v. § 259. 

The particle is dropped with numerals : as, ttIvt' <f£i " five (or) 
six." 

(c) Adversative : fid (in dialect a/xa or dfjL/xdj d/jutf, dp,e } 
Chios fi/Ae, Lesbos a/z), or aAAa " but, yet, but yet," fiove (fiov, 
in dialect also fio) " only, however," after neg. sentence (or 
neg. member of a sentence) " but " ; izapd " but " after a 
negative, also " not . . . but " : e.g. Trapct 6 Tidwrj^, a? epdy 
avTo? " (not) J., but let him come himself " (cf. } further, 
§ 158 n.); o/jta>?, a>9 roao " nevertheless, however," not first 
in a sentence : e.g. e'S' o^w? apfiara XaXovv " here, however, 
arms talk," or kl oju(*)<; " and yet," /a a>9 too*o " and yet, 
still." 

(d) Causal : yiavro, yta tovto " therefore " : on yiari (ri), 
v. § 258. 

(e) Inferential: Xolttov (to Xotirov) "now, well, then," 
either at the beginning of or later in the sentence ; a\xk 
" but, so, indeed," stands first ; as, dfie ri #e\«<? ; " what, then, 
do you want ? " 

Of course, in addition to the above, adverbs are employed as 
connectives between sentences; as, Tiopa "now," totc(s) "then," 
eireiTa, vo-Tepa "thereupon," ero-t "so," "thus." In Pontic (Texts 
III. 13. c) note the enclitic particle -rra which stands second, a e rs 
7ra 7roiKa " so then I did it." 

§ 261. The modern Greek vernacular shows a decided 
preference for para tactic construction, so that principal 
sentences with a'9 (§ 278, 3) and erai (§ 273) serve practi- 
cally the function of dependent sentences. Kal, by far the 
most common conjunction, serves to connect any kind of 
sentences into a series (even in combinations like zeal Tore, 
kcl\ TrdXt, etc.) ; and it may, according to the logical sequence 
of the thought, carry the meaning of " but," " for," " or," 
" and so " ; cf. d^r* d&epcfrol Se 64\ovve kl 6 KataTavrlvos 
Beket " eight brothers do not wish it, but K. wishes it," <f>o/3ov- 
fjuai o~\ dBep^aKt fiov, Kal \t,/3avt€$ fivpi%ei<; " I fear thee, my 
brother, for (because) thou smellest of incense," dvoL^e, k iyo> 
*fi 6 KcocrTavTrjs " open, for I am K." 

The additional thought given by Kal is frequently, accord- 
ing to the sense, subordinated like an accessory sentence 
to the preceding. Very frequently an object clause with vd 



SYNTAX 185 

or ttov, e.g. f after verbs of perceiving, hearing, seeing, etc., is 
displaced by this favourite parataxis ; as, dtcovv ttovKicl teal 
\eve " they hear birds saying (and they say)," rj/covaa /cal 
oe fid\(x)v€ 7) K€pd troy " I heard how thy mother scolded 
thee," fie yeiire real to haelpi<ra (III. 12) "he said to me to 
take the lice off him [and I did so]," ^Xeiret to <f>TO)^b k 
€p%€Ta/, " he sees the poor man coming," top elBa tc liriqyaive 
" I saw him going," Ocopw to irpocrwiro gov k eyive aav rij 
(j>o)Tcd " I see how thy face became like fire " : cf., further, 
/3ptaK6L ttjv tc iyrevitpvvTav " he finds her as she was comb- 
ing herself," vd tov teal tcaTe&aive " behold how he descended," 
Se %€povv oi ytciTpol tec dire to ftacnXo'irovXo yiaTpeveTat, 
(Texts I. d. 1) "the physicians do not know by what means 
the royal child is cured," tow jSdvet tedde vvyra teal opycovovv 
Ta %a)pd<f)ia, tov (Texts I. c. 6) " he makes them every night 
till (and they till) his acres," tou? dfyrjvei teal tovs iridvovv tcl 
\ay coveted (ib.) "he allows the hounds to catch them," ytavTo 
ifi-Tropeee k €(f>fe€Lao~€ Toaa tcdcrTpa " therefore he was able 
to build (and he built) so many castles." 

1. The following show other kinds of subordination : Ixw ywcu/<a 
Trapavia kou xvP a $* v T V^ Trpiirti " I have a very young wife (and) 
widowhood becomes her not," elvai rocro kovtos kol Sev to KaTaXafiawu 
"he is so stupid that (and) he does not grasp it," ^i/tci/awi/c to $lXov 
tov teal Sev tov Wcyc napa pjvia " kolXtj p,£pa " (TEXTS I. d. 5) 
" (when) he met his friend he said nothing but a * good-day/" 

2. The preference for parataxis has occasionally caused an origin- 
ally subordinate conjunction to be treated as paratactic and conse- 
quently to be pressed into co-ordinating service : e.g. lirz&ri almost 
= "for," d>? (Texts I. a. 21) "and thus," Sn (I. d. 6) "just now." 

3. M. Gk. has lost the classical Gk. wealth of connective and 
other particles which lend nicety and precision of thought. Only 
/cat (ovt€, ouoV), tj, and the less commonly used conjunctions dXXa, 
7tXt]v, 0/xois have been retained. The loss of yap, apa has been 
compensated by new formations; but the a. Gk. tc, Si, fxiv — Si, 
piivTOiy fJLrjv, ovv (yovv), cti, St], ye, irip have left no successors. 

SUBOEDINATE SENTENCES. 

Preliminary Remarks. 

§ 262. The propensity for parataxis has considerably reduced the 
a. Gk. wealth of dependent constructions. Long and complicated 
periods are, of course, still possible from the resources of the language, 
but are, as we should expect, of rare occurrence in the texts of the 
vernacular. Examples of rather long periods are found in Texts I. 



186 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

d. 1 (kl olvty] to. 7rrjp€ Kal irrjye Kal kX€l<ttt]K€, etc., including also an 
indirect discourse of some length), II. b. 1 (*Av -rjgepav . . ., etc., in 
paragraph before the last), II. b. 2 ( e O Sao-*aAos d<f>r)K€ . . . etc., in 
fourth paragraph from the end). The a. Gk. conjunctions hrd, 
07TOT6 (oTrorav), ax/ois and //,e;(/oi9, €t, icj> J> have entirely dis- 
appeared ; d>5 survives still only in o-dv (§§ 263, n. 1. 272, 281) and in 
Ka0i!k(M 273, 281). On 5™?, cf § 281 ; on 3rt, §§ 267, n. 2. 270, 273 ; 
on Sidn, § 276, n. 1 ; /aoAovoti, § 278, 2 : wore serves an entirely 
different purpose from a. Gk. (§ 275). The a. Gk. Iva (m. Gk. vd) 
alone has extended far beyond its original proper territory, a fact to 
be attributed chiefly to the loss of the infinitive (cf. §§ 263, n. 3. 
266 f., 277, 4, n. 1. 278, 1 n., 279 n.-282, 1). Moreover, the 
following have been maintained (partly with phonetic transforma- 
tion) : 8t€ and Srav (§ 272), dfxa, ivw cVoVw (§ 273), d<f>ov (§§ 273, 276), 
irplv (§ 274), lo35 in £s irov (§ 275), liruZj (§ 276), Idv (§§ 277-278, 1), 
eire — ci/re (§277, 4, n. 2). The old distinction between ore, orav y etc., 
is abolished, or only transferred to the verb, or effected by vd. Ex- 
cluding dialect forms the new formations are the employment of the 
relative particle (o)ttov (§§ 267 f., 271, 278, 2. 279, 281, 1. 282, 2), 
and the conjunctions oo-o (with ttov or vd, §§ 275, 281, 1, n. 2), etc., 
fjC o\o 7rov (§ 278, 2), irpixov, irpoTOv (§ 273), dyKaXa kcll (§ 278, 1), 
yta vd (§ 280). Finally, para tactic constructions are pressed into 
service to form dependent clauses; cf §§ 261, 273, 2. 277, 4, n. 3, 
278, 3. 

Attributive and Substantival Clauses. 

§ 263. Attributive relative sentences are regularly intro- 
duced by the indeclinable relative particle ttov (ottov, ottov) 
(v. § 149). The relative sentence may be closely dovetailed 
into the antecedent by an arrangement of the words like o 
TidnpyLS ttov appdocrrrjcre 6 Karffievos ..." poor George who 
was sick . . ." The syntactic order antecedent plus relative 
sentence represents an object clause (or, a. Gk. ace. with 
participle) in instances like elSe rrjv oXo)ttov ottov epyovvTav 
fiagi fie to Spdfco (Texts I. d. 3) " he saw the fox (which was) 
coming along with the monster" (cf. also §§261 and 266, 3). 

The tense of the relative sentence is conditioned only by 
the nature of the action or occurrence in question ; as, yvpe 
Kan TTaiZia, ttov o-Korcovav eva gkv\1 (I. d. 2) " he found 
some children who were about to kill a dog." Eelative 
sentences of a consecutive or final character are formed with 
ttov vd ; as, avOpwrroi ttov va irpoakyj^VTai (II. b. 6) " men 
such as are to be watched," ^Xoiaaa irov va fioid^rj fie rrjv 
dpxala (II. b. 1) "a language to resemble the ancient," 
Kaveva OavariKo hev rjkOe o~tov Koafio, ttov va firjv d<pr)/ce Kal 
fiepi/covs va Birjyrjdovv (II. b. 2) " no such disaster ever came 



SYNTAX 187 

to the world which did not leave some (survivors) to relate 
what happened" (on the aor. indie, cf. § 195). For the 
use of the subjunctive in cases like irpoyro wovXaKL ttov 
hiafif) TTiaverat, to Karjfievo (I. a. 24. 2), v. § 264. 

1. A relative sentence of causal nature appears in the construc- 
tion ra eppiic oXa, crdv dSiopOwTa birov rjrav, Kara) (II. b. 2) " he 
hurled all down, incorrect it was." 

2. The relative sentence -irov Ok ViJ = " that is (to say)," is used 
as apposition to a whole sentence. 

3. An attributive complement may also be expressed by vd ; as, 
e.g., aXXov rpoirov vd £rj<rrj Skv €rj(c " he had no other means of living," 
rjpOev rj wpa va 7T€0dvrj tl the hour came to die," w tov Odfiaros vol 
yivovv 6Xa " oh, the miracle, that all happened ! " 

§ 264. Eelative substantival sentences are introduced 
either (1) simply by (0)77*01;, or avrbs (ifeetvo?) ttov " he who " ; 
or (2) by oo-os, ottolos, oti ; as, iro^ovv iraihia, a<z ra /cpv^frovve 
(Texts I. a. 8) " they who have children, let them conceal 
them," o7rov 'vat, KaXopi^iKos <yevva tca\ 6 kotos tov " who- 
ever is lucky, even his hen lays him eggs," tov elire oo~a tg 
elire 6 fiacnXids " she told him all that the king had told 
her " (notice tense 1), ottolos irviyeTai real tcl fiaXXidv tov 
irtdvet " he who is drowning clutches even his own hair." 
6V09 and ottoios may also be assimilated to the case of the 
principal sentence {Relative attraction) : e.g. 7r«9 dyair^ ottolov 
<f)op€i ivhvfiaTa OXififieva (Texts II. a. 15) "how I love him 
who wears the garments of sorrow," a ottolov e^et 6a &o0r) 
" he who has, to him shall be given," air oaovv koct/liovv rjTav 
iK€L, Kavkvav Sev tovv afyviv rj tcaphyd . . . (III. 11) "of all 
the people who were there, no one's heart allowed him. . . ." 

What has been said in § 263 on tense holds good. Thus, 
e.g., the present or imperf. is employed for a cursive or 
iterative action. On the other hand the aor. subj. is em- 
ployed (1) in a clause of an iterative nature in itself time- 
less (a general statement) when the action of the secondary 
sentence is completed compared with the principal sentence ; 
or (2) when the action refers to a single definite event of the 
future : exx. for (1) are ottolos fcafj cttcl Xdyava, <j>vo~dei teal 
to ycaovpTL " he who is once burned on vegetables, blows 
even on whey cheese," ottolos cf dyaTTT] fiTrepBevTr), tcdXXio tov 
va ireOavrj " he who is overtaken in love, it is better for him 
to die " ; for (2) oti /SpjJ?, elvai Blko o~ov " what you will 
find is your own," ottolos fiapTvpijay tov /cXe^Trj, 6a irdprj 



188 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

fieydXo Bwpo " he who points out the thief will receive a great 
reward." The same holds good for 071-0*09 ki av " who(so)- 
ever," 00-09 kl av " however great," otl kl av " whatever," 
ottov kl av " wherever " — for which there are also alterna- 
tive forms ottoios icai vd, etc. 

Even Trotos occasionally takes the force of " he who " ; as, d\\oc 
tov ttoios va vrivrf (Texts I. a. 24. 43) " alas for him who is en- 
tangled ! " 

§ 265. Complicated relative constructions are avoided by dis- 
memberment into co-ordinated parts; as, irvp^fxevo yvaXi, ttov r 
dyytf cts Kal o-Kavet " a heated glass which goes to pieces when 
touched." Of rare occurrence are constructions like eva XovXovSo, 

OTTOV OTTOIOS TO /3pLCTK€ . . . ifJL7TOpOVO'€ VOL TO KOLfXTJ fldXafia (TEXTS I. 

d. 7) "nos quern qui invenisset . . ., aurum facere posset," or ra8o 
aov fX(XTia, ttov ttolov KVTTa^ow rrjv KapSia tov kolvovv Svb KOfJLfjLaTta (I. 
a. 24. 28) "thy two eyes, which rend the heart of him on whom 
they gaze." 

§ 266. A substantival sentence with vd and the pres. or 
aor. subj. is the principal representative of the various usages 
of the a. Gk. infinitive or ace. and infin. constructions, viz. : 

(1) As subject: e.g. after ytverac "it happens, is possible," 
Karavra "it happens that . . .," irpkiru "it is becoming, 
necessary " (irpkirei va SovXevy? " you must work "), and in 
similar usages ; cf. e.g. tL /cafcb va %fj fcavel? /*e dvOpcoTrovs 
dyevets (II. a. 8) " how evil for one to live with ignoble men." 

The clause with vd may be formally converted into a substantive 
by placing the article before it ; as, to va dya,7ras ctVai irpayixa <j>vctlk6 
(Texts I. a. 21) "that you love (to love) is a natural thing." Such 
a vd clause may be dependent even on a preposition (//,€ to vd . . . 
" in order thereby, because," d-n-b to vd . , . " because of, owing to "). 

(2) Complement of an adjective ; as, el/uai a%u vd Bk^cofiac 
to fiacriXka arb (tttltl fxov ; (III. 4) " am I worthy to receive 
the king into my house ? " 

(3) As object after all kinds of verbs : e.g. verbs of trilling, 
desiring, ashing, demanding, inviting, being able, attempting, 
striving, agreeing, allowing, letting, promising, swearing, re- 
membering, for getting, and so on ; thus, OeXca vd <ypd\}r(o " I wish 
to write," ttlOv^co vd ypdtyr)*; " I desire you to write," ere 
irapa/caXco va to fcdvy? " I request you to do it," etc. ; further, 
after verbs of seeing, hearing, finding, making, causing, and so 
forth ; thus, tcavels $ev tov<z €?Se Trore va tcdvovv to aravpo 
" no one saw them ever making the cross," ttoios elSe Koprjv 



SYNTAX 189 

ofiop<f>7j va akpv 6 7re0afifi€vo<; (I. a. 11) "who ever saw a 
fair maid conducted by a dead person ? " x atcovaa va Xive " 1 
heard them say," a/covrae va Xerj r\ Koprj "she heard the 
maiden say," or fjKovaav r arjSovt, va XaXr) " they heard the 
nightingale sing/' rjKovaa oXXtj v asanas (I. a. 18) "I heard 
that you love another," rd 'ftpav kvvtjo! va irivovv (III. 18) 
" huntsmen found them drinking," irorh Se 6a icd^ere rov 
kogjmov va cas mark-tyri "you will never make the world 
believe you," ae tcd/Aco va macros " I cause you to be ar- 
rested." For other possible constructions, ef. §§ 263, 267. 

Notice me Mnni pe]>dni beside na pe\dni me Mnni, in Bova 
(III. 1), "you make me die." 

§ 267. i>a is commonly employed after verbs of saying ', if 
the dependent clause conveys a demand or the expression of 
a wish ; thus, 6 fiacriXtas ra elrre va rotfiaary yia to ydfio 
" the king told her to prepare for the wedding," va rov V#? 
va fjiov Bdoay rfj Ovyarepa rov yvvaitca " tell, him to give me 
his daughter as wife," rov elwav ol Bpdteoi va 7njyaivovv fie 
T7jv dpdSa u the monsters said to him that they should go in 
succession," rrjv aXXr) fiepa rov elrrav, va rov Scoaovv €va 
raydpi <f>Xovpia koX va rrriyalvg <tto artlri rov "another day 
they said to him that they wished to give him a bag of florins, 
and that he must go home." 

Only after expressions like Xe?, eXeyes, v6fii£e<; (§ 195) 
a predicate is introduced by vd : e.g. Xe? va firj elvai riirore 
" you might say that it was nothing," i.e. " it appears to be 
nothing." Otherwise after verbs of saying, thinking, and so 
forth predicate clauses are generally formed with 7rw<? or ttov : 
e.g. Xeyei (eme), 7nS? (ttov) OeXet " he says (said) that he wishes 
(wished)," or Xiyet, (elrrre), 7rw? (ttov) 6 $1X0$ rov Sev rjp6e " he 
says (said) that his friend did not come," 6 Adfapos row 
eZ7r€, 7rw? e%et evKapiaTrjai, real va irdprj (I. d. 3) " L. told 
them that it pleased him, and that he would take. . . ." 

1. A clause with ttw? (or -n-ov) may also form the complement to 
other verbs than those of saying either as subject or object, or even 
represent an attribute: e.g. ri fit /jteAct ttov 0v/xu>vct€ ; "what do I 
care that you are angry % " dafidfa 7ru>s Scv to $ip€is " I am astonished 
tha*t you don't know," 2 x a £p°f JLaL ™s (ttov) rjpOes " I am glad that 

1 Note at the same time how passive constructions are avoided. 
3 Or — anticipating the subject — 8afid£ojxai rbv ovpavb irQs or^/cei x w P*s crvXo 
(I. a. 24. 18) " I "wonder that heaven stands without a pillar." 

*3 



190 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

you came," iOvpuave 7rws Sev rjpOt " he was angry because he had not 
come," rj tSea, 7t(ds 6a yvptaovfic Bvb rpels ^tXtaScs xpovta -irio~u), ipt^o- 
P6\.rj(T€ paOetd (Texts II. b. 2) " the idea that we are to return two 
or three thousand years backwards has become deeply rooted." 

2. The employment of otl instead of 7rtos is due to the literary 
language. 

§ 268. The subjunctive is, of course, the rule with vd, 
though an historic tense of the indicative is also employed 
when the relative time of the past is otherwise unexpressed : 
e.g. irpeireL va irrjpafie crpafib Bpopo " we must have taken 
a wrong way," fiwopel va p! dyd-n-rjae^ " it is possible that you 
loved me," fyalverai va purjv aKovae "it seems he did not 
hear," Be Qvp,ovp,ai v a7rdvr7jaa " I do not remember meeting 
(to have met)." Further, the imperfect is permitted (but not 
the rule) in an " unreal " clause : e.g. a? elya (yea) vd *Btva 
" had I only to give." 

1. Eather unusual is k kiroptcrcv vayXvTuvev (Texts III. 13. c) 
" he could not escape." 

In clauses with 7r<w? (ttov, otl) that tense of the indie, is 
employed which is required independently by the predicate : 
Xeyec (elire) 7tw? elBe " he says (said) that he saw " [direct " I 
saw "], €L7T€ 7rw? Bev e^ei, (el^e) /caipo " he said that he has 
(had) no time " [direct " I have (had) "], izavreyav 7r&>? rbv 
ea-KOTcoaav " they believed that they had killed him," pua 
irepBttca fcavtajarrj/ce 7rw? Bev evpedr] tcvvqyb^ va Tr\ve KWTjyrjarj 
(I. a. 16) "a partridge boasted that no hunter was found to 
hunt it," rjTave iritcapup.evos, 7rw? Bev tov fuXels (I. d. 5) " he 
was enraged that you do not speak to him," rrjv el^e 'Set arrbv 
v7Tvo tov 7tw? 9a tt]v irdpy yvvalfca " he had seen (her) in the 
dream, that he should receive her as wife," epuaOav ttw 6a 
epOrj " they discovered that he would come." 

On indirect discourse, v. § 270. 

2. Only in exceptional cases the tense is selected from the stand- 
point of the narrator : e.g. et^e fipei ttws <r avrb to pipos i<f)VTpa)V€ to 
<j>vrb Ik€lvo (I. d. 7) " he had found that that plant greio (grows) in 
this region," or (III. 3) r>}s eXear otl 6 pacnXias lir-qyaiv^ ctto cnrtTi 
tt)<5 " they told her that the king was going to her house " beside ttJ? 
cure otl b fiacriXw 7rr]yaLV€L " that ... is going." 

3. After verbs of fearing both 7ru)$ and /^(ttcos) or vd prj are 
used; as, <f)of3ovfiaL 7rQ)<s to irapaKavti (7rapdKave) "I fear that he 
exaggerates (exaggerated)," <f>ofiovpai 7rws Se 0d y p6y or prj (Sev) ZpOy 
"I fear he will come (will not come)." 



SYNTAX 191 

§ 269. Indirect questions are introduced by an inter- 
rogative pronoun or adverb, or by the interrogative particle 
av " whether, if." Mood and tense remain the same as in 
the direct question : rbv poyrrjae <yiaTL elvai ctctl crvXkoyi- 
o-fievos "he asked him why he was (is) so pensive," tov 
ipc!)T7j(T€ av to 'tcajjLe " he asked him if he did it," Se OvjxovpaL, 
a(v) aov elira " I don't remember whether I told you," x Sev 
ri^epe tl va /edvrj " he did not know what to do," r} SwSe/caSa 
iirrjye v clkovctt) tl da eliry rj /coprj " the attendants went to 
hear what the maiden should say." Here, too, the standpoint 
of the narrator may be selected (as in § 268, n. 2) : e.g. rbv 
ipcorrjcre, tl eZ;£ei>, ri rjOeke " he asked him what he had, what 
he wanted." 

Indirect questions may, of course, represent subject or attribute 
equally well as object : e.g. ri KaraXdpap€ pk rrjv dXXayr) tovttj, elvai 
yia fjitva pvo-rrjpio (Texts II. b. 2) " what we have gained by all this 
change is a mystery to me," to f^T^/xa, ttoio. yAakrcra 0a viKrjo-rj, i) 
Ka6ap€vov(ra rj r) SrjportKrj, Sev ctvat d8ia<£ooo yia rr) veoeXXrjvtKr) 
<f>iXoXoyia " the question which language will gain the upper hand, 
the learned or the vernacular, is not a matter of indifference for the 
modern Greek literature." 

Occasionally an indirect interrogative clause (similarly to the vd 
clause, § 266, 1 n.) is converted into a substantive by prefixing the 
article: e.g. ipwraya to ttov vd €iv rj pdwa o~ov (I. a. 19) "I asked 
where thy mother might be." 

Even an exclamation in the form of a question remains 
unaltered in a dependent clause ; as, ^epeis, tl tca\i) tcapSia ttov 
^X €L " y° u know what a good heart he has." 

§ 270. It is apparent from the preceding paragraphs that the 
indirect discourse is distinguished from the direct only in the 
necessary change of person and in the insertion of ntfe " that " or dv 
" if, whether " ; that the imperatives are replaced by the construction 
with vd (or also 7tujs vd) — that is, so far as this construction is not 
already present in the direct discourse — ; also that all kinds of 
dependent clauses in indirect discourse undergo no alteration either 
in tense or mood. But, on the whole, lengthy indirect discourses are 
avoided by the vernacular; an example of greater length — in 
addition to those already given in § 262 — is found in Texts I. d. 1 : 
KovflevTiao-av, 7rcos va r<f Kavovv Ka/co, k tlirav dvdpeao rovs, ttcSs 
€kcl ttov 0d irayovv vd Xovotovv, va 'Trap r) ficydXrj tva naKKOvXi 
jAapyapirdpi, etc., " they discussed how they might do her harm, and 

1 Notice also dvfiodfiai d*(5/ia, <rhv 1}\de 6 irp&TOS drjjxoTiKbs did&<TKa,\os (ft6 
Xw/h6 /*as (II. b. 2) "I still remember how the first popular school-teacher came 
to our village." 



192 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

they said among themselves that, as they would go to hathe, the 
elder (sister) should bring a bag of pearls. . . ." 

Pallis (Texts II. 6) employs tto>s like a. Gk. on to introduce also 
a direct discourse. In a similar manner otcti — a. Gk. on — is in use 
in the dialect of Sili (in Cappadocia). 

Adverbial Clauses. 

§ 271. Adverbial clauses of place are formed with the 
relative adverbs of place : Trrjye icel ttov r\rav dpay/ieva to, 
Kapaftia " he went (there) where the ships had landed," to 
tcapdfit, a<j)7]cr€ va irrjyaivr) ottov to pitjy f) Tvyy " he let the 
boat go wherever chance would drive it." Clauses like 
ifcel ttov irdyaivav " there where they went " i.e. " while they 
went," etc., approach the nature of temporal clauses. 

§ 272. Temporal clauses. A simple designation of time 
is usually expressed by the conjunction cdv (fr. a. Gk. d>? av) 
or ovtcls (also b f Tav\e\ ovra, ovre, ovres). 

* (1) Past time (a) cdv or ovras with the aor. indie, 
specifies a point of time ; as, 6 /3ao~i\t,a<; gov clkovg avro } 
X^pV K€ " the king rejoiced when he heard it," crav rd 9 7rrjp€v 
6 <£tg)^09, rjcruXkoovvrav Xvra va Kafiy rocra ypoaa (I. d. 4) 
" when the poor man received them, he began to ponder what 
he should do with so many coins," ovra? Kivrjcre, tov -nepucd- 
\eaav oi OvyaT&pe? tov " when he departed his daughters 
requested him." 

(b) With the imperf. to specify a period or length of time, 
i.e. when the time in question implies a durative (not com- 
pleted) occurrence, or again to designate repeated action : exx. 
(of the former) ovtcls yvpifa rjvpe tcdri iraiZtd " while he was 
returning he found some children," crav ij/coveve tcdOe /3pd8v ra 
yekoia, r}Trapal;€vev<yovvTav6 " when he heard the laughter every 
evening, he wondered" (or repeated action); (of the latter) 
6Wa<? efurcuve, e\eye " as often as she entered she would say." 

(2) Present or future, (a) adv or 6VTa9,and so forth, 1 with 
the aor. subj. to specify & point of time ; as, crav rj avoify yvpicry, 
rr) <f>co\id tov wov da a-Trjatj ; " when the spring returns, where 
will he build his nest ? " 6Wa<? l&rjTe to Spdtco, va j>6)vd^ere 
" when you see the monster, keep shouting," 6Vra$ xpeiacrTJ)? 
TtVoTe, va %ij>rj$ ttj /3ov\a (Texts I. d. 2) " as soon as you 
need anything, turn (every time) the signet-ring." 

1 In this case Svras, etc., seems to be preferred to <xdv. 



SYNTAX 193 

When the idea of the future is to be prominently brought out, 
ovtcis is used with the future tense ; cf. Texts I. a. 5. 7. 

(b) With the present to specify duration of time (cf. 1, b) 
or repetition ; as, orav ae avWoyifafjiat,, Tpe/xo) tci dvaarevd^o) 
" when (as often as) I think of thee I tremble and sigh " ; cf 
also Texts I. a. 24. 4, 28, I. c. 8. 

The future is also possible, as in a ; cf. oj/tc 0a f ex<o/)t£«>/*c, * VTa Q< L 
fiov x<*p£<rys; (I. a. 24. 26) "when we shall bid farewell, what will 
you give us ? " 

§ 273. 1. Like crav or ovras the following are employed : KaOus 
(Ios ws Ka0ws) "when" (with aor. indie), "while" (with imperf.), 
and, in dialect, e.g., crtVra, </>oVt€s (fr. a<f> ore), in Pontus dfxov vto and 
(Tiro, and even to, in Capp. adjxo. The following express particular 
phases of time : d(j>ov (also d<j>ov kolC) "after" with aor. indie, (cf. also 
§ 276), dfxa or on (also on irov) " as soon as " with aor. indie, or 
(futuristic) aor. subj. ; dif ora " since " with aor. indie. ; iv<Z or 
evoVo) " while " with pres. or impf. indie. ; <rifia vd " about to, going 
to . . .," e.g. a-ijxa va fiyovv "in the act of departing . . ." or "as 
they were about to depart ..." Though not formally temporal 
clauses, yet as such may be reckoned also (relative) clauses with 
Katie <f>opa irov (with imperf.) "everytime that," "as often as," ckci 
7rov (with imperf.) "there where," i.e. "while, during." 

2. Occasionally paratactic clauses carry temporal force; cf e.g. 
jjl6\i<s tvxq . . . o-vepopd " as soon as a misfortune occurs," 6b. 6vfu£crr} } 
ILia koX rottooy "he will be angry as soon as he remarks it," iKeivrj 
o-KidxTrjKe, crcri rbv eT8c a$a<j>va " she was terrified when she suddenly 
saw him." 

§ 274. The adverb of time " before " (" until ") is rendered 
by irpiv or by irpl vd (irpcTa y irporov, irpt^ov with or without 
vd) and the aor. or pres. subj. : 

(1) Past time : Bev rbv a<j)r]a€, irporov va tt)? opfaarf) 
" she did not let him off before he swore to her," irplv fiirfj 
art) XaXfcrj, rod earekve 7raprjyopcd (TEXTS II. b. 4) tf before 
she came to Ch. she used to send him consolation." 

(2) Present (or future) : favya, irpira gov avpovv Ov/ii- 
a-ro (I. a. 10) "flee before they scatter incense on thee," 
iralpvei \ovrpo t irplv KaOii^y arb <f>ayl rov " he always takes 
a bath before he sits down to eat." 

§ 275. The pronominal form oao serves to introduce 
temporal clauses with the meaning " as long as " or " until." 
In the former case (strengthened to oao ttov) the pres. or 
imperf. indie, is used ; as, Be da Batcpvaa), oao iav Kovrd fiov 
fieveis "I shall not weep so long as thou art with me" (but 
cf. also Texts II. a. 3.28), ocro (nov) %ovae r iBovXeve " as long 



104 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

as he lived, he worked " For the latter meaning " until," ocro 
irov (or also leva pue itov) is used with the aor. indie, when the 
event in question is related as an actual occurrence deter- 
mining the course of the action ; as, irepaae A0770U9 koX tedp,- 
7rov 9, ocro irov e<pracre ara pitya rov fiovvov " he wandered 
over forest and field until he came to the foot of the 
mountain." On the other hand, if it is only an event to be 
expected, or if the dependent clause has merely the function 
of a definition of time, ocro vd (or a>9 irov vd } &crje va) is 
used with the aor. subj. : e.<j, fiovo ecpra /juepcov ^corj 6e\ca va 
jjiov %apl<TT€, ocro va <j>rdcr 6 'OSvcrcrevs " I wish you to grant 
me only seven days life until 0. arrive," ocro va irdjj rj \idvva 
arrjv ap/c\a, ttjv ijvpe yio/jbdrr] yjrwfiL " until (such time as) 
the mother came (could come) to the chest she found it full 
of bread," cocrre va fiyfj crrrjv iropra T779, ifiyrj/eev r\ tyvyf) 7979 
" before she came to the door her soul departed." 

Note also ocro yAvTcoo-c, Qh. tov h-ptayav (Texts I. d. 3) " until he 
had freed himself they would have eaten him." 

§ 276. A causal clause is introduced either by depov, 
iireihfc) with or without teal " since, as, because," or by 
yiarl " because " (in Pontus rcriyhi, rcrovyKL), accompanied by 
that tense of the indicative required by the occurrence. 

1. oWi "because" from the literary language. 

2. ytari occasionally competes with va, 7rcn5, or 7rtu9 for a place 
after verbs of emotion (cf. § 267, n. 1) : e.g. £ov\eij/€ ytari fj Trpoyovy 
drjs va -n-dp' t\ /3a<ri\e to yio (Texts III. 12) "she was envious that 
(because) her step-daughter should win the king's son." 

§ 277. Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by 
dv (dv /eat) " if," sometimes by dvicrm (zeal), dv tvypv, dv rvyfff 
Kai y dv elvai icai " if perhaps, in case that." 

(1) When the condition pertains to the Past, and the 
consequence to the past or present, then aor. (imperf.) indie, 
in the protasis and the aor. (imperf.) or pres. indie, in the 
apodosis ; as, dv to Vaz/e?, tcaXd 'jcarc? " if you did so you did 
right," dv d7ro(j)dcncr€<;, Sk fiiropeU v d\Xd^rj<; rrj yvcofirj crov 
(t if you have made up your mind you cannot change your 
opinion." 

(2) When both condition and consequence pertain to the 
Present : 

(a) When the condition holds good generally (may 



SYNTAX 195 

happen any number of times) or is a durative occurrence 
(cursive action) : present in both protasis and apodosis ; as, 
fnropeis a OeXys " you are able if you wish/' a Sev iricrTevys, 
eka Kovrd fiov vet *o#9 "if you don't believe, come to me 
and see." 

(b) When the condition is a punctiliar occurrence or an 
occurrence completed as regards the consequence : aor. subj. 
in protasis, pres. indie, in apodosis ; as, Se fevyco, a Se fiov 
Scoter}*; to, Varo ypocra (I. d. 5) " I go not away if you give me 
not the hundred piastres," a Se fipeOfi, Sev ireipd^ei " if it is 
not found it does not matter." 

(3) When both condition and consequence pertain to 
the Future : 

(a) The condition is a repeated or durative action then 
pres. in protasis and future (or imperative expression) in 
apodosis, av ireiva<; } Se 0a <r a<f>rj<rG) vrjarucr] (II. a. 20) "if 
thou art (becomest) hungry I will not leave thee in want." 

(b) The condition is a punctiliar occurrence, or one com- 
pleted as regards the consequence : aor. subj. in the protasis, 
future (or an imperative expression) in the apodosis : av 
Tvyhv . . . Sirdar)?, 0a gov (f>ip(o . . . vepo (II. a. 20) "if 
thou chance to thirst I will fetch thee water," av 7rapaj3a> rhv 
op/cov, v aarpd^ o ovpavhs teal va fie Karafcdsfrrj (II. a. 1) 
" if I shall break my oath, let heaven strike me with light- 
ning, and burn me up," 0a to /cava) avpco, av fi7ropeaco " I 
shall do it to-morrow if I am able " (more correctly, " if I am 
placed in a position to do it "). 

(4) Where the terms of the condition are impossible 
(unreal) : in the protasis the imperfect, in the apodosis the 
conditional (§§ 230, 233), regardless whether it pertains to 
present or past ; as, av to tfl-evpa, Se 0a pcoTovaa " if I knew 
(had known) I should not ask (have asked)," a Sev irr^aiva 
e'^re? gto 0earpo y 0a. el%a rrj BovXeid fiov reXeicofievT) " if I 
had not gone yesterday to the theatre, I should have had my 
work finished." 

1. Conditional clauses may be formed also with va: e.g. fiiXia va 
Koivave to. 7rcu8«i tov, tol fxdXuvevt (Texts I. d. 4) "if his children 
talked he always scolded them," or vet rove Kafir} va yeXdo-rj, rr)v 
i/jLd\(D€V€ (ib.) " if she made him laugh he would scold her," vet rov 
iStJ?, 6a t6v€ \v7TY)6rj<; " if you see him you will pity him," fxrjXov vd 
Vx vts » KctTa^9 S«v €7ti<£tiv (III. 11, without 0d) "if you had thrown 
an apple it would not have fallen to the ground." The origin of 



196 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

this usage of va is apparent from cases like fj /capSia jxov 7rov€i, va o-as 
aKova> (II. b. 1) "my heart is grieved that (if) I listen to you." 

2. Notice also i£ov dv "unless," €ire(s) — €itc(s) "whether . . . 
or " ; as, citcs zpOr}, €tres Scv ZpOrjj iyw 6a irona " whether he comes or 
not / will go." 

3. Even a direct question sometimes approaches the nature of 
a conditional clause : e.g. 0cA.€T€ $ivrj yXwo-o-a ; 7rapr€ rrjv Ka0ap€vov<ra 
(II. b. 1) "do you want a foreign tongue? then take the pure 
language" ; rbv Ovfiaxres; favya dirb kovto. rov "did you provoke 
him, then get out of his way." 

§ 278. Concessive clauses are formed: 

(1) By kl av, av icav or dyKaXa (i.e. av KaXa) ical " al- 
though, even if " ; the construction is similar to that of the 
conditional sentences ; as, av koX to yupeyfre fie ovXa ra fieaa } 
Sev ifi7r6p€ae va evpy "although he had sought it by all 
means, still he could not find it," kl av ra vrep&evca 
Tovptce-tyav, 6 Xrepyto? elvai favravo? " even if the passes 
have become Turkish, Stergios is still alive," ri a axpeXel, kl 
av tyo-ps, KaX elaac art) atckaftia ; (TEXTS III. a. 1) "what 
advantage is it to thee, though thou livest, if thou art in 
slavery ? " 

(/cat) vd may also take the place of dv (cf. § 277, 4, n. 1) ; as, koX 
y€/oo? va ^rav, ff dppwcnrovo-cv " although he (were) had been strong 
he would still have become sick," va o-Kao-r), $a to nd/jita " although 
he (it) burst, I will do it." lo-rcovras (/cat vd) " notwithstanding " is 
not common. 

(2) By fi 0X0 ttov (fi oXov otrov, /jloXovotl) with the 
indie. ; as, fi 0X0 irov fjrav icaXos xaipos, Bev i/civovae to 
fcapd/St " though it was fine weather the ship did not move." 

(3) By the co-ordination of a clause with (kl) a<?, after 
which a preterite indie, is also possible (cf. § 195); as, ra 
aarpa . . . Xafiirovv oXojuLOvaya, kl a? firjv ra fiXeirrj Kavevas 
(Texts II. b. 1) "the stars shine all alone though no one look 
upon them," [to 7T£u8i] /*o<rj£o/3o\o0<je apyovTLa y kl a? rjrov 
*yvfjLV(OfAevo (II. a. 15) "(the child) betrayed noble ancestry 
even though it was naked." 

1. Somewhat different constructions are : as vjdav /cat rv<j>\6, 
ydav dfifxa ojxop<f>o (III. 12) "even if it was blind, it was beautiful," 
as firjv cAcyc 7roios to Vavc, fxa as ZXeye 7rws 81 <$>raUi " though he 
refused to say who had committed it, yet he should have said that 
he was not guilty." 

2. Notice further oao ki dv or 6Vo kol vd with subj. " however 
much," and kcli or Irai with an adjective and irov : e.g. <j>o/3ovvrav€ > 
cto-i (*al) fieydXos irov fjrave " he was afraid, great though he was." 



SYNTAX 197 

§ 279. Consecutive clauses are formed with ttov (ottov, 
ottov) and the indie, when the meaning is that the consequence 
actually occurred : e.g. ryrave iroXKa <pi\oi, ttov 6 evas tov aXKo 
Bev r}l;€X<*>pt<& " they were so great friends that the one did 
not separate from the other/' dppcoarta /i eppc^e tov davdrov, 
ttov 'weo-av ra %av6d fiaWtd "sickness brought me so far 
down to death so that my fair hair fell out/' fid? eKoifiiae 
togo fiaOeid, ttov tittots ifkia Be fiiropel vd f±d$ ^virvrjarj 
" he put us into such a deep sleep that nothing more can 
wake us." irov vd is employed if the consequence is only 
imaginary or expected ; as, Bev elvai teal togo irpdfia ttov vd 
V175 " it is not such an important matter that you need speak 
of it," fi ep-^erai vd <f>covd^co Bvvard, ttov o\o$ tcocrfios vd fi 
aKovarj " it occurs to me to call so loud that the whole world 
could hear me." Notice further toco (iitcphs elvat, ttov Xe? 
7rw? elvat TraiBi "he is so small that one might say {cf. § 195) 
he is a child," fj EvpwTrr) airo Tore? &><? ear} fie pa dXKa^e a eva 
T6T010 /3a0fi6, ttov teal 6 Bvpcova? dteofir] vd £ovo~e, 6d fid? 
eypafa BiaTpiftes yid re? Oecopces tov Aapfiivov (II. b. 2) 
" Europe has altered from that time to the present to such a 
degree that even Byron, if he were alive, would write brochures 
on the theories of Darwin." 

Even va alone may carry consecutive force : e.g. emu va x^°"D 
carets to fjivaXo tov " that is for one to lose his reason." On consecu- 
tive /cat, v. § 261. 

§ 280. Final clauses with vd denote the goal or purpose 
of an action after verbs like go, come, send, give, begin, and so 
forth : r)pTa vd geyopevTco " I came to confess," vd fiov Bcoo-ys 
fcaTLTi vd <j)dco " give me something to eat." Trrjyatvo) vd 
in a figurative sense means " I am about to, am going 
to . . ." 1 The intention or the actuating motive is brought 
out more distinctly by ytd vd: e.g. e<pvye ytd vd fir)v ^avayvpiarj 
TTid " he went away (with the intention) never to return again," 
tl \6yia vd fipa> ytd vd fie irtaTeyfreTe ; " what words can I 
find in order that you may believe me ? " Negatively (ytd) 
vd fit] or simply fit] ; as, fie irovrjptd TrepTraTei fir] are votcoo~ovv 
01 yevrovot " go carefully in order that the neighbours may not 
notice you." 

1 Hence the stereotyped form of the 3rd sing. ird or 2nd sing. nds is 
practically identical with the simple vd, etc., in formulae like ira vd, vh ira vd, 
etc. {cf. n. 2, and §§ 193, 2 n., 224, 3, n. 3. 255 n.). 



198 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

*1. The distinction between va and yta va is faint ; cf. zva kol\o Sev 
KOLvets . . . (TKaka cttov koltu) /cooyjto, va Karc/Sawovv ol aScptfris, etc. 
(Texts I. a. 8) " thou doest not one good deed, ... a bridge to the 
underworld, that brethren may descend ..." and va fxov Suktjs k 
Iva Kapdfti kglX.6, yta va 7ravw crra £e va " give me a good ship in order 
that I may go abroad," and further, ctvat 7rapa7roAv kovtos yta va to 
KaTa\d/3rj "he is so stupid that he cannot grasp it." 

2. " That perhaps, forsooth " is rendered rowans (yta) va, " lest 
perhaps," by /ai}7tojs or /ir/v 7ra(s) teat, (yta) va fxrjv tvxo ft-<*Xfl) /cat ' 
. . ., or more concisely /at) tvxo Q^&XO) kcu ' • * • °* M TtJ X°( v )' 

3. The va clause is sometimes so loosely connected with the 
principal sentence that it approaches the nature of a principal 
sentence itself; cf. oXrj vvx ra 8cv rjfiovXtticreve fian <rrrj avkkoy* tyjv 
dXX-q fiipa fir]$l crk fxepoKafiaro va irdrj, etc. (TEXTS I. d. 4) " the whole 
night long he did not close an eye, occupied in thought to go next 
day neither to his day's work . . .," i.e. " and on the next day he 
went neither . . ." 

§ 281. Adverbial clauses of manner are formed : 

(1) With /cadcibs, otto)?, also cav irov, Kara irw, Kara irov 
" as, just as, according to " : e.g. e/cafie (fcdvei) Ka0ao$ (oVw?, cfclv 
irov) 6L7T6 (deXei) " he did (does) as he said (wishes)," ica0m 
y8\€7reT€, e%o) Sifccuo " I am right, as you see," Kara irov 
(/caOax;) \iet 6 X0709 " as the saying runs," eXa Kara 7ra>? 
elaai " come just as you are." 

1. Pontic dfxov vto ; as, a/xov vtq 6ekvc, €<f>T€idyv€ (Texts III. 13. a) 
" do exactly as you like." 

2. Notice further expressions like o<ro pirop&s yXyyopwrcpa " as 
quickly as possible, with all speed," and 6<ro va 77779, to emphasise an 
adjective : e.g. fxia fSocrK07rov\a 6pLop<j>r] ocro vol ttyjs " a shepherdess 
as fair as you could tell,"" i.e. " incomparably fair." 

(2) With <ra(v) vd "as if, as though"; 6 yepo? aav va 
firjv r aKovae, yvpva " the old man turns round as if he did 
not hear," rov (j)dv7]tC6 aav va /eaTpa/cv\ov<T€ to gttvti " it 
appeared to him as if the house would collapse." 

1. "Do (act) as if, pretend," is rendered by ko/xvo) 7rcos, /ca/xtovo/xat 
Trais with indie. : e.g. l/ca/xt 7rws yXiarprjo-e " she acted as if she had 
slidden," e/ca/ie ira>s xuvriyact r6 ttcuSi " he made as though he were 
chasing the child," Ka^uovco-rc 7rais /1178c £iper€ " you act as if you did 
not at all know." 

2. In an independent clause aav vd has the meaning " to a certain 
extent, so to speak " ; as, crav va /xcTavotwva) irov to ct7ra (Texts II. b. 2) 
" I regret to a certain extent that which I said." 

3. On comparative clauses with 7rapd } v. § 120, n. 1. 

§ 282. Finally, in addition to the various kinds of 
clauses given, the following are to be noted : 



SYNTAX 199 

1 . p£&)/n? vd or S^o>9 vd " without " : eirepaae %wpl9 i/a 
rove yaiperiarj "he passed by without greeting him." 

X<*>P La vd " except, unless " : dXkov rpoirov va tyjay Bev 
e *X 6 X^P La %v\a va fc6<pTr) (Texts II. a. 2) " he had no other 
means of livelihood except felling wood." 

fiaicpeia vd, fiovo vd or <f>rdvet fiovo vd " except when, 
provided that, up to the point " : fjrav dyaOo? dBpoyrros, 
fia/cpeca va firj rove Ovfiaxrys " he was a good natured fellow 
until you enraged him " 

2. 7rov " while, since, in that," to determine more pre- 
cisely the circumstances or the concurrence (identity) of 
different actions ; as, teaXd '/ca/^e? irov r/pdes " you did well in 
coming (since you came)," r)p6e irov Bev rod elira va 'p8y " he 
came without my having told him to come (though I did not 
tell him)." 

fiovo irov {irm) " apart from, only, excepting that " : 
elvai e%V7rvo iraiBij fiovo irov he BovXevei fca0Q)$ irpeirei " he is 
a clever lad, only he does not work as he ought." 

AFFIKMATION AND NEGATION. 

§ 283. vai y stronger vale ice "yes," fidXcara (also together 
vat y fidXiara) " yes, indeed." 

?0-o)?, Td%a } Ta^are?, Talari? " perhaps." 

aXrjOeia " truly," award " right, quite so," aiyovpa 
(/Sifiaia) " certainly, of course " 

oyiy stronger oyi Bd } o^iatce, oatce " no " ; also to negative 
a noun ; as, OeXets icpaal rj pmlpa ; — o%t Kpaac, Trporcfia) 
fiirlpa "will you take wine or beer? Not wine, I prefer 
beer." For fir) "no," v. § 284. 

tcaOoXov, BcoXov (also vtctt, in Pontus and elsewhere [Turk.] 
hlrs) "by no means," used in a reply; another strong negation 
is also yjrifiara ! " by no means, not at all " (lit. " lies ! "). 

The exclamations fiikid ! Xegi ! or raifiovBid ! signify a 
prohibition " not a word," i.e. " quiet ! " 

Negation is often emphasised, or even expressed, by gesture, not, 
however, by shaking the head, but by throwing it slightly backwards 
(accompanied sometimes with a sound like a gentle click of the 
tongue). 

§ 284. The particles Be(v) and prohibitive fir](y) "not" 
serve to negative a clause (verb) ; they immediately precede 



200 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

the verb, from which they may be divorced only by a con- 
junctive pronoun or by the particle 6d (8ev to 6eX(o, Se 8a 
'p&o, 8s aov to elira, Se 6a aov to eiirSi). 

Instead of 8cV the negative in Pontus appears as kl (Old Ionic 
ovkC) and in Cappadocia (Pharasa) t^q. 

The negative fit] is employed : 

(1) Independently as a prohibition : e.g. /jltj, rcvp Ad&pe 
(Texts I. d. 3) " (do it) not, Sir L." 

(2) In principal sentences in the cases given in §§ 193 
and 194. 

(3) In secondary clauses always after vd, even when vd is 
accompanied by the indie. : e.g. enrb to va firjv e^e irapdhes 
" because he had no money." For firj with verbs of fearing, 
v. § 268, n. 2 ; and in final clauses, § 280. 

(4) With the present participle (cf. § 236); as, firjv 
gipovTas " not knowing," 6eXovTa<; ica\ p,r) " whether willing 
or not." 

§ 285. Negation may be emphasised by tcadoXov, ScoXov: 
e.g. Sh elira Ka8oXov " by no means did I say it," " absolutely 
did not say." The negative particles ovre t ov$e, fiiiJTe, firjSi 
" not even," or, when repeated, " neither . . . nor," are used 
indiscriminately. If the verb comes at the beginning only 
the simple form of negation can precede it ; as, Bev exco ovre 
(mts) fica ireyTapa " I have not even a sou," va /xy Trapy? 
/jlt]t€ ypoaca /jltjt€ <f>Xovpcd " take neither pennies nor florins," 
— but ovre fiLa TrevTapa e^o) or jnyhe Xvpd/ct inci fjKoveve jxrjBe 
eXoia (Texts I. d. 4) "neither lyre nor laughter heard he 
any more." 

1. Notice, further, the use of kloXols : $tv e<f>aya KioXas "I have 
not eaten at all." 

2. The negative may be inserted pleonastically (but is not neces- 
sarily present) in vd clauses after verbs of hindering: e.g. ok & 
c/A7ro8i£w va fxrj /uAas " I do not hinder you from speaking." 

ORDER OF WORDS. 

§ 286. The m. Gk. vernacular has, on the whole, 
maintained the a. Gk freedom in the order of words, i.e. all 
kinds of combinations are possible in the sequence of the 
composite parts of the clauses. It is only in dependent 



SYNTAX 201 

clauses that the place of the verb is restricted (v. § 289). But, 
generally speaking, there is a recognised normal sequence of 
words, so that any deviation from the same lends a special 
emphasis to the irregular member. 

The normal order of words in m. Gk. appears in its main features 
to be ancient, that is, it goes back at least to the period of the 
ancient KoijoJ. 

§ 287. In a statement consisting of two members the 
normal sequence of words is Subject and Predicate. Of 
themselves introductory particles (rd)pa } ToVes, etc.) cause no 
alteration. Inversion of predicate and subject is, however, 
facilitated by a preceding dependent clause : e.g. oma<s eVX^- 
aiaa 6 Spate OS, iipcovaljav ra iraiScd " when the monster 
approached, exclaimed the children." 

But in other cases also by inversion the verb takes 
frequently the first position or immediately follows an intro- 
ductory particle, if (1) either the verb is to be indicated as 
the result of a preceding action (and so particularly after tcai), 
e.g. efyyjre rrj /3ou\a, k rjpB* 6 'Apa^T)? " he rubbed the signet- 
ring and there came the Arab," or (2) if the idea of the 
subject constitutes the essential element of the narrative : e.g. 
ryrav fica <f>rco^(7j yvvattca k eZ^e eva rraiSi " there was a poor 
woman who (and she) had a (one) child," eicei i/cdOovrav ol 
SpaKoL " there dwelt the monsters," tot69 ra dir 6 fiaaiXtd? 
"then said to her the king" 7}p6e k f) dpdSa rov Ad^apov 
" there came also the turn of Lazarus." 

Further, an adverb which is emphatic — and consequently 
occupying an extreme position — entices its verb to the 
beginning ; as, Kal rrd\i rov ifidXaa* 77 fidvva rov Ka6co<$ Kal 
Trpcora (Texts I. d. 2) " and once again his mother scolded 
him as at first." 

A pronominal subject betrays an inclination to follow the verb : 
e.g. y\pdtv lva.% " there came one," tyvyt kcivos " he fled," irrjyaivovfjie 
'/xcts " we go (go we)," Sev to V<£a£a cyw, /xoV 7} a§€p<j>iq fiov (I. d. 1). 

§ 288. In a sentence of several members — enlarged by 
objects and adverbial qualifications — the predominant order 
is the middle position for the verb, while the object or (and) 
adverbial qualification follow : e.g. kc 6 fiaaikias iifxbvage rf) 
dvyarepa rov or to 7raiBl 71*7776 arij fidvva rov. Final 
position is uncommon, and is due to special reasons ; cf. e.g. 



202 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

k €vtv$ to Kapafii i/clwrjo-e " and immediately the boat 
moved off" (where the emphatic adverb has taken the 
initial place without attracting the verb after it, because the 
verb too has to be given emphasis), to ttoXv KvpteXerjao tci 6 
irairas fiapeierai to " even the priest becomes weary of much 
Kurieleison " (where the two main contrasted ideas are placed 
in proximity to the front), or 6 Xoo? eU ttjv &pa tov %lXia 
(pXovpta a%i%ei (where the position renders the object 
prominent). 

Initial position for the verb (with inversion of subject 
and predicate) is found under the same conditions as in 
§ 287 : e.g. Trrjye irdXi 97 fidvva tov (tto ftaaiXid "again went 
his mother to the king," e^ei 6 to^o? airrid " even the wall 
has ears." Moreover, inversion is common when an adverbial 
qualification or an object introduces the sentence and when 
no special emphasis is put on the verb ; thus the normal 
middle position for the verb is secured : e.g. fiia <f)opa fjrave 
eva<; fiacrtXtd? " once upon a time there was a king " (cf. also 
§ 287), to irpcoi o~K<odr)K€ to 7ratBi " early as the boy rose," 
Te^vT) OeXet to 77 p low (I. b. 1 7) "art requires the saw." 

§ 289. In dependent clauses without exception the verb 
follows immediately upon the introductory particle (vd, adv, 
etc.), or is separated from it only by the negative or the 
conjunctive pronoun, and practically without exception the 
verb follows upon an interrogative word and a relative : o-Tefca 
va 'So) k iyoo ^ri%a ttj fiovXa "stay that I also may examine 
the signet-ring a little," crav ecfrvy r) fiaaiXoTrovXa fie tov 
'Apdirrj " when the king's daughter had escaped with the 
Moor," tov ip<*>T7)ae iroao kogtl^i to /3l/3Xio " r he asked him 
how much the book cost," tou elire ocra to-' elir 6 /3aai\ui<; 
" she told him all that the king had said to her." 

Exceptions occur only after ttov (to throw emphasis upon the 
verb), as, rjpxc Kaipos, ttov 6 was rj7ravTp€vTrjK€ (Texts I. d. 5) " there 
came a time when one of them married" and in predicate clauses 
with 7rais, which prefer the order of the principal sentence, as, rj&pt 
7ra)5 iK€Lvrj<s 6 avrpas rjravc ctttj SovAeta (I. d. 5) "he knew that her 
husband was at work." 

§ 290. The direct and indirect object regularly follow 

immediately upon the verb — the direct preceding the 

indirect, provided there is not more emphasis on the latter 

t (e&c*)K€ kol Tr)$ fiiKprjS to ypd/jifjia, TEXTS I. d, 1). If the 



SYNTAX 203 

subject and the predicate are inverted (v. § 288) the object 
in that case regularly takes the end : e.g. koi Trrjpe 6 Spdtco? to 
SepTpo, Xeet to <tkvX\ t?}? yaTas. Rhetorical reasons may 
cause the object to be pushed forward ; cf fiov irr^pe ttj @ovka 
6 ^ApaTTT)? teal ttj yvvaltca (I. d. 2) " the Arab took from me 
the signet-ring as well as the woman." The most effective 
means, however, of securing prominence for the object is a 
position immediately in front of the verb — an arrangement, 
which readily admits the former to the beginning of the 
clause : e.g. 6 \6o$ et? ttjv &pa rov y^ikia <p\ovpta a^i^ei or 
tcl ypoaia aov Bev tcl 0i\co " thy money I seek not." 

§ 291. Adverbs and adverbial qualifications regularly 
follow upon the predicate — the adverb immediately, the 
adverbial qualification after the object or after the adverb : 
tot€9 €o~t€l\€ ttoKl tt) fxdvva tov gto fiavCkid " then sent he 
again his mother to the king," Tpkyei \oiirov ei)Tv<i KaTca 
o-Trjs fidwa? tov "he runs now immediately down to his 
mother." The inversion of subject and predicate attracts the 
adverb likewise toward the beginning, but not the adverbial 
qualification : e.g. irrjye iraki r\ \idvva gto fiaaikid " again 
went the mother to the king," but irrjyap ol Spd/cot yia %v\a 
"the monsters went for wood." An adverb or adverbial 
qualification may be given a mild emphasis by placing the 
former at the end of the sentence (after the other enlarge- 
ments of the verb) or also before the verb, and the latter 
immediately before the verb ; as, e&cav oXrj ttj ^cotf tov? icakd 
" they lived their whole life well," 6 Ti(t)pyi<; ird\i e/cave to 
\ddos "again G. made the mistake," 6 Spatco? fie fieydXrj 
Tpofiapa d(f>K€ tcl <f)Xovpod " with great consternation the 
monster abandoned the money," avTrj €tcave tci aXXrj <f>opa to 
ISlo " once more she did the same thing." 

Of course even the adverbial qualification comes before the 
object when the latter is enlarged by a relative clause ; as, totcs 6 
3ia/?o\os a7roXa€t a7ro ttjv Kairora tov to Xayo, 6 671-0105 ... (I. d. 6). 

The strongest emphasis is secured by an initial position, 
which occurs particularly when an adverb or an adverbial 
definition forms the transition from one clause to the other, 
or introduces a situation (and so especially in definitions of 
time and place) : e.g. yXrjyopa va <f)vyr]$ " quickly flee," air tcl 
iraiSca tov Kvp Ad^apov iatadxrrjfces ; (TEXTS I. d. 3) " was 



204 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

it the children of Sir L. that you were afraid of ? " a o^tg) 
fxepes Siopca to ytarpevo) " within the space of eight days I 
cure it," iraXi airrj e/3a\e to 8a%TvXi8i arrb rdari fieaa " again 
she laid the ring in the cup," ttjv aXXrj jiepa 6 XpLarbs rov 
Xeet rov StaftoXov " another day said Christ to the devil," fita 
<f)opa ryrave Svb iraWrjKapca " once upon a time there were 
two youths." Cf also the beginning of I. d. 7 and L b. 5. 

§ 292. In secondary clauses the object and adverb 
(adverbial qualifications) are frequently separated from the 
verb, which, according to § 289, gravitates toward the 
beginning ; as, va /xa? Sdoa* 6 fiaacXids ttj Ovyaripa rov " let 
the king give us his daughter," KaOcbs Trrjpe to ctkvXl ttj 
fiouXa " as soon as the dog got the signet-ring," va 'Sw k iya> 
ilrc^a ty) ftovXa " that I may also look at the signet-ring a 
moment," oao va irdrj rj jidvva rov ctttjv aptcXa " until his 
mother went to the chest." Only clauses with irov (6Vou), 
7TW? (otl) (as in principal sentences, v. § 290 f.) admit of 
object and adverbial determination being placed in front of 
the verb and thereby emphasised ; as, ttou 6 evas rov aXXo Bev 

V&X^P^ 6 " so that ^ e one ^id no ^ P ar ^ fr° m ^e other," ttw? 
<r avTo to /jiipos icfrvrpcove to <$vto i/celvo " that that plant 
grew in this place." In clauses with va and other con- 
junctions that member of the clause which is to be strongly 
emphasised must be placed before the introductory conjunction : 
e.g. aXXo Se ^(aXevco . . ., fiova^a eva fyacj)€Ti va fxov fed/Ays 
" I request nothing else, only that you prepare me a banquet," 
Se inropo), K&de fiepa va ep-^wfxac " I cannot every day come." 
This precedence of object or adverbial determination is, how- 
ever, less common than is the case in principal sentences. 

§ 293. Adjectives and participles as a rule precede the 
word which they qualify. They follow : 

(1) When there is an emphasis on the adjective: e.g. 
yiaTpb? /caXo? " a good doctor," fiia fopeaia acocrTij " a proper 
garment." 

Notice also the expressions of goodwill <5/oa KaXrj and as trrj 
iroXXd (cf §§ 256, 257 n.). 

(2) If the attribute is the essential element, the essential 
expansion of the content of the context ; as, eteapav eva jd/xo 
XafiTrpo " they celebrated a wedding splendidly," /ua (fropeaia 



SYNTAX 205 

(ppdyKiKT] "a garment of European style/' fiea ra xP° vla 
ra iraXui " in the days of old, antiquity." 

(3) When the attribute itself is expanded ; as, eva <rapdyi 
fjLeyaKvrepo air rov fiacrikid " a castle more beautiful than 
that of the king," ha £iacj)€TC ttoXv fieydXo " a banquet very 
magnificent." 

(4) When the adjective stands in the relation of a predi- 
cate to the substantive ; as, 6 Ad£apo$ fxe pbeydkrj BvatcoXia 
irrjye to d<rid aBeto arb 7r7jydSo " L. with much difficulty 
brought the bag empty to the well " (" the empty sack " must 
be rendered to aa/cl to dSeto, according to § 57). 

§ 294. The attribute genitive is placed, as a rule, after its 
noun ; but, to secure a slight emphasis, before the noun and 
even before the article, but after any preposition : /tia? 
(TTiyiirj? vTro/jLovrj Si/ca yjpov&v pe^drt " a moment's patience 
means ten years' quiet," tt}«? fiiKporepr]^ to XP V<T0 fiepyt " the 
golden rod of the younger (daughter)," &' airf}? t% 0to>^? 
Koprjs to tnrvri " into this poor maiden's house." 

1. Note the free position of the gen. in Texts I. d. 5, to o-kc&o 
6a 7rdpii) rov crmTLov, where the emphatic object is pushed to the 
beginning while the attributive gen. which belongs to it is left. 

2. In Pontus and Cappadocia the gen. regularly is accorded the 
first place. 

§ 295. Dependent clauses with vd (yia vd), indirect 
interrogative clauses, predicate clauses with 7rm (*rrov), con- 
sequential, and comparative clauses, as a rule, follow upon the 
principal sentence, only clauses like va t« tcovToXoovjie " to 
sum up briefly" constituting fixed exceptions. Temporal 
clauses as regularly precede, in which case a single (emphatic) 
member of the principal sentence, or a member common to 
both, may be placed at the beginning; as, ol hpdicoi aav 
apyqcre 6 Ad£apo$ } €<po/3ffi tcav "as L. delayed the Draki 
feared (the monsters, as L. delayed, feared)," 6 fiaaiXia? aav 
clkovcf avTo, ^dp^ice " when the king heard it he rejoiced." 
A position after the principal sentence is less common (apart 
from clauses with " until, as long as, before ") ; as, auTo? <j)of3rj- 
07]Ke aav tov earav 7rw<? elvat to f3ao-(iy\67rov\o (TEXTS I. d. 1) 
" he was afraid when they told him that he was the king's 
son." Causal sentences may either precede or follow (those 
14 



206 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

with yiaTt follow) the principal sentence, so likewise con- 
ditional sentences. Eelative sentences connect closely with 
their antecedent, and thus sometimes secure a place within 
the principal sentence : to watBl to aapdyi, ttov to 7rapdyye\e$, 
to ^netaae (I. d. 2) " the child has made the castle which 
you ordered " ; but by means of the /cat construction in place 
of the relative clause (§ 261) and by the rules for the 
position of the principal sentence the language can escape 
the necessity for such insertions : e.g. koX ire$T6i rj f3ov\a ttov 
ttjv elx e fcpv/Mfiivrj " and the ring fell, which he had kept 
concealed." 

1. But even a relative clause may be separated from its ante- 
cedent : e.g. ixovaya tt] fiov\a BeXm oif fyus ° rT0 X*P L crov (Texts I. 
d. 2) " only the signet-ring I wish which you hold in your hand." 

2. Relatival subject (also object) clauses with 077-0105, on, (6)tto9, 
octol incline to come before the principal sentence, exx. v. § 264. 

§ 296. Modern Greek, having only in a limited number 
of instances strictly prescribed the position of words, admits 
of all kinds of variations for artistic purposes. Poetry is in 
this respect more absolute for the sake of the rhythm : poetic 
deviations from tjie normal order of words occur rather 
frequently where they are not essentially required by the 
thought. In the following examples note the dislocation of 
elements that properly belong together: drf ttj fivTf} tov 
iSeT€ f r) evyeveta ttws Tpi^ec (Texts II. a. 8) "from his 
nose, see how nobility trickles," not, a? tidyicro~a<s 6 a to, 
\vTpooa-rj %kpi; (II. a. 23) "which witch's hand will free 
them?" r?}9 iraT pihos eV«9 va y&vrj dp%7)y6<; (II. a. 1) 
"let there be one leader of his country," fiea t ovpavov 
dpjjL€vi^€i ttjv Tjav^f) iprjfitd (II. a. 13) "floats in the vault 
of heaven's tranquil solitude," //.e fiaTt, ^Xeirco fpXoyepo 
(II. a. 9) "I behold with flaming eye" — in which the 
essential elements of the sentence surround the less important. 
A favourite artistic device is chiasm : e.g. to crTpaTe/xd fiov 
o~vval;€ t fidae Tct TToWrj/cdpLa (I. a. 2) " my army collect, 
assemble my warriors," irapaicaXovv 01 yepovTes, r dycopca 
yovaTL%ovv (I. a. 7) " the old beseech him, at his knees fall 
the young," me hdnni pe^&ni, na pe)>&ni me kdnni esu (III. 1) 
" me thou permittest to die, to die thou permittest me," ttov 
hev /3\€7T€£ ju,aTC %evo y hev aicovet %evo clvti (II. a. 20) 



SYNTAX 207 

" where gazes no eye of stranger, and no ear of stranger 
hears." 

The treatment of these things, however, does not properly 
belong to the sphere of grammar, but to that of style: 
grammar is concerned only with establishing the given facts 
and means of expression in the natural language. 



I. FOLK LITERATURE. 

a. Folk Songs. 

1. "H aXwcri iflg KtuvcrTavTivouiroXig. 
a. 

KaXoYpia ^jLiaT€p€U6 i^apaKia oro TTjYdvi, 

Kai juid cpum), \\fr\Kr\ <piuvf| dTrdvuuGev if\q Xeyer 

,,TTdip€, Tpid, to juatepeio k' f\ TT6X1 9d TOupKeiyrj." 

^Oiav rd ipdpia 7T€TaxTo0v Kai pyouv Kai frjuvTaveiyouv, 

T6t€^ ki 6 ToupKog Gevd jUTtf) k' f) TT6X1 6d TOupKeiyri." — 

Td ijidpia 7T6TaxTr|Kave, rd iydpia ZiuvTaveipav, 

Kt 6 djaipd^ eiceprjKev dio^ tou Ka{taXXdpt£. 

b. 

TTfjpav Tr|V ttoXi, -nrfjpav xrjv, Trflpav ir\ ZaXoviKt], 
TTflpav Kai xrjv Arid Zoqpid, to judya Jiovaarripi, 
TToO 'xe TptaKOcria (TrjjuavTpa k' &£r]VTa buo Kajntrdve^* 
Kd9e KajuTtdva Kai mx-iras, KdGe totto^ Kai fcidKoq. 
Zijud vd PtoOv Td ayia ki 6 ftacriXids tou koctjuou, 
Oiuvrj Toug npx' & oupavoO, dfY^wv arc' to cFTOjua- 
„'A<pfyr' auTr| rqv lyaXjuiubid, vd x<wXuiaouv *' ayta* 
Kai aT€iXT€ Xoto gtt\ <t>paYKidj vd 'pTOuve vd Td mdcouv, 
Nd irdpouv to xputfo araupo Kai t' ayio to jtaYTeXto 
Kai Tfiv dyia Tpdnela, vd jur| Trjv djuoXOvouv." 
Zdv t' ctKouaev f] becmoiva, fcaKpuEouv oi ekoves* 
„Zumaae, Kupd becrrroiva, jnf|v KXaiYrjs, m ba.Kp\)Zr)q' 
TTdXe jie xpovous, ju£ Katpoug, irdXe btm eras eivat." 

2. e O AtdKO^. 
Tpfa TTOuXaKta KaGouvTav cjtoO AidKou to TafiTroupt. 
To 'va TTipdei rrj Aipabid Kai t' dXXo to Zr|TO\3vi, 



212 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

To Tprro to KaXuiepo juoiptoXoxqi Kai Xeyev 
TToXXr] jiauptXa TrXaKuucre, juaupri crdv KaXiaKOuba* 
Mrjv 6 KaXu(3as ^px^xai, jar|V 6 AePevToyidwris; 
Oub' 6 KaXuftag Kpxeiat, oub' 6 AeflevTOYtdvvrig* 
'Oju£p Bpudbvris irXaKUUcre |ue beKOXTib x^idbe^. 
c O Aicxko? crdv t' dYpoiKrjcre, ttoXu tou KaKoepdvrv 
VriXrj qpuuvfjv derrJKUuere, tov Trpurro tou cpujvd£er 
„T6 cTTpaTejud juou cruvaHe, judcre Td TraXXrjKapia, 
Aog Toug jUTrapouTr] Tiepiacrf) Kai poXia jue Teg cpouxTeg. 
rXrjYOpa* Kai vd TridauujLie KaTuu ffTrjv 'AXajudva, 
TToO 'vai TocjuTroupta buvaTa ki ojaopcpa u.€Tepi£ia. u 
TTaipvouve Td Xacppd OrraGtd Kai Td ftopetd TouqpeKia, 
TTf|v V\Xajudva qrrdvouve Kai mdvouv Td Taujroupur 
„Kapbtd, iraibid juou," cpubvaEe, „Traibid, jarj cpoPnGfyre. 
ZTaGnT' dvTpeid crdv "EXXiqveg Kai ad TpaiKoi crraGriTe". 
'Ekcivoi cpopn0r)Kave k' ecTKopmaav cFTOug Xorrouq. 
"Ejueiv' 6 AidKog gtt) (puma jue beKoxTii) XefevTeg, 
TpeT<; iSpe^ eiroXejuae jue beKOXTw x^ 1 ® ^- 
ZKio"TT]Ke to ToucpeKi tou k' $YivriKe KOjUjuaTia, 
Zepvet Kai to Xacppo onaQi Kai crrri cpumd xoujudei, 
^EKOipe ToupKOug aTretpoug k' feqrrd ujrouXouKjiTracrtbes. 
Kai to CTTraGi tou o"Kio~Tr|Kev aTrdv' duo ttj cpouxTa, 
K' ?Trea 7 6 AtaKog £u)VTavos eig tuiv exTpwv Td x^P 1 **- 
XiXiot tov Trfjpav arco 'jiiTTpog Kai buo x^dbeg tticfw. 
Ki'Ojufcp Bpudjvrjq u.ucrnKd ctto bpojuo tov epiirra* 
„l~evecrat ToupKog, AtdKO juou, Tfjv man crou v' dXXdEris, 
Nd irpoaKuva^ ei<; to T£au.i, Tf)v teXt^aid v' dqprjariq;" 
K' ^KeTvog t* a7teKpi0r]Ke Kai \ik Bujuo tou \ifer 
„TTaT6 k ioei<; k' fj TriaTi aaq, u.oupTaTeg, vd x a ^n Te - 
5 Etu> TpaiKoq T^vvr)9r]Ka, TpaiKog Gavd TreGdvuu. 
*Av OeXeTe x& xa cpXwpid Kai x^ l0U S u.axnouTtebes, 
Movov £qpTd juepujv £wr) GeXiu vd juou xapio~T€, 
"Oao vd cpTdcr' 6 'Obuaaeug ki 6 Bdyiaq 6 Gavdaig." 
Zdv t' aKOucr' 6 XaXiX jLirreri^, dqppi£ei Kai qpujvd£er 
„XiXia TTOUTTid crag bivw 'tuj ki aKojua 7revTaKoaia, 
Tov AiaKo vd x^daeTe, tov cpopepo tov KXeqpTri* 
RaTi 9d crprjcrr) Tfjv ToupKtd ki 6Xo juaq to VTe^XeTi." 
Tov AtdKO t6t£ -rraipvouve Kai ctto croupXi tov pd^ouv, 
'OXopTO tov £crrr|aave ki auTog x a l L10 TeXoucr€. 
Tou$ ?ppt2!e Tfjv Trian Toug, tou? IXeye jaoupTaTeg' 



TEXTS 213 

„ZkuXi(x, ki Sv |ll£ croupXicreTe, evas TpaiKog fy^n' 
*As eiv' 6 'Obvaceix; KaXd ki 6 KaTiexdv NiKfyras' 
Autoi 9& cpdve Trjv ToupKidv, Gd Kdiyouv to VTepXert." 

3. c O IrepYios. 
(Thessaly) 
Kt &v xd VT€pp£via ToupKeq/av, Td irfjpav 'Appavfres, 
e O ZiepTio^ etvat £ujvTavos, 7racrdbes b£v ipn.<paei. 
"Oao xioviZiouve pouvd Kai XouXoubi£ouv KdjuTioi 
K' ?xo^ v oi paxes Kpud vepd, ToupKOug bkv ttpoc;kuvou|li€. 
TTdfie vd Xijuepidaujuev 6ttoO qpiuXid£ouv Xukoi, 
I£ Kopqpopouvia, ae anr\\ieq^ o~e paxes Kai paxouXe^. 
XKXdpoi axes x^pes KaxoiKoOv Kai ToupKoug TTpocTKuvoGve, 
K' i\xe\q Ytd x^pav ^X ^ PHM 1 ^ ki orfpia XaYKdbia. 
TTapd ph ToupKou^, jue Gepid KaXurepa vd £oOjue. 

The same runs in phonetic transcription (to illustrate the pro- 
nunciation, cf. § 2) thus : 

Jt an da derveAa tiirJtepsan, ta piran Arvam'tes, 

o Steryos ine zondands } pasddes dembzifdi. 

oso x'onhune vund Jte luludizun kdmbi, 

Jt fyun i rdy^es krd nerd, Turkus dembrosJtinume. 

pdme na limerdsomen opil fol'dzun UJti, 

se korfovufia } se spil'is, se rd\es Jte r affiles. 

skldvi stes \6res katikun He Turkus proskinune, 

Jtemis ja \6ran iyjome rimnes Jt d&fa langddja. 

pard me Turkus, me pefd kalitera na ziime. 

4. c dTroxatpeTtaiuos tou KXeqpTrj. 
„Mdvvaj aou Xeiu, bev r|U7ropuj tou$ ToupKOug vd bouXeuuj, 
A£v niHTTOpuj, b£ buvajnat, £judXXiaa' f\ Kapbid juou. 
Gd Trdpuj to TOuqpeKi juou, vd TTdw vd yevw KX£q>Tr)£, 
Nd KaTOiKricruj <rxd fiouvd Kai axeq iprjX^<s paxouXes, 
Nd 'xuu Toug Xottou^ auvxpocpid, jue Td 6epid KoupevTa, 
Nd 'xuj Td xiovia Yid ffKeirrj, tou$ ppdxous fia KpeppdTi, 
Nd 'xuj \xk Td KXecpTOirouXa KaOnjuepvo Xiuipt. 
Gd (puyuj, judvva, Kai jurjv KXais, nov' bo juou Trjv euxn cyou, 
K' euxnaou jue, juavvouXa juou, ToupKoug ttoXXous vd o~cpd£uj. 
Kai qpUTeipe TpavTaqpuXXid Kai juaupo KapuoqpuXXt 
Kai TTOTiEe Ta Cdxapt Kai tt6ti£€ Ta juoffKO' 
Kt 6cro 7r' dvGKouv, judvva jlxou, Kai pYdvouve XouXoubta, 
e Ytog crou blv direGave Kai TroXejudei Toug ToupKOu^* 



214 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Ki av epGr) jnepa GXipepr), juepa qpapiuaKiujuevri, 

Kai jnapa0oOv id bvb jaaS Kai rreaouv id XouXoubia, 

Toxe k' e-fiij 9d XaPuuGui, id juaOpa vd (popearjs." — 

AwbeKa xpovoi rrepacrav Kai bemTievxe prive^, 

TV dvGt£av Td xpavxdcpuXXa ki dvGKav xd |imoujU7TOUKia. 

Kai juidv auTn 'voi£dttKr|, juid irpiJuxri xou MaTou, 

TToO KeXaibouaav id irouXid ki 6 oupavos TeXoOcre, 

Me jaidg d(jTpdqpT€t Kai ppovxa Kai Yivexat (jKOxdbr 

To KapuocpuXXi axevaHe, xpavxaqpuXXid baKpu£ei, 

M£ juid? HepdGr|Kav xd buo k' dTrecrav xd XouXoubia* 

MaQ n' auxd awpidorriKe k' r\ boXia xou juavvouXa. 

5. Oi KXeqpxes Kai f\ dvoiSi. 
(Epirus) 

"Hcruxa ttoO eivai xd ftouvd, ficruxoi ttou €iv' of KajLnrot! 
Aev Kapxepouve Gdvaxo, Yepdjuaxa b£v ?x ouv ? 
Mov' Kapxepouv xiqv dvoi£i, xo Mai, xo KaXoKaipi, 
Nd fboOv xou<g BXdxoug crxd Pouvd, vd ibouv xe$ BXaxoirouXe^, 
N' dKouaouv xd BXaxoTrouXa XaXwvxas xe^ (pXoyepe^, 
BocTKOVxa^ xd KOTrdbta xoug jae. xd xovxpd Koubouvia. 
"Ovxas Gd axriaouv xd |uavxpid, xf)v dpxuaid vd cpxeidaouv, 
9d PyoOv m \ Ta KXeqpxoTiouXa vd rraiEouv, vd x°p£uouv. 
Zuxvd auxvd Gd popoXdv axou^ Ka^irou^ xwv OepadXiuv, 
Nd mdvouv ToupKou^ £wvxavoiis, vd y&uvouv (jKOXUJ|uievoug, 
Nd cpepvouv Ypocria Kai cpXwpid k' £k€i vd xd noipdEouv, 
Kai vd xap^ouv Kava hub ores dcmpes BXaxoTrouXe^, 
KXecpxovxa^ Kai Kava cpiXi Kai Y^uKOTrarfVibaKt. 

6. XeXibovicrjaa. 

XeXibovi ^px^Tai, 
©dXaacrav dTiepaae, 
Trj qpwXid GejaeXnuae, 
KdGicre k' dXdXncre- 
Mdpxi, Mdpxi xi°vep^ 
Kai <J)\epdpt Ppox^pe. 
'0 ArrpiXig 6 y^kuc; 
> Eqpxacre, b£v etv' juaKpug* 
Td TTOuXaKia KeXa'iboOv, 
Td bevxpaKia cpuXXavGouv, 



TEXTS 215 

Td 6pvi6ia vd y^vvouv 
'ApxivoOv Kai vd KXwao^oOv. 
Td Kondbta £apxivouv 
N' dvapaivouv end pouvid, 
Td KaicriKia vd TrriboOv 
Kai vd rpiuYouv id KXabur 
Zwa, dv0pumoi, TrouXid 
XaipovTai duo KapbidV 
^Eiraipav xd TraYumd 
Kai td xiovia ki 6 popux<;. 
Mdpxi, judpn xiovepe 
Kai OXepdpi Xacmepe. 
*Hpx' 'AirpiXic; 6 KaX6<g, 
Mdpxi irpixs, OXepdpi irpir^. 

7. c O Xapo^ Kai oi Yux^- 

Hax' eivai jiaupa id pouvd Kai crxeKouv poupKiujueva ; 
Mrjv' dvejuos Td iroXejua; jurjva ppoxn xd bepvei; 
Ki oub' dve|Lio^ xd TroXejuqt ki oub£ ppoxn xd bepvei* 
Move biapaiv' 6 Xdpovxa^ \xk jovq aTreGajajLievou^ * 
Zepvei xous vious duo juirpootd, xou$ Y^povxes Kaxoiri, 
Td xpuqpepd iraiboTiouXa crxfj creXX' dpabiacrjueva. 
TTapaKaXoOv oi Y^povxes, x' aYwpia xovaxi^ouv • 
„Xdpe jliou, Koveip' eig x^pio, Koveip' ei£ Kpua Ppucri, 
Nd moOv oi Y£povxe<g vepo k' oi viol vd XiGapicrouv, 
Kai xd uiKpd iraiboTiouXa vd jadcrouv XouXoubaKia." 
„Ki oub' ei$ xwpib Koveuuu 'yw ki oube eiq Kpua Ppucxi, 
"Epxovx' oi jidvves Y*d vepo, YvwpKouv xd Tiaibid xiuv 
TvujpiZovxai x' dvxp6Yuva Kai xwpiO"u.6 b£v £x° u v-" 

8. Xdpoc;. 

(Cephalonia) 

'AKOucrxe xi biaXaXr^ae xou irpiKoO Xdpou f\ judwa* 

„TToxouv iraibid, $<; xd Kpuipouve, ki dbepqpia, a<; xd qrjXd£ouv, 

FuvaiKeg xtiuv KaXaiv dvxpuuv vd Kpuipouve xou$ dvxpes! 

Ki 6 Xdpo$ cftJYupi£exai Yid vd 'PYg vd Kpoucreiyq." 

Ma vd xov Kai Kaxepatve xtfou Kdjuirous KapeXXdpi^. 

MaOpog fjxav, Kaxdjuaupoq, juaupo Kai x' dXoYO xou, 

Zepvei OxeXexxa biKoira, tfTraOid HeYUjLivu)|neva • 



216 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

iTeXerra tcx 'xei Yia Kapbieg, cnraGid Yid Td KecpdXia. 

Xt€ku) Kai tov TrepiKaXu), Td x^P ia (TTauptujaeva • 

„Xdpo, Yia bt. irXripduvecrai, yi«ti b&v raxipveis dcrcrpa; 

TTdpe toOv TrXoucriujv Td 9Xwpid Kai tou (pTuuxwv Td Tpocria, 

Kal rrdpe Kai toOv TrevrjTwv t' djuneXoxubpaqpa tou$!" 

K' Ik€ivo^ ju.' aTTOKpi0r|K€ era ctkuXos jmavia|uevog * 

„Nd x^poOv 01 ttXouctioi Td qpXwpid Kai oi qrrwxo! Td Ypocxia, 

Nd x a ipouvTai k' of Trevrpres t' djLnreXoxwpaqpd Touq! 

K' kfd) 7raipvw_6']uop(pa KOpjuid, t' dYY^XoKajuujjueva, 

Nd TCTnYctpiZiiJU t<j' dbepqpes, vd XaxTapKuu jadvve<g 

Kai vd xwpiEwjxvTpoYuva, Td TroXuaYairriMeva." 

*Q Ge jmeYaXobuvajiie, TroXXd KaXd ttoO Kdveig, 

TToXXd KaXd |ud^ &<a|ueg, jud eva KaXo bev Kaveig* 

Tiocpupi |uea*' cto ireXaYO, (TKaXa crrov KaTw koctjlio, 

Nd KaTegaivouv oi dbepepeg, vd KaTeftaivouv oi judvveg, 

N' dvepoKaTepaivouve KaXaiv dvTpiuv YuvaiKe<g. 

9. e Xdpo<j Kai 6 raoTiavr\q. 
(Arachova) 
To pXerceis K€ivo to pouvo ttoO 'vai \\)r)\b Kai jueYa, 
TTox' dvTapouXa crrf)v Kopcpfj Kai KaTaxvid (XTrj pi£a; 
'ATTeKeiva KaTepaive £va$ VTeXfj XepevTiqg, 
Oepvei to qpecri tou orpapd Kai tov ya)nt& cTTpijujuevo. 
Ki 6 Xdpog tov epiYXicrev diro ipr|Xr| paxouXa, 
Byhke Kai tov dirdviricre cr' eva crrevo croKaKi. 
„KaXr| faepa aou, Xdpo juou." — „KaXi£)g tov tov Xepevn]. 
Ae^evTri, uoOGev epxecrai, XeflevTr], ttoO TraYaiveiq ;" 
„rw; 'tto Td irpopaT' Ipxoj^aij <*t6 ctttiti jliou iraYaivw, 
TTaYUJ vd irdpuj to vpujjui Kai tcictuj vd Yupicru)." 
„AePevTri, juocrreiXe 6 Qxbq vd rrdpw ty)v ipuxn crou." 
„Aixuug dppwema ki depopjufj ipuxrj bev rapabibiu. 
Tid- e^YCt vd TTaXeiywjuie <r£ juapjuapevi' dXum, 
Ki av \xk viKricrrig, Xdpo |nou, vd 7rdpr)S Tfjv ipuxn |uou, 
Ki av ak viKrjauj, Xdpo juou, vd Trdpiu ty\v ipuxn crou." 
TTiaa"Tr|Kav Kai TraXeipave buo vuxtc^ Kai Tpeig jnepeg, 
Ki auToO Trjv Tpfrri Trjv airfn KOVTa aro Y l 6^a Yiojua 
Oepv' 6 XepevTiqg jmiot poXd, tou Xdpou KaKoqpdvr], 
'Air' Td juaXXid tov dbpaEe, <TTrj Ynv tov dppovrdei, 
'Akouv to viov Kai f3oYYi£e ^ai papuavacTTevdZier 
»hae jie, Xdpo jli', acre jae Tpei<g juepes Kai TpeT<; vuxt€<^ # 



TEXTS 217 

Tes bub vd qpdxw Kai vd irtoi, xrj juict vd aepYiavicxu), 

Nd Tcdu), vd biti) Toug cpiXoug juou, vd fciuj Kai tou$ biKOug |uou, 

TToxuj Y^vaiKa trapavid, Kai xW a *>& T fl<S Trpenei, 

TToxuj Kai bvb |LiiKpouT(TiKa, ki opcpdvia bev tou$ Trperret, 

TToxuj id TipopaT' aKOupa Kai to Tupi ctto Kdfci." 

Ki aiiToO Kovid ctto betXivo tov Katapdv' 6 Xdpog. 

10. MoipoXoTU 
(Cephalonia) 

„Eutou ttoO ^Kivrjaeg vd Trdg (7t' dyupiKO TaHibt, 
Ztov 8e6v a' 6pKi£w vd noG 'ttQs, tt6t€ vd ok TrpoOjievuj, 
Nd pi£uj poba orriv auXri, TpavidqpuXXa otr)v rropTa, 
Nd qpTeidau) y\6}jia vd ffcUTfjs Kai beiirvo vd beurvricrris, 
Nd (TTpubcruj Kai Trjv KXivq cxou, vd Trearjg vd TrXaYidcrris." 
„*A qpT€id(Tr)<s yiojua, T^ou to, Kai beiTrvo, beiirvrjcre to, 
Ki a (TTpOuar]^ Kai ty\v kXivh jliou, Trecre, Koijuriaou aTcdvuj! 
K' €yuj iraTUJ Ott\ inaupr) ffiS? <xt' dpaxviacrjuevo x^M^j 
K' ?xw T1 1 YHS Tid TrdTTXujjua, to x^jua Tid aevTOVi, 
Kai Yeuojuai tov KOupviaxTO, benrvduj duo to x&na 
Kai ttivuu t' ibpioCTaXaxTO tox\ TrXaKag to 9apjudKi." 
„*Av anecpdaiaeq vd iraq, vd }ir\ juaTaYupiaris, 
*AvoiH€ Td juaTaKia crou k' ibe<^ jutd jLnrdvTa ki dXXr| 
Ki dqpae uy^id ctto airm crou k' uyeid aroug £biKoug Gov 
Kai arjKuu Trape juideiye, ar|Kujcrou nape 9ei>Ya, 
TTpiTd aoO aupouv 6ujuiaTO, ae ipdXXouv oi TraTrdbeg, 
TTpiTa ae TrepiXdpouve tot] YHS oi KXepovouoi." 

11. c O BoupKoXaKag. 

Mdvva, jue Toug evvid (7ou yioug Kai jme ir\ jutd Cou Kopr], 

Tr) Kopr| Tr) jnovaKpipri Tr] TroXuaYaTcr||uevr|, 

Trjv eixeq bwb€Ka xpovujv k' fiXiog be croO Trjv €ibe, 

XTd (TKOTeivd Trjv SXouEeg, (7t' aqpeyYa Trjv eirXeKeq, 

Zt' darpr) Kai cttov aufepivo to"' eqpKeiaveg Td cTYOupd Trig* 

'Ottou aoO qpepvav TrpoHevidv otto ir\ BapuXiuvr), 

Nd Trjv TiavTpeipris juaKpeid, ttoXu juaKpeid aTd Heva* 

'Oxt' dbepqpoi be OeXouve ki 6 KuucTTavTivog OeXer 

„A6<; Trjve, judvva, boq T\]ve Trjv 'ApeTri cfTa 2eva, 

ZTd Heva 'KeT ttou TreppaTO), (TTd leva ttoO TraYaivu), 

Nd 'xw k' tf\h rrapriYopid, vd 'xw k' eyuj KovaKi." 



218 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

} ,<t>p6vijLiog etcrat, KuucrravTfj, ki acrxruu' aTrr|XoYr|Gr|s* 

Ki av |Li6p8r], Yie jliou, Gdvaxog, ki av juopGr], Yie H-'? appwcrna, 

Ki av tux?] TriKpa fr\ x a pa? Troioq Got jliou Tr|ve qpeprj ;" 

To Gio Tfis ?paX' dTT^r) Kai tou$ dyioug juapTupou^, 

'Av Tuxr] k' £pGrj GdvaTos, av Tuxrj k' ?p0 5 dppwcma, 

Ki av Tuxr) TriKpa YH X«P^ 5 V( * ^dr) vd Tr|ve qpepr). 

Kai adv Trjv ^Travipeipave jf\v ApeTrj aid Eeva, 

K' djunrf\Ke xpovo^ biaecpiog Kai |uf|vas 6pYicrjLtevos 

K' ?Tiecre to GavaiiKO k' oi evvid 'bepqpoi TreGdvav, 

BpeGrjK' f) judvva u.ovaxr) crdv KaXajuid arov KajLuro* 

Zt' oxtuj juvrijuaia bepveiai, (7t' oxtw jLioiptoXoYaei, 

ZtoO KwcrravTivou to GaqpTO Teq irXaKeq dvacFKtuvei* 

„Zr|KOu, KcucTTavTivaKi jliou, Tr)V ApeTn |uou GeXur 

To 0io jlioO 'pdXe^ eYfUTri Kai Touq aYiouq juapTupoug, 

*Av Tuxrj TriKpa YH X a P^j v< * Trdg vd juou tx\ q>eprj£." 

T' dvdGeiua tov l^ake juecr' duo to Kipoupr 

Kdvei to auYveqp' dXoYO Kai t' daxpo craXipdpi 

Kai to cpeYYapi CTuvTpoqpid Kai Trdet vd Trjve qpepr). 

TTaipvei Ta Sprj tticfuj tou Kai Td pouvd juTrpocnrd tou, 

BpicrKei Tr|v k' IxTeviEouvTav ^Hou cfto qpeYYapdw 

Atto juaKpeid tx\ xaipeTa ki cltzo juaKpetd jf\q Xefei* 

^ep^T^cT', ApeTouXa juou, Kupdva jLias ae GeXei." 

„AXXoijLiov' dbepqpaKi jliou, Kai t' eivai tout' f\ u>pa; 

Avicrujq k' eivai y\a x a pa? v <* PaXw Td xpucrd juou, 

Ki av eivai TriKpa, neq jliou Ta, vd 'ptuj KaTa ttujs eijuai." 

„TT€ppdTr|c^ , , ApeTouXa jliou, k' ?Xa KaTa ttuis euxai." 

Ith (JTpdTa ttoO biapaivave, Gty\ crrpaTa ttoO TraYaivav, 

Akouv TTOuXid Kai KtXabouv, aKOuv TiouXid Kai Xeve* 

„TToioc eifce Kopryv ojaopcpr) vd crepv' 6 TreGajujuevo^ ;" 

,;*AKOucrec;, KwcravTaKi jliou, ti Xeve Td irouXaKia; 

TToios eibe Koprjv ojuopqpr) vd crepv' 6 TTeGajujuevos;" 

„AuuXd irouXid ki aq KiXabouv, XuuXd irouXid ki a^ Xe've." 

Kai TrapaKeT ttoO rrdYatvav, ki dXXa irouXid tou^ Xeve" 

„Ti pXeTrojue Ta GXtpepd, Td TTapairovejaeva, 

Nd TreppaToOv oi 2uuvTavoi jne tou^ dTreGajujaevou^ !" 

,,'AKouae^, KwcrravTaKi jliou, ti Xeve Td irouXdKia; 

TTuj^ ireppaToOv oi ZiuuvTavoi jLie tou^ aTreGajupevoug." 

„TTouXaKia 'vai ki aq KiXaboCv, irouXaKta 'vat ki fig Xeve." 

„OopoO|uai a', dbepqpdKi jliou, Kai Xi^avieg juupi^eig." 

,,'ExTeg ppabug dTrr|Tcx|Lie Tiepa o"tov "Ai-fidwrj, 



TEXTS 219 

K' eGujuiacre \ia<; 6 -ncm&<; |ue Treptcrad Xipdvi." 

Kai TrapeiLiTrpo^ ttou TrrjYave, ki dXXa TiouXid Toug Xeve* 

„*Q 0€ jueYaXofcuvajue, jueYaXo Oajua Kaveig, 

Teioiav Tiavwpia XuYepn vd crepvrj 7Te6aju|Ufcvog." 

V d'KOuae TrdX' f| 5 Ap€Trj k' £pdYicr' f) Kapbid Trig. 
,*AKOucreg, KajaiavTaKi jhou, ti Xeve Td TiouXdKta; 

TTeg |uou, ttou V id juaXXaKia crou, to ttiyujpo juoucFTdKi ;" 
„MeTdXri dppwdtia jli' euprjKe, ja' ?ppt£e toO Gavdxou, 
TToO 'ueaav rd £av6d ^aXXid, to iriYtupo jnoucTTaKi." 
BptcfKouv to cririTt KXeiburro KXeifcojuavTaXwiuevo, 
Kai Td (TTriTOTTapdeupa ttou *Tav dpaxviacTjueva. 
„*Avoi2e, ]udvva ja', d'votSe Kai vd tf\v 'ApeTri cfou." 
,*Av eiaat Xdpog, bidpaive, ki dXXa rcaibid blv £xw 
e H boXta f\ 'ApeTouXa juou Xenrei fiaKpeid era £eva." 
,,*Avoi£e, judvva jli', dvoiHe, k' £yw V 6 Kiu(XTavTf)g crou* 
'EYYUTrj aoftaXa to 0io Kai Toug aYioug juapTupoug, 
"Av Tuxri utKpa YH X a P«j V( * ^rd vd croO Tr| cptpw." 
Ki uicrre vd 'Py^I tfTnv ^op™ Tr IS> ^YH K€V f) H^XH Tr IS- 

12. To Yioqpupt Tfis^ApTCis. 
(Corfu) 

ZapdvTa irevTe judaropoi k' ££rivTa jna0r|Tdbe^ 
TpeTg xpo vou< S &>ouXeuave tt\<; *ApTag to Yiocpupr 
'OXrjjuepig ^XTiCave ki anb ppa&u YKpejueieTat. 
MoipioXoYoOv oi ]LidaT0p€<s Kai KXaiv oi juaGriTdbe^' 
,,'AXXoijuovo crcoug KOTTOug juag, Kpijua crreg bouXeiyeg juag, 
'OXrijuepig vd - XTiCwjie, to ppdbu vd YKpejueieTat." 
Kai to CTotxeio iroKpiGriKev arc' in 5e£td Kajudpa- 
„*Av b£ c^TOlX€lUJcyeT , dvGpumo, TeTxog bk GejueXiwver 
Kai |nr| c^TOlxetuJc^€T , opcpavo, jufj £evo, jufj btapdxri, 
TTapd toO TTpuuTOjudcTTOpa Tfjv ujpux Tr] Yuvauca, 
TTopxeT' dpYd t' aTTOTaxeid, iropxeT' dpYd orb Yiojua." 

V d'Koua' 6 TrpuuTojudaropag Kai toO GavdTou Trecpxei, 
Kdvei Ypa<pr| Kai axeXvet xrjv jae to nouXi x' drj&ovr 
,,'ApYd vxuGfj, dpY J dXXaxxf], dpYd vd Trdrj ctto YtojLia, 
'ApYa vd irdr) Kai vd biaprj Trig "Apxag to Yioqpupi." — 
Kai to TrouXi irapaKoucre ki dXXiaig dTTf|Y€ k' eiire- 
„ropYd vtuctou, YOpY' d'XXa£e, YopYd vd irdg to Yiojua, 
TopYd vd Tidg Kai vd btapfjg xf\<; "ApTag to yiocpupt." 



220 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Nd Trjve kcci Havdqpavev duo Trjv dcrTrprj crTpdia* 

Tr)v eib' 6 TrpuuTojadoropag, payi^' f] Kapbid tou. 

'Atto |LiaKpeid Toug x ai P eT « ki arco juaKpeid Toug Xeyei* 

„reid aag, x a P« crag, judcrropeg, Kai creig oi juaOryrdbeg, 

Md ti exei 6 7rpujTOjudcFTOpag k' eiv' liax xoXiaffjuevog;" 

„T6 baxTuXibi TOTiecre cririv Trpumi Tfj Kajudpa, 

Kai iroiog vd |U7rfj Kai iroiog vd PtQj to baxTuXibi vd 'pprj ; ct 

„Md(TTOpa, jufiv iriKpaivecrai k' £yw vd ird a' to qpepur 

'Etuj vd juttuj k' £yw vd Pyw, to baxTuXibi vd 'Ppuj." 

Mnbe KaXd KaTefSriKe, jurjbe crxr| jmecr' ^Trfj ye - 

„Tpdpa, KaXe ju', Trjv aXucro, Tpdfia Tfjv dXucriba, 

Ti oXov tov kocfju' avdyeipa Kai TrrroTeg bev rjupa." — 

"Evag nrixaei jue to juucfTpi ki d'XXog jue tov d(j(3ecTTri, 

TTatpvei ki 6 TTptuTOjudcrropag Kai pixvei jaeya Xi0o* 

„AXXoi|uovo oty\ juoTpa juag, Kpijaa crro pi£iKO jaag, 

Tpeig dbepqpdbeg fijuaorav k' oi Tpeig KaKOYpajaiueveg, 

C H juid 'xTioe to Aouvafh k' f\ dXXr| tov AuXwva, 

K' erw f) irXio (TTepvoTeprj Tfjg *ApTag to -fioqpupt. 

KaGwg Tpejti' r\ KapbouXa juou, vd Tpejar] to Yioqpupt, 

Ki dbg iTeqpTOuv Td |LiaXXdKia juou, vd irecpTouv oi biapaTeg." 

„K6prj, tov Xoyov d'XXaEe ki dXXrj KaTapa buucre, 

TToxeig juovaKpifi' dbepcpo, jur) Xdxq Kai irepdcrr)." 

Ki auTf] tov Xoyov dXXa£e ki dXXrj KaTapa biver 

„Xibepov f\ KapbouXa juou, cribepo to fioqpupi, 

Zibepo Td |uaXXaKia juou, cribepo k' oi btajSaTeg. 

Ti ?xw , bep90 crrriv Eevrreid, jurj Xdxq Kai ir€pdar]. ct 

13. NavvdpicrjLia. 
(Cyprus) 

Navd vavd to fioiibi juou 
Kai to TraXXrjKapoubi juou, 
Koijaricrou yxovbx ix' aKptfSo, 
K' Zxw va cr°ti xapfow* 
Trjv 'AXeEdvTpeia £dxapi 
Kai to Micripi pu£i 
Kai Trjv KuucTTavTivouTToXi 
Tpeig xpovoug vd 6pi£rig* 
Ki aKO|uri dXXa Tpid xwpid, 
Tpia jnovacTTripaKia * 



TEXTS 221 

Zt€£ x^peq gov kcu aid x^pid 
Nd trag vd aepYiavioris, 
5/rd xpia luovaaxripia cyou 
Nd irdg vd TrpocTKuvricrrjs. 

14. *H Hevixeid. 
„Z' dcpnvcu Yetotj juavvouXa juou, a' dcprivuu Y€id, Trarepa, 
"Exexe T^id, 'bepqpdwa juou, Kai <ye!^ £abepqpoTTOuXe<g. 
0d qpuYU), 0d SevrreuTiij, 6d irdu) juaKpeid end £eva* 
Od cpuTuu, |udvva, Kai Od 'pidi Kai jufjv TroXuXuTreieo'ai. 
'Atto id £eva ttoO ppeGui, jLirjvujLiaTa aoO (rreXvuu 
Me ti] bpocrid Tflg avoigis, *rr)V Tfdxvrj tou x^M^va 
Kai jne t' dorepia t' oupavou, id poba tou MaTou. 
0avd <ro0 crreXvuj judXajua, 6avd aou areXv' dcrnjui, 
0avd aou crreXvw TrpdjuaTa tt' oiibe Td auXXoYeiea'ai*" 
„TTaibi juou, Ttdaive crro KaXo ki oX' oi aYioi Kovxd crou, 
Kai Tflg juavvouXag crou f) euxn vd 'vai Ytd cpuXaxTO aou, 
Nd jLin ae mdvr] pdaKajua Kai to KaKO to juaTi. 
Gujiirjaou jue, rraibaKi juou, k' ejue Kai Td Traibid juou, 
Mr) ae TrXavea' f] £evrreid Kai judg dXr|a|uovr|aris." 
„KdXXio, juavvouXa jliou Y^uKeid, KaXXto vd oxdaw TrpujTCt, 
TTapd vd jur) atic; 6u|ur|9w ffra 2pruua Td £eva." — 
AdbbeKa XP° V ' direpaaav Kai beKairevTe ^fjveg, 
KapdfSia bev tov ei'bave, vauTeg bev Tove Eepouv. 
TTpujTO cpiXi — 'vaorevaEe, beirrepo — tov rrXavdei, 
TpiTo cpiXi cpapjuaKepo — Tr| judw' dXrjajuovdei. 

15. f O JUTTlCTTlKOg (piX0£. 

(Crete) 
OiiXov tov k6(T|uo Yupeipa, irovevTe Kai Xe[3dvTe, 
Nd ppui Va cpiXo ujtiotiko adv Kai tov diraTO jliou. 
Aev r|upa cpiXo jiiTrtOTiKO ja^b' dbepcpo KaXXidv tou 
Zdv to OTraGaKi u.' dbepcpo, adv to ttouyyi juou cpiXo. 
Ki ottou KauYdg Kai rroXeu-os, iroXejua au aimSi juou, 
Ki ottou 'vai ya}xo<; m\ x a P a ? £6bia£e aii ttouyyi l^ou. 

16. f H TrepbiKa. 
Mid irepbiKa KauKnaTn,Ke a' dvaToXri ae buai, 
TTwc; bev eupeGrj Kuvnjos vd Tr|ve Kuvrypitfty 
*0 KuvnYO? crdv t' dKOuae, ttoXu toO KaKocpdvrj, 
i5 



222 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Ptyvei t& ppoxia Gib YtaXo, Td £6pepYa (TToug KdjuTroug, 
Td bixTua id jnetaHuuTd crrfi ppum (TTrj xiovdin* 
TTdYei f] irepoiKa vd Trtrj Kai Tcidvei' die' xfj jLiuxri- 
,,'AxajLivoTrida' jae, kuviiyc " Tdbp' f) vpuxn nou PYaivei." 
Kai ]u£ t' dxajuvoTcidajiiaTa Kdvei cpiepd Kai qpeuYer 
„ c 'Qpa vd ex' €upr], KuvriY€) dxajuvoKuvr|Yapi * 
*Acpf]K€g Teioia uepbiKa, vd Gov xfjv irdpouv d'XXoi." 

17. C H xopeuTpia. 
(Dancing Song, Epirus) 

Xrjfjiepa juepa TTaaxaXid, 

Xrjjuepa iravriYvpi, 

Ki oXeg of Kopec; cridZovrai 

Ei$ to xopo vd pToOve. 

Tid qpepTe xd aroXibia jliou, 

Hd cpepie to yuaXi jlxou, 

Nd (TtoXicttuj, vd YUaXlOTUJ, 

Nd Pyui crdv irepbiKouXa, 

Nd Trdu) vd arpwauj to x o P& 

KdTU) orb jnecroxujpi, 

Nd (Tkujvuu Td juiaxaKia j-iou, 

Nd pixv' darpOTTeXeKia, 

Nd Kdjauu ToupKOu^ vd (TqpaYoOv, 

Pujjuioug v' dXXoTrtCTTr|crouv 5 

Nd Kdjuuu to MexjueTaYa 

Nd x«^ Td becpTepia, 

Nd Kd|auu tov irpajTOTraTra 

Nd x«^ T <* iracrxdXia. 

18. 'EpuuTiKOV Trapdirovo. 
(Thera) 

'Ex^g ppabu drrepaaa aTto Trj Y^iTOVid ffou, 
"HKouaa Kai ae V^wve fi tfKuXa fj Kepd aou. 
Kai irdXi Havarrepacra, GeXcu vd cr' dpuuTrjcruj, 
Hd vd juou 'Tcrjg irjv iriKpa (Tou vd Ge Tcapr|YOpr|<Juj. , 
„Kpive jliou au Trjv rciKpa jliou, tx]v TcapaTrovecxi juou, 
"HKOuaa dXXn v' dYanag Kai xkvuj fi\ £wrj |uou." 
„M / 6jLiaTa, KpuataXXevia juou, ipojuaTa, xXid jaou pputft, 
VojaaTa juou Td 'pYotXave, Xrfvo jliou KUTrapiaxrt." 



TEXTS 223 

,'Acp' ofXXrj via b£v dYaTraq, jliov' aYana^ £uiva, 

'Exies flpabu dnepaaes, y^ti b£ jue 'xaipfrac;]" 

,/H ]udvva crou ki dqpevTrjs aou, 6 0ei6s aou ki dbepcpog aou 

"Hiave eiq t' dirXdi aou, t' aTrXdt to 6iko aou." 

,,'Eau vd KXivtjs KecpaXrj Kai judGia Trpo<; £jueva, 

K' efw to KonraXaPaiva ituj£ x ai P£ T $S eu-eva." 

„Nd Kdu-uu GeXuu buo bouXeie^, ty\ jatd 0d HeTeXeipiu, 

Nd Kapuj xai Taoi qpiXoi juou Yid vd 'p0iu vd ae kXojjuj ." 

„Ae a' ex^ ^Xio W^ dv0puj7io u.r|Te Kai raxXXrjKapt, 

"A be jue KXeiprig juid ppabeid vuxia jue to qpeYYdpt". 

19. C H xajiLvr] euKaipia. 
(Epirus) 
Aiko jli' ?|Tav to qpTaiSijuo, 
Nd xdaiu Toao TpeHijuo. 
*Hp0a Kai a' t]upa u.ovaxr| 
Kai hi a' ^x^pTaaa cpiXi* 
Z' £KUTTa£a 'vaxopTaya 
K' €KdOo|Liouv k' epujTaTa, 
To ttou vd eiv' f\ judvva aou 
Ki 6 dxpto^ 6 rraTepas tfou- 
*H u.dvva aou gty\v dKKXriaid, 
Ki dqpevTri^ aou atd Rdvveva, 
K' eau KovTd aTov jiiTrouTaXd, 
M£ Td juaTaKia xaj^a- 

20. To aTau.vi TaaKiajuevo. 
(Aegean) 

OuXes oi PepTe? eiv' ebdb, 
Kai juid pepYouXa tt' aYaTrw, ' 
TTdTei aTrj ppuai Yid vepo, 
TTdYW k' b(\h koltuj vd ttiuj, 
Nd if\q 0oXuuauj to vepo, 
Nd TTfc TaaKiaiu to aTajuvi, 
Nd Trdr] mr\ judvva Ta' dbeiavrj* 
„Mwpr| ttou V eivai to aTajuvi;" 
„Mdvva jliou, aTpapoTrdTTiaa 
K' £ireaa Kai to TadKiaa." 
„A£v eiv' aTpaponaTriiLiaTa, 
Mov' eiv dvTpo^ cptXruuaTa." 



224 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

• 21. e O TTonrdq aYOtTrnTiKos. 

(Constantinople) 

Mid £juopcpr| KOireXa dq to amY evo$ naird, 

Tid vd Trjv £ojuoXoYnfffy ^X € ^aYei |uid cpopd* 

Xdv Trjv eioe toc' dbpaia, KaTavuxTr| 6 Traird^ 

Kai T\\<; Xeer „KaXuuq opicrre, t' eiv' airro ttoO ju£ Zryraqf 

y&eonoTa juou, vd a' opiacu, ?\pm vd SeYopeumr 

Tid vd |uou id (Jirfxwpncn^ tct' d|uapTi£q ttoO 9d crou 'ttw." 

„Mf] qpo(3d(7at, Kopacrid |uou, bev dcnTXayxvoq e?v' 6 0e6q, 

e Q$ Kai jueva auYX^paei ttoO 'u.ai ™6 djuapTuuXoq/' 

„Ae(T7TOTd juou, vd or' opiauu Trjv dXr|0eia Tr| (Juucnri, 

'AYaTToOaa eva veov Kai tov aYaTTU) ttoXu. u 

„T6 vd aYarrag, iraibi juou, eivai TrpdYjua qpuaiKO, 

Me euXdfkiav juovdxa Kai cr' to cruYXwpw *' eYw." 

„AeaTroTa |uou, juidv fijaepa, ttoO Ka86u.av jaovaxn? 

TTepaae ki auToq 6 veos Kai juou bib' 2va cpiXi." 

„ c 'Eva crou 'buuKe, Kupd juiou, F| \xf\ crou 'buwe iroXXd; 

*Av and to 'va Kai Travw, lojujGav cruYX^prFa" 

„"Eva eva, becnroTa juou, eva eva u.ovaxd' 

TTXrjv Gwpil) to TTpocruuTTo crou k' £five cxdv Trj cpuuTid. a 

„ J 'E, Traibi u.ou, eivai irpdYM" tcoO to 'xw <*tto irai&i, 

*Q<; k' eYd» Od ae. cpiXncruj, ki 6 Oeos ju£ cruYXwpei" 

22. 'EEojbioXoYnffi- 
(Chios) 

ZapdvTa uipag jtieXeTuj 
Nd TraYoi (Ttov TTveupaTiKo • 
TTctYiw Mid KupiaKr) upon 
Kai tov eupicXKcu (Jto KeXXf. 
„TTaTrd u.ou, EejuoXoYa jae, 
Td KptjuaTa juou pwTa jue." 
„Td KpijuaTa crou 'vai uoXXd, 
'AYaTrri vd |ur]V Kajur)<g md." 
,*Av dpvricrrrjs eau, Tiara, 
Trjv KOpiiv Kai Trjv TraTrabid, 
Totc k' £fw 6ev' dpvriffTUi 
Tr|v Koprj & 6ttou dYatrdi." 



TEXTS 225 

t 

23. C H dcrxn^n vucprj* 
(Epirus) 
OiXot, Tiaii bbr Tpiirre Kai blv mveTe; 
Mrjva Kai to ipuujai juag b£ (jag d'peae; 
ZxeXvoujue crroug Y^TOvoug Kai r dXXdZoujue* 
M^va Kai to Kpaai juag be crag dpecre; 
Barevia ?xoujne ki dXXa Kai t' dXXd£oujne* 
Mrjva Kai Td qpaYid juag bk crag dpecrav; 
•MaTeipiacreg eiv' ki dXXeg Kai to - ' dXXdEou^e* 
Mrjva f) Kaijiovucpr] be crag d'pecrev; 
C H vuqpn Smug ki av elvai bev dXXdZieTat. 

24. Distiches. 

1. 
^ATdTrrj GeXei qpp6vr)0"i, GeXei TaTreivocruvri, 
GeXei XayoO TrepTraTrjcnd, diioO Y^nYopoauvr). 

2. 

'Avdjuecxa oro (jrrjGi ffou bi'xTu xputfOTrXejuevo • 
TTpuuTO TrouXaKi ttoO biapfj, indveTai to Karj|uevo. 
TTpa»TO TrouXi Tr6bidpr|K€, £yw 'juouva, Kupd juoir 
TTapaKaXai a\ dcpevTpa jnou, bog jaou ty\ XeuTepid juou. 

3. 

'Atto ty\v TropTa aou Trepvui, t' dxvdpi crou Yvwpi£cu, 
Xku(3u) Kai to Y^uKoqpiXuj Kai baKpua to Y€Mi£w. 

4. 
Auxd Td fiaupa juaTia OTav t' dvorfOKXeig 
Ki OTav Td xannMvrjg, craYfreg ju£ papeig. 

5. 
Airrrjv Tr| qpXoYa ttoO GuupeTg, TrpuiT' f]Tave Tai|U7Tiba, 
Twp' eiv' (puma Kai Kaiojuai, bev fe'xw ttXiov 4Xmba. 

6. 
Bdaava, Trncpeg Kai KarjjLioi, dcprjcrre Tfjv Kapbid juou, 
TiaTi ti 5 ) cpXoYa be paaruj, ttoO Kaiei Td awGiKa \xov. 

7. 
Hd juaOpa judTia xavojuai, f\a Y«Xavd ireGalvui, 
fid 'Keid Td KaTaYdXava cjtov "Abrj KaTepaivuu. 



226 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

8. 
Aev r|£eupa ™£>s 6 crepvictg xopTap' eiv' mi cpuxpibvei, 
K' ecpurpcuae juou OTrjv Kapbid Kai TrXid bev Hepi&juveu 

9. 
Aev eivai juiot, bev eivai buo, Tpeis eiv', dvdGejud tc^' 
TTeie \xov Troid v' aTrapvnOuJ, ttoO V 8Xe$ juaupojudres. 

10. 
Ak vocttijuKouv Td fouvd jiie bi'xws Trpacrivdba, 
Ki dtdTTt] bixtu^ KaKiiajLia bev ?x €l vocmjudba. 

11. 
Auo dcrrepia a' Xajampd eivai id buo cxou induct, 
TToO ttoiov KurrdHouv, ifiv Kapbid toO Kavouv buo KOjajndnct 

12. 
'EypotKOUva Td KaXXi] crou k' nX0a vd Td £avoi£w, 
Kai be jiou bib' 6 vo0$ jaou ttXio vd qpeuYw vd t' dcpnaw. 

13. 
"Epurra TTOvripo ttouXi, paTi vd ]u£ YeXdcrrjs, 
Nd TTdprjg Trjv KapbouXa juou ecru vd Tfjv XTiKidcrrjs; 

- 14. 
"Epuuxa ttoO jli' dXdpwtfes, boq juou Kai to poxdvi, 
Tiaii be ppicTKua Y l <*TpiKO cttov koctjuo vd jne Yiavrj. 

15. 
'Ecru 'crai, KOpn jli', 6 Yicrrpos k' tyd) V ° Xapw|uevo$, 
A6$ juou to, Kopr), to qpiXi, vd YiaTpeuTfj 6 KanM^vo^. 

16. 
C H aYdV, dvdeeiad Tr|v, (XTrjv dpxn eivai Y^uKeid, 
Kai <jxr| \xeoi) TrmepiEei Kai crro TeXos eiv' TTpiKeid. 

17. 
C H MoTpa ttoO yf ^jnoipave, iyrave jueGutfjuievri, 
M' £juoipave yi<* vd Trepvu) Cuun bucrruxKXjLievri. 

18. 
GapdZiojuai tov oupavo ttujs crrem x^pic ffTuXo, 
©ajLidCojnai, TTouXaKi jnou, Tiujq b£ ]u£ Kdvei£ cpiXo. 



TEXTS 227 

19. 

GajudZo^ai crdv irepiraTeT^ ttujc; bev dvGouv oi pouffcS 
Kai TTiug be Yevecr' deTos \xk -veq Xpv&H cpTepoirfes. 

20. 

K6pr|, (Tto TiapaGupi crou YapouqpaXid bkv Trpeirei, 

Ti £au eicrm to YapoucpaXo, ki 6tt6x€i nana, a<; pXeirr]. 

21. 

M' ecpiXticreg ki dppwarricra, qpiXei jue Yta vd Y l dvw, 
Kai TrdXi jueiacpiXei jne, juf|v ttcctuj ki aTreGdvw. 

22. 

Mf) |ue juaXiuvrig, jidvva u.ou, k' eyw vd crou to 'ttuj, 
TTocres PoXeg p.' dqpiXrjcre 6 vios ott' dyaTTUJ. 

23. 

Mid cTTiiGa XajLimpoTaTri crrf) crrdxT' eivai KpujajLievt]' 
"Etcti k' ejiidg ri dYdirri jua<; Kpuqpri k j tixmcneixevt). 

24. 

Nd 'tov to ajf[Qoq juou YyaXi, vd pXerrris Trjv Kapbid juou, 
Nd bu\q TTiijg TCtpocpXidTTiKav luecra Ta crumKa juou. 
MiKpf) (puma, Tpavog qpavo^ KaiY€Tai orriv Kapbid jaou, 
K' tyeka <jto KecpdXi jliou Kai juecr' crrd crumm juou. 

25. 

NocTTijaa ttoO V Ta x^iXri crou, crdv t* dvorfocrcpaXiHris, 
MeXi Tpexouv Ta ndGia o"ou, 8vTag 0d jlioO jmiXricrrjg. 

26. 

"Ovte 0d EexujpiZiujjue, ivTa 9d jaou xapicnjs; 

— "Eva qpiXi <xto judYOuXo vd ]xr\ \x y dXr|CTjiovr|0 , r]^. 

27. 

'0 Hevos eiq Tf|v Hevrreid irpeirei vd pdqpr] u.aupa, 
Nd Koujuiravidp' f\ cpopecrid jne xfjg Kapbid^ tx\ Xaupa. 

28. 
"Oiroiog a' aYaTni u-TrepbeuTr), KdXXio tou vd TreGdvr], 
Tov uttvo tou otepeueTai Kai xn lajr\ tou x^vei. 



228 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

29. 
"Ottoios t& \6ykx crou Ypowd Kai ra' 8pKou$ crou iricn-euYei, 
Zirj GdXaaaa Tndvei XaYou^ Kai aid pouvd tyapeuYei. 

30. 

"Oct' dcTTpa ?x ei ° oupavo^ Tf|V vuxxa d7rXwjaeva, 
Toaes poXeg a' dve£r)Tw, irouXi jnou, xrjv f)juepa. 

31. 
"Oxav ftkqs, T^oOv pouvd Kai kocjlittoi XouXoubiZouv, 
Td SujTiKd jua£wvovTai Kai ae koXotuxKouv. 

32. 
OiiXog 6 Koctyios eiv' fcevTpi k' ejiet^ to TrwpiKo tou, 
"0 Xdpog eiv' 6 TpuYirniS" aepvet to )uepTiK6 tou. 

33. 
TTepbiKOuXa 7TXoujuiajwevr| ttoO axd bdarj TrepTraTeTq, 
Bpoxia Kai (3epYid 0d aTrjaw, vd a£ Kdjuu) vd maarr}<;. 
Ki av eig Td PepYid jliou irecrrjs, irepfciKOuXa TrXoujuicrrri, 
Kdjaapa Gevd aou Kajuiu 8X' drro xpuao cpXuupi. 

34. 
TTou Tidpr) x^Xia Trriprrupa Kai KaKoubid Yuvawa, 
Td xiXta Trdv ax' dvdGejua k' f] KaKOubid 'Ttojuevet. 

35. 
2!aYiT' air' dpxovTOcnriTo ju' ?x ei aaYrrejmevo, 
"OX' oi Yta^poi ju' kurraSav Kai jlioO emav iraxg TieOaivu). 



36. 
ZapdvTa ppuae^ ju£ vepo k' tHrivxa bvb TrrjYabia 
Ae jliou Trj apnvouv Trj (puma ttoxw aid cpuXXoKapbia. 

37. 
iTeXXuu crou xaipeTi'ajuaTa x^ l o&£S xr|v fjjuepa 
M£ Td ireTajueva irouXid, ttou aracouv cttov aYepa. 

38. 
Ztoix; Kpivoug, Otcl TpiavTacpuXXa £r|TUJ TrjV £juopcpid aou, 
Md xdvovTat KOVTd a' £ae, aTd KdXXri Td fciKa aou. 



TEXTS 229 

39. 
Tot |udTia jiou xct ludXwaa vd jurj ere Havaibouve, 
Ki auxeiva Td juapioXwa OTav a£ ibouv feXouve. 

40. 

Td judiia crou |uo0 pi£ave aaneq dcrrmevieg, 

Kai oty)V Kapbid jn* dju7iriKave k' £PYH K av juaTuujueves. 

41. 
Tf\<; GdXacraas id Kujuaia Tpexw Kai bfev xpojudZuj, 
Ki OTav ak (TuXXoYKtujuai, xpejuuj ki avaCTev&lvj. 

42. 
Tfjq Kopacribas Td juuaXd ^fvpilovv adv to juuXo* 
"Evav ttoO biujxvei cy^jLiepa, aupio tov Tridvei <piXo. 

43. 
ToO 2puuTa to bixTu eivai jaeTaHujTO, 
'AXXoi tou iTOiog vd VTearp bfe juaTap-faivei ttXio. 

44. 
To Kaotavo GeXei Kpacrl Kai to Kapubi jli4Xi, 
Kai to KOpfrai qpiXrma uoupvo Kai |Liecrr|jLiepi. 

45. 
Tpejuei to tydpi, orov ipapd crivTa Ifiyav' f\ TpaTa, 
Tpejuei k' £ju' f] KapboOXa juou, aivTa cr£ biu> crrf) otpaTa. 

46. 
Tpia KaXd cttov dvGpuuTio, f) ojuopepid, rj yvwcti, 
K' £k€iv' OKoxei <TTr)V Kapbid vd jur| to qpavepJiCJr]. 

47. 
OujTid Tpduei to dibepo Kai crdpaKaq to 5uXo, 
Kai cru |ao0 Tpib^ Td viaTa |uou crdv appuuerros to jufjXo. 

48. 
XapflTe TOUTrrv Tr| ^turj, yioit' 6 Kaipoq biapaivet, 
Ki ottoio^ vd 'jLmfi crxr) juaupri THS? cxuto^ be naTapyaiveu 

49. 
XeXibovaKi Gd y €V &, <*Td x 6 ^ 1 ! °" ou va KaTcruu, 
Nd (Je qpiXrjaai juid Kai buo, Kai 7rdXe vd TreTdHuu. 

50. 
**Qpa KaAr| <Jou, juaTia juou, Kai vd KaXocrrpaTicrr]£, 
XTr] crrpaTa vd jne GujurjGrJs Kai ttictuu vd jupicrriq. 



230 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

b. Proverbs. 

1. 
'Axpipos OappeT Kepbi£ei, jud (pupa Kai bev to votdbGet. 

2. 

'AXrjOeia x^pi? M^MaTa 
cpayi x w P^ dXaTi. 

3. 
v Exei 6 roixog aimd ki 6 Xoffos M^ia. 

4. 
Aeye Trjv dXrjGeia, 
vet 'xqs to Geo porjOeia. 

5. 

M£ to bwo aou (pdye Kai mk Kai TTpaYjuaTtd jnf] Kdjuvr)£. 

6. 
, Midg crnYiLifig imojuovf) beKa xpovwv pexaTi. 

7. 
Nd jaf| xpoucrras a£ ttXoucfio, qrriuxov vd \xr\ bavei£r}s. 

8. 
c O X6o$ ei£ Trjv ujpa tou x& xa qpXoupid dEKet. 

9. 
Oi ttoXaoi Kapa^oKuptbeg ttviyouv to Kapdpi. 

10. 
"OTTOiog Kaf] end Xdxava, cpuadei Kai to yiaoupTi. 

11. 
"Ottoio^ TTViTeTat Kai Td juaXXidv tou mdvei. 

12. 
"Ottou dKOu<s TToXXd Kepdcria, 
BdcTTa Kai fxiKpd KaXdGia. 

13. 
'OttoO 'vai KaXopiCiKog, fevva Kai 6 kotc<; tou. 

14. 
"Oti Gd KCtjur)g ki 8ti Gd ? Trrjs, 
Ti Gd auvepri Trpurra vd aroxaorrjg. 

15. 

TTaTrouT^i duo tov totto aou ki a? eivai jLmaXuj|uevo. 



TEXTS 



231 



16. 
Td iroXXd TioXXd KOujudvTot, to Kapdpi jae xr| jUTrdvia. 

17. 

Texvri GeXei to irpiovi 

Ki ottoio^ to KpareT vd 'bpuuvrj. 

18. 

To iroXu KupieXerjao ki 6 irand^ papeieTcu to. 

19. 
ToO YiwJPToO f\ bouXeid err' dXdbvi cpaiveTai. 

20. 
Tcrrepvol cruXXoYicriuoi 
"EEe Ttdve ctto croXbi. 



a Biddies. 

1. 

AwbeKa KaXoYepdKia 
KuvnT^iouvTai KUvr]Y€iouvTai 
Kai TTOTe bev TridvouvTat. 



('Av€fx6|uuXog) 



YaXibi xputfoipdXi&o 
K6|3ei Kai KaXd 
Kopei Kai KaKa. 

3. 
"Extu 'yuj, exeiq Kai 'au, 
"AXXoq £va ki dXXo? buo, 

Kl dXXoq jUri&£ TITTOT6. 

4. 



(rXujao"a) 



(fovioi) 



Meaa a' £va TETpdYwvov qpavTacrjuaTa Ka6i£ouv. 

(KaepeqpTri^) 
5. 
Mea' (Txr| juecrri tou x^pioO ixaq 
KpejaeT' f\ MapyapiTOu juag 
Kai TivdEei Td qrrepd Tr|<^ 
Kai auvdCei Td naibid TrjS. (KajaTidva) 



232 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

6. 

BcxaiXea^ bev eijuai, 

Kopwva cpopuj, 

PoXoi bev exw, 

Te<; uipeg lueipOa. (KoKOpo^) 

7. 
Mid KaXf] voiKOKupiicra 
Xujp(i)g dXeupi qpKeidvei irirrrfTaa. 

(MeXicraa) 
8. 
"Orav ^x w ve p6, ttivuj Kpacxi* ki orav bfev ?xw V€ p6> ™ VUJ 
vepo. (MuXujvdg) 

9. 
"Eva TipdTlua TrpaTjuctidKi 
TTdei ki ottictuj bev KutTdei. (P^M a ) 

10. 
XiXiOTpuTrrjTO s vai to Xafuvi 
Kai araXaiaaTid b£v xuvei. (XcpoufYapO 

d. Popular Tales and Legends. 

1. To XP ucr o pepTi. 
(Epirus) 

"l-kav £va<; TTpajuaxeurrig, ottou 7rpau.aTeuovTav axis Ivbies, 
k' eixe rpeig GuyaTepeq. Ki oviag Kivncre juid cpopd vd Trdrj aiig 
5 lvbie$, tov irepiKdXeaav ol GuYaT^peg tou, y\ juid vd i& cpepr] eva 
cpopejaa ivbiKO, x\ dXXrj eva qpaKioXi ivbiKO k' r\ juiKpoiepn to xpvab 
PepTi. Kai tov ^KaTapeiwvTav, dv bev xd cpepr], vd jaf) Kivr\ar\ to 
Kapdpi tou. Ki ovTas 7rfjY€ af\q 'Ivbie^, Tifjpe irpajaaTeie^ baeq 
?|6eXe Kai Ttfjpe Kai tujv buo GuYaTepwv tou £xeiva ttou toO ilr\- 
Tricyav'* juouve tx\<; juiKpoTepriq to xpucro pepfi Xrjffjuovricre vd to 
Trdpr). Ki ovTas Kivrjcre vd cpOy^l for' Tiq 1vbte£, p.' 8Xo ttou fiTav 
KaXo^ Katpoq, bev kivoucye to Kapdpi. ToTes KaGovTav Kai ffuX- 
XoTeiuJVTav, k' ?vaq x^piaTris Trepacre duo KOVTa tou Kai tov pw- 
Trjcre, yicxti € i V ai £to~i auXXoTicTMevo^. e O Trpau.aTeuTr|c; bfev rj9eXr|CJe 
vd to juapTupncrri. Totcs tov treptKaXecre 6 xwpiaTrjS, vd toO to 
juapTuprjarj. '0 xwpiaTriS Xomov tou erne* „(XToxd(Tou, uj?iv ?Ta- 
£es TiTTOTe;" '0 Trpau.aTeuxf|q (XxoxdcnriKe Kai GujurjGrjKe Keivo, ttoO 



TEXTS 233 

eixe idHei tx\<; GuYdTepfaq tou, Kai 'pOuirjcre to x^piaTr), ttou ppi- 
aK€Tai auio to xputfo pepYi. Ki 6 xwpiaTr|S toO ebei£e eva bp6|uo 
Kai tou erne, vd TreppaTncxri TpeT$ wpe<; k' ekei eivai to xpucro 
pepTt. Ki 6 Trpc^uaTeinrris ?Kau.e adv ttou toO em' 6 x^pidinSi 
k' eireppdiricye Tpeiq ujpeg Kai TrfJYe <x' evav totto k' keT 'pumice- 
„ttoO eivai to xpucro pepYi;" Kai tou 2bei£av eva TraXaTi Kai toO 
enrav, ttux; aiiToO juecxa eivai to pepYi ki airrd eivai to (taa'Xo- 
ttouXo. Autos qpopr|Gr|Ke, adv tou emav, ntug eivai to pacx'Xo- 
ttouXo. Yotepts eGdppeiye Kai TrfjTe Orb TraXdTi Kai 'lr\TY\Ge Tf]v 
dbeia duo to PacriXid vd juTrr) jueaa, ki 6 pacriXuxq Trjv ebuwe. 
Kai adv tov £purnia' 6 ftaaiXids, ti GeXei, tou erne, ttws GeXei 
vd jutXricrr] u.e to ftaa'XoTrouXo. c O paatXid^ tov TrfJYe (Ttov ovtci, 
ttou KaGovTav to fJaa'XoTrouXo, Kai tov puuTaei to paa'XoTtouXo * 
„ti jue GeXei<;; u Kai Keivo<g tou 'juoXoYntfe °^ a ® aa T °u ^ H 
GirfaTepa tou. ToTe$ to paa'XoTrouXo tov Trfjpe Kai tov ?u.Traae 
jueaa a' evav ovTd, ottou eixe TroXXe^ kokov€£ ZAUYpaqpiauives, Kai 
tov iipujTr|(T€' „e!v' f] GuYcrrepa aou TeTOia ojuopcpri adv TOUTe<g;" 
Kai Keivos tou erne* „ttoO! eivai x^ia juepdbia ojnopcpuTeprj." ToTes 
tov £juTTaae a' evav dXXov 6vt<3, ottou eixe juid fruYpaqpiauivn,, Kai 
Tr|v eixe *beT 0t6v uttvo tou, ttujs Gd tijv Trdpr] Y^vaiKa, Kai tov 
puuTaei * „eivai TeTOia ou-opcprj r\ TCiouTTpa Gov ;" Ki auTos toO erne ' 
„auTr) f] ibia eivai!" ToTe^ to fJaa'XoTrouXo toO ^5ujk' eva Ypdjujua 
k' eva Tacri k' eva baxTuXibi vd Td bubar] tx\<; GuYaTepa^ tou. 
ToTes Td TTfjp' 6 TrpajuaTeuTris Kai tttiy€ aro KapdfSi tou. K' euTuq 
to Kapdpi dKivncre, k' ecpuYe CTrjv TraTpiba tou. Zdv gcpTaffe ctto 
ctttiti tou, tov puVraYav oi TCTiouTrpeq tou* „e, TraTepa, jadg ecpepes 
eKeiva ttou jud^ £TaEe$;" „Td eqpepa," t\<; erne k' epY^Xe k' ebujKe 
KdGe juiavfi^ to Ta£i|uo. v EbiuK€ Kai Tfjg juiKpflg to Ypap-MCtj to 
Tarn Kai to baxTuXibi, Td OTroTa tou eixe bOua' to pacr'XoTrouXo. 
Ki auTr| Td Trfjpe Kai TrfiYe Kai KXeicrrr)Ke jueaa (Jtov ovtci ths, 
ki dvoiEe to YpotMMtx Kai to dvaYvwcre k' eibe, ttou TY\q eYpaqpe, 
ovTaq tov xP 6ia ^ 6Tai va P aV] ] M^ * 01 O'to Tacri vepo, Kai vd pdvr] 
Kai to baxTuXibi jaeca aTO vepo, Kai vd Xerj TpeT^ cpope^* iXa, 
eXa, eXa, xp^^ro u.ou pepYi! Kai totc^ auTog Gd SpxeTai Trep'cTTepi, 
Kai vd vipeTai 0"to vepo Kai Gd Y^veTai dGpuuTro^, Kai v' aqpnar] 
juidv TpuTra cto VTapdvi vd u.Ttaivr) |uecra. T6t€<; ki auTr) eKajue 
KaGub^ tx\<; eYpaqpe, k' flpGe to TTep'CTepi, k^ dqpou eKoXujUTrricre 
0t6 vepo, Iyiv' dGpuuTTO^' ki dcpoO eKoupevTiacrav TroXXriv uipa, 
KoXu^TTriae rrdXi o"t6 vepo k' iyive Trep'cTTepi k' ?qpuY€. Kai qpeu- 
YovTa^ to - ' dcpricre juid KaxTa Kai to 1 ' erne vd tvjv TaaKicrr], ki oti 



234 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

euprj juecya vd to VTuGfj. Kai crdv eqpuY* aikog, Triv TtfaKicre k' 
rjupe juecra-jutd qpopeatd cmjcrrri, oiroO eixe ^ajYpcxqpiajnevo tov oupavo 
jne t' dtfTpia. Td vtuGiik' auxr) Kai PtH k ' ^Euj. 'AcpoO Tf|v eibav 
oi dbepqpeg Trjg, Gidjuaaav ki dpxivicrav vd irjv puuxouv, Kai Trjv 
ecpiovricrav. Auir] fe'Kave ki dXXr| qpopd to 1'bio, Kai irdXi ipGe 
6 xputfopepYnc;, kj. ovxag &puYe, to*' dcp^cr' eva XeqpTOKapo Kai tct' 
enre, vd to TCTaKiar], ki oti 'ppfj jmeaa vd to VTuGf). Ki dqpoO 
icpvyz. to Tiep'otepi, TOTeg TaaKiae to XeqpTOKapo k' rjupe jaid qpope- 
crid, 7TOU €ixe EwYpaqpicr|ievr| Tf| GdXaO'O'a |u£ Td KujuaTa, Kai 
VTuGrjKe Kai PyAk' ££w. TTdXi 9id|Liao"av oi dbepqpeg xrjg, crdv Trjv 
eibav, Kai Trjv qpTovoucrav aKOjua irepaoTepo. TTdXi auTrj ?paXe 
to baxTuXibi (Jto Taai jwecra jne vepo k' enre Tpeig qpopeg- „eXa, 
£Xa, 2Xa, XP U(J 6 |uou pepyi !" K' flpGe, KoXvjuTrricre (Xto vepo k' 
eyiv' dGpumog. Zdv eqpuYe, irdXi Trig aqprjcr' eva ctOko Kai tct' 
erne vd to KOiprj, ki oti 'ppfj jneaa vd to VTuGfj. 'AqpoO Iqpuye, 
to 'KOipe k' rjup' dXXrj qpopecrid, ttou rjTav ZwYpaqpiajuevog 6 Maig 
|u£ Td XouXoubia. Trj vn>Gr|Ke Kai pTH K ' ^ w * Totcc; Gidjuaaav 
aKOjaa nepcxoTepo oi dbepqpeg TrjS Kai KoupevTiacav, irujq vd 
T<r' Kavouv koko, k' enrav dvdiueotf Touq, irwg Ikci tcoO Gd 7rdrouv 
vd XouotoGv, vd Trap 5 f) jueydXr) eva aaKKOuXi juapYaprrdpi Kai vd 
Kajnr] Taxa Trujq Gd to xutfrj Kai V( * KaTffrj ttictuj arco t<j' dXXeg 
vd to iLtaZwHrj' k' dm ttou Gd TraYOUv oi dXXeg vd XouoroGv, 
auTf) Taxa vd juaZibvrj to juapfapiTapt, vd iraYrj ctto (Tttiti Kai vd 
Kdjurj KeTvo ttou ?Kav' f| juiKpoTeprj — Yiatf Trjv efyav irapa|Liovevj;ei 
k' eibav, iraig ?Ka|Li€ — , vd KajucuGfj Truug eiv' f\ dXXrj rj jLiiKprj, 
Yid vd Tf|g bibcrrj ki auTflg TiTTOTeg. Kai to irpuui, ovTag irfiYav 
vd XoucttoOv, TTfjpe f\ jueYdXrj to aaKKouXi to juapYapvrdpi, k 5 ^kci 
ttou TrriYcxivav ctto 5p6|no, ?Ka|ae rnjug ^i^Tprjcye k' ixucre to jaap- 
YapiTapi k' erne GTiq d'XXeg- „aupTe aeig |UTrpO(jTd, k' eYtw Gd judaw 
to |LiapYapiTdpi u , Kai KaGdbg EeiaaKpuvav oi dXXeg, amr\ to £juao"€ 
oXo jLie Td crKOUTrpa Kai to 'PaXe \itoa arb craKKO\3Xi Kai nr^e 

(JTO CTTTITI Kai TTTlpe TO KXeibl dn' TOV OVTd T\\<; JUlKpng Kai |U7TfJK€ 

juecra (eTreibrjg Tfjv eixe Trapajuoveipei, ttou to 'PaXe to KXeibi) ki 
dvoiSe Kai to VTouXdm Kai Trfjpe to Taai Kai to fioyuoe vepo k' 
gftaXe Kai to baxTuXibi |Lieaa. Mov' f\ dXXri r\ jaiKpOTepr) efy' eva 
juaxaipi Kai Xrjaiuiovriae Kai to acpr\oe irdvu) cto Taov ki 8vTag 
eme „^Xa, xpucro |uou pepTi," np9e to paa'XoTiouXo Kai KoXujUTrricre, 
Kai KaGuug e'Kajue vd CKiuGri, eK07rr|K' dn' to jaaxaipi Kai Ckuj- 
Gr|K€ k' ?qpuY€. Auxf) dcpou eibe to aijua jnecra o"to vepo, £x6^ iacJ " € 
KoXXd* dcprjcre to Taai jue to aifaa jaeaa ctto VTouXdm k' ecpuYfe' 



TEXTS 235 

Kai iTfiY€ ki avTctjutuo'e Kai Ta' d'XXeg Tig TtfiouTrpeg. Ki ovTag Y^p- 
crav maw, ^lf\f , f\ juiKpfi jaeaa cttov ovtcc Tr)g, ki SvTag £jum:aive, 
eXeye* „£Xa, XP U0 ~° u.ou PepYi, vd ju£ 'brjg idupa, ttoO TrfJYa Kai 
Xou(TTr|Ka!" Kai KaGwg Ttf]Y€ vd Trdprj to Tafft, to Y^Trei YiO|udTO 
aTjua. KXaiet, o*Kou£ei, cpwvdZer „XeXe \x\ Tt ?Tra0a!" Xdv eKXaipe 
ttoXu, £pYH K ' oEcu. Mouv' eKaTaXape, Tiujg to emjuav oi dbepcpeg 
Trig, K <*i Tiryfaivex ctov TraTepa tti<; *ai tou Xeer „dcpevTri, vd juoO 
Koiprig juid qpopemd cppdYKiKr] KaXf) KaXrj, Kai vd juoO buuKrig k' 
eva Kapdpi KaXo, Yid vd Travw (TTd £eva. u ToTeg 6 iraTepag Trig 
to"' gKoipe Td cppaYKiKa, Kai Ta VTU0r|Ke Kai jutttik€ ctto Kapdpi, 
vd Trdrj oYig 'Ivbieg, Y l d vd tov euprj. K' Ikci ttoO miYaive o"to 
bpojuo, eib' eva ttouXi, ttoO TrfjY€ vd Tridarj IV dXXo, Kai Keivo to 
ttouXi, ttoO fjTav Kai Trep'oirepi, tou eiTre* „b£ x ^ 1 ^ 61 ^ n°v ' vai 
to pacr'XoTTOuXo appujcTTO, k' oi YictTpoi to aTrecpdaiO'av ;" Kai to 
ctXXo to TrouXi toO erne* „be Hepouv oi YiotTpot, ki dire to (3acr'- 
XottouXo YicapeueTai." To ctXXo to ttouXI to 'piinr\ae' „jue ti Yia- 
TptKO YiaTpeueTai ;" Kai KeTvo tou eme* „vd judg cTKOTubaouv ejudg 
Kai vd jadg Trdpouv Kai vd irdpouv ki oXiyo vepo arco Keivr)v rr| 
ppucrt, ttou eiv' aYvdvTia, Kai vd to qpKeidaouv dXoicprj Kai v' 
dXeiipouv to Xatjuo tou, ttou eivai Kojujuevog, Kai YicrrpeueTai." 'H 
TdiouTipa Keivri adv dtKou^' airrd, eTTeibiqg rjEepe ty\ YXwcrcra tojv 
TTep'cTTepiujv air' to xpucro (3epYi, emTaXape ti eiirav Td rrouXid. 
ToTeg £ppi£' evav TOucpeKi Kai Td CKOTwffe Kai Td buo Kai Ta Trfjpe 
Kai Trfjpe Kai vepo dno Keivrjv ty\ ppum k' eqweiacfe Tfjv dXoicprj 
Kai TTiiY€ ctto aapaYi tou paff'XoTtouXou 'TroKaTiu Kai <pwva£e' 
„YiaTpog KaXog, Yiafpog KaXog, YicnptKa KaXd!" Tf|V tikoucf' 6 (3a- 
aiXidg TOTeg Kai Trj cpubvaE' dirdviju Kai to 1 ' eiTre* „|UTropeig vd Yia- 
Tpeiprjg to Tiatbi juou:" Kai Keivr] tou eiTre* „vd to tbai!" Kai 
0dv to etbe, erne tou pacrtXid* „o■ , 6xtuj jaepeg biopia to Yion:peuw, 
Kai vd to PYdXiu ctto KuvrjYt." e O pamXidg crdv aKOua' auTo, 
Xdpr|Ke. Oi dXXoi YiotTpoi, ottoO tov aKOucrav, ttou eme ttuj^ to 
YtaTpeuet, etTrav ctto paaiXid* „av to YictTpeqirj auTO KaGubg Xeei, 
^judg vd judg Kovprjg to KecpdXi." ToTeg 6 Yioapos tttiy€ o*to $aa y - 
XottouXo Kai to dXeiipe jae tt|v dXoicpri, Kai Yivr|Ke KaXuTepa, k' 
Co*Tepa aTro bvb jnepeg dpxicre vd Kpevrj, Kai crdv tou ?(3aXe TroXXeg 
cpopeg ttjv dXoiqpri, cr' oxtu) juepeg to YidTpeipe Kai tov SpYctXe Kai 
<tto KUvriYi. Zdv tov eib' 6 TraTepag tou, X^PH^e TroXu k' eiTre 
tou Y^Tpou* „ti KaXo GeXeig vd aoO Kajixw Ytd to KaXo, ttou juoO 
€Kajueg;" Ki 6 fiaj^bq toO eure* „dXXo bk x«Xeuuj aTro ty\ pacri- 
Xeia o"ou, juovaxd eva Zaacperi vd jaoG Kdjur]^ Kai vd qpujvdErjg 



236 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

oXoug Toug dpxovT6£ tct' tvbfog." ToTeg 6 pacriXidg toO erne* 
„auTo ttoO xa^ueig &£v etvai Tmoxe o"' ejueva." Kai TOTeg dpxipticre 
k' €Ka|Li' eToijuaaieg Yid to £taqpeTi Kai 9dbva£' oXoug Toug dpxov- 
Teg t<j' Ivbiag k' ^aiu' eva fraqpen ttoXu |LieYdXo, ki dcpoO Iqpayav 
k' emav, em' 6 yi<xtpo<S toO pacriXid* „TTp6(7TaHe vd TCTujTrdcrouv, 
Yiaxi 8d emu> eva TrapajuuGi." ToTeg 6 pamXidg dTTpoaraEe, Kai 
Tdumacrav 0X01, ki dpxtpn^ 6 Tiatpog k' l\eye to TrapajuuGu 
touto Kai touto Kai touto* enr' 8Xa ocxa eiraQe, x^piq vd juap- 
Tuprjar] ttou fjTav airrog. Kai tot€£ crdv eme, Traig r\ Tcnoimpa 
auTrj Yivr|Ke Yicrrpog, (pavepujGrjKe k' eiTre* „£yuj eijuai auTr| f] tcxiou- 
7Tpa k' y] yuvaiKa toO pacr'XoTrouXou, Kai to paa'XoTiouXo bev 
to 'acpa£a 'yw, juov' r\ dbepcprj juou." ToTeg to pacx'XoTrouXo crdv 
d'Koucx' auTa, Trjv dyKaXiaae Kai to*' erne • „ecru 'crai f\ vucprj juou • " 
k' eKa|nav eva Yd|uo Xajimpo Kai Toug ecrrecpavwcrav. 

2. To cpibi, to (TKuXi Kai r\ f&Ta.. 
(Epims) 
"Htov jaid cpTuuxr] Y^vaiKa k' e?x' £va Traibi, Kai bev eixav 
ipuujLii vd cpdv. ToTeg to Traibi 7raipvei Kai qpopTtuvei dcrcpaKeg' 
Kai TTfJY£ Kai tct' TrouXrjcye Kai 7rfjpe buo Trapdbeg. Kai KaGujg 
Yi3pi£e, rjupe KaTi iraibid, ttou (jKOTiuvav £va qpibi, Kai Toug Xeer 
„vdT€ evav Trapd Kai jufj to aKOTiuveTe !" Toug ebiuKe tov Trapd, 
Kai bev to (jKOTtucrav Ta Traibid, Kai to qptbi tov iK\jvr\^\]ae. Kai 

KaOujg TTfJY€ OTO (JTTtTl TOU, 61716 Tfjg judwag TOU, OCXa ?KajU6. K' 

fj indvva tou tov eiudXuucxe Kai toO eme* „Iyw g$ cnreXvuj vd/rrd- 
prjg Trapdbes vd cpdjue, Kai (ju |uo0 cpepveig cpibia!" Ki atrrog tct* 
erne* „dg eivai, judvva, kgti 0d judg 9eXecrr] ki auTo." To Traibi 
Trfjpe ttccXi dacpaKes Kai ti^ TrouXrjcre, Kai KaGubg fvpilej rjupe KaTi 
TTaibid, ttou cTKOTiuvav eva ctkuXi, Kai Toug eiTie* „vaT6 4'vav irapd 
Kai jLirj to (TKOTiuveTe !" TTfjpav Ta Traibid tov uapa kp d(pf|Kav 
to (TkuXi. ToTeg auTO tov eKuvr|Yncr € nafo. T6 rraibi TifiYe gty\ 
judvva tou Kai t(t' elTT , oaa ?Kajue. Kai irdXl tov ^judXuucr' f\ judvva 
tou KaGdjg Kai TTpiuTa. TTfjpe rrdXt dcrqpaKeg Kai Ti^ irouXriae, ki 
ovTag fvpiZz, n^P^ KaTi Traibid, ttoO (TKOTuuvav juid Ycnra, Kai Toug 
eiTie- „jun Trjv CKOTiJuveTe, vd crag bdiKUj 2vav irapd!" Kai Toug 
IbuuKe tov Trapd, ki dcprjKav xfj Y«Ta. Kai KaOdjg 7rfiY6 ctto ottiti 
tou, eme Tfjg )-idvvag tou ndXi ocra ?Kajae, ki auTr) tov ^judXuucre 
Kai toO eirre* „eYtb ot (TTeXvuj vd Trdprjg Trapdbeg vd cpdjue iptujui, 
k' tad cpepveig crKuXid Kai YdTeg Kai cpibia!" ToTeg auTog tcj' eme* 
j,cig eivai, judvva, KaTi 9d judg cpeXecrouv ki airrd!" 



TEXTS 237 

"Yorepa to cpibi tou erne' „vd jue Trds crrr| jadvva |uou Kai 
(Ttov TraTepa |liou Kai vd |urj Trapes jar|Te YPOtfia \xr\je qpXouptd, 
jnovdxa juid pouXa vd x a ^MJflS ^ ^X €l ° ^aTepas |uou ctto x^Pi 
tou, ki air' auTf) 0d ibrjq jueYdXo KaXo." Totes airros Trryfe to 
cpibi otov TraTepa tou, Kai to qpioi enre tou TraTepa tou* „toOto^ 
|n' eTXiiTiua' diro to 0dvaTO. a Ki 6 TraTepa^ tou cpioiou eiire o~' 
auTov tov d'Gpumo* „ti OeXeig vd aoG olukuj Y*d auTO to KaXo, 
ttou rJKajLie^ tou iraibioG jaou; „T6t€£ to Traibi eiue o~tov TraTepa 
tou qpibiou* „out6 Ypocria 0eXw ouTe cpXouptd, juovdxa ty) ftouXa 
0eXtu ott' e'xeiq ctto x^pi crou;" ToTe$ eiTr' 6 TraTepa*; toO cpibiou 
ctto Traibi- „auTO ttoG juoO xaXeipeg eivai ttoXu jueYdXo, Kai bk 
janopuj vd aou to bwKuu." Tiiupa to cpibi ?Kajae Trtug Kuvriydei 
to Traibi, k' erne o~tov TraTepa tou* „£*rreibr)s be 0eXei£ vd btuKrjg 
Trj pouXa & auTov, ttou \x' eYXuTtua' airo to BdvaTO, eyuj Trdviw 
TTiauu a' auTov, yicxti a' auTov xpwarw ty) l\nr\ |uou." Totcs 6 
TraTepa^ tou £buuK€ ty) PouXa o~to Traibi Kai tou eme* „ovTag 
Xpeiaorfis TmoTa, vd £icpri$ ty) (touXa, Kai 0d epxeT' £vac; s Apd- 
Trr|^, Kai vd tov Trpocrrdfrjs 8ti 0eXei£ vd crou Kavri, Kai 0d gov 
to Kdvr]." 

ToTeg lcpuY€ to Traibi Kai Trf|Y€ crro cmm tou. Kai toO enr' 
r) |uavva tou* „t( 0d cpdjae, |udTia jliou;" Ki auTO ra J eiTre* „crupe 
|ueaa gty)v dpKXa Kai ppfcrKeig tpujjut. 4t ToTes f\ jadvva tou toO 
erne* „Traibi |uou, £y\h Eepiu, ttuj£ y) dpKXa bev e'xei lytujui, k' eo~u 
juou Xe$, vd Trdvuu vd 'ppw ipiujui." Auto to*' erne' jjtfupe ttou 
crou XeYw efw, Kai ppiaKeis" Ki oao vd irdr] auTf) gty)v dpKXa, 
eli\\je xn pouXa, k' t^G' 6 'ApdTrris Kai tou erne* „tl 6pi£eic, 
dqpevTrj;" To Traibi toG erne* „0eXiu vd Yiojuitfris ty)v dpKXa iptujui." 
Ki oo*o vd Trdr] r; judvva tou cnf|v dpKXa, ty\v T]upe fio^xajr] tyuujui 
Kai Trnpe k' ecpaYe. K' ?to^i Xoittov dTtepvouaav )n' auTrjV ty) 
pouXa KaXd. Mid cpopd eiire to Traibi Tfj<; jidvvag tou* „jnavva, 
vd TTd<; o~to paaiXid Kai vd tou 'irri^, vd jnou btuar] ty\ 0uY«Tepa 
tou Y^vaiKa. a C H |iidvva tou toO eme* „ae ti dpdba el|uec^T , 
ejueig, juctTia jliou, Kai vd |ud$ bubo*' 6 paaiXid^ tx) 0uYOtTepa tou;" 
K' eKeivos Tr]q eiTre* „vd Trdg x^P^ dXXo! u Kivriae ki auTrj f\ 
KarjiuevT] vd irdr] o"to pamXid. Ka0cu<; jiiTrfiKe )neaa, erne toG pa- 
mXid* „to iraibi juou 0eXei vd irdpri ty) 0uYaTepa crou Y^vaiKa." 
ToTeq Ta' em' 6 paaiXid^ * „toG ty) bivuu, av eiv' d2io vd cpKeidK' 
eva iraXaTi jueYaXuTep' air' to biKO juou." l H YPid o"Kiu0riKe Kai 
TrfJYe aTo Traibi ty]<; Kai toG erne, ocra tct' citt' 6 pacriXiag. Kai 
Keivtiv ty) vuxTa ^ii^e Trj PouXa, k' i'ma cpavepdb©^^ 6 'Apdmis 
16 



238 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Kai toO clue • „ti opiZeig, dcpevTiv, 1 ' K' ^KeTvog toO €itt€* „vd 
cpKeidKqg £va aapdyi jueYaXuTepo arc' toO paaiXid." K' euTug eu- 
peGriKe a' £va jneYdXo TraXdn. ToTeg £crreiXe irdXi Trj jtidvva tou 
cto PaaiXid, Kai toO eiire* „to Traibi to crapaYi, ttoO to TrapdYYe- 
Xeg, to 'qpKetaae." c O pacriXidg tct' eiTre* „av elvai dEio vd cpKeidar] 
Trj atpdxa air' to TtaXdTi tou tug to bwo jliou jne qpXoupi, eTcn 
Traipvei tx] GuYaTepa jaou YuvaiKa." ToTeg f) Ypid Trnye ctto Traibi 
Trig Kai toO eiTi' oXa airrd, Kai to Traibi (pwva£e tov 'Apdnri Kai 
tou erne, vd q>K€idcrri to bp6|uo 0X0 ju£ qpXoupi. To frpujT <tkw- 
OrjKe to Ttaibi Kai tov r|upe qpXoupevio KaGibg eTrpootaH' 6 Pacxt- 
Xidg. T]f]fe TrdXi f\ judvva tou ctto pacriXid Kai toO eme* „to 
Traibi jiou ?Ka,ue oXa ocra to TtpoaTaEeg." ToTeg 6 pacriXidg tct' 

€ITT6 Vd 'TOlJUaCTTfi flOL TO *{ai\0. K' f\ fplOL £(pU*f€ Kai TTf|Y€ k' 61TT6 

toO Traibiou ocra tc^' eTtt' 6 pacriXidg. To Traibi tote? ToijuidcTTriKe 
Yid to y&\io. Ki 6 pacriXidg cpiuvaHe ty\ GuyaTepa tou Kai tcx' eiTre 
oXa 8aa ?Yivav Kai vd 'TOijaadTfl fia to Ydfxo. e H Guyaxepa tou 
XdpriKe Kai TrepiKaXecre tov TraTepa Trig, vd t0' bwari k' 2vav 
'ApdiTTi vd tov oteXvrj ottou GeXei. Ki 6 TraTepag TT)g t<j' ebuuKe. 
"Ovxag ^KajLiav to Ydjuo, tthp' 6 Yajuirpog Trj vucprj k' llrfiav ttoXuv 
Kaipo KaXd. 

"YaTepa r\ Paa'XoTtouXa dtdTrricre tov 9 ApdTrr|, Kai tx\ vuxxa 
KaGwg KoijuduvTav |ue tov dvTpa Trig, toO irfipe tt\ pouXa k' eqpuYe 
jue tov 'Apdirri * Kai TrfJYav crrf) GdXacrcra k' £qpKeiaKav eva TraXdn 
jae ir\ PouXa Kai 'Eoucrav jua£i 'KeT KOVTd otf] GdXaacra. Zdv 
ecpuY* r) Pacr'XoTrouXa fife tov 'Apdini, Trf)Y' f) Y«Ta Kai (XYOupoTpi- 
PovTav Kai juiaoupi£e Kai tou IXeYe* „t( ^X^ dcpevTr);" „Ti vd 
'xuj, Y«Ta jliou;" t\\<; Xeei, „touto Kai touto InaQa* Trj vuxTa ttou 
koijliuj)liouv, jliou TTfipe Trj PouXa 6 'ApaTrrig Kai ty\ Yuvaka k' 
€cpuYe." „TcrdjTTa, dqpevTrj," tou Xeei f\ Y«Ta, # „^Y^ Ga gov th 
cpepuj* bog jliou to (TKuXi, vd to KapaXXiKeipuj Kai vd Trdvuu vd 
Trdpuj ir\ PouXa." ToTeg Tfjg bivet to (JkuXI, to Ka^aXXiKeuei rj 
YaTa Kai Trepvdei rf| GdXacraa. K' ^kci ttou TrriYaive ctto bpojao, 
ppicTK' fe'va ttovti'ki Kai tou Xeer „av GeXrjg vd aoO yXutijuctuj Trj 
Cuurj, vd x^tfflS Tfjv oupd crou jueaa Otx\ juuTr| tou 'ApaTrri, 8vTag 
KOijudTai." To ttovti'ki Trjv Ix^tf^ km TOTeg 6 'Apd-rrng cpTapjui- 
0TT]K6, Kai TreqpTei r) PouXa, ttou t^v eixe Kpujujuevr) oty) YXaxrcra 
tou. Tfjv dpTrdZ;' f| YdTa Kai KapaXXiKeuei to cTKuXr k' ^kei ttou 
^TiXeav Oty) GdXaacra, Xeei to (JKuXi Tflg YdTag- „?tcti vd 2!r|crrig, 
YdTa, (TTEKa vd 'bai k' £yw vpixa Trj PouXa!" „Ti vd Tiqv ibf)g, 
Miupd!" Kai KaGcug TTfjpe t6 (JkuXI Tr| PouXa, tou TreqpTei aTrj 



TEXTS 239 

9dXa<KTa, Kai xrjv dpTrd£ei eva i^dpi k' Zfive x i ^ lOTT XoujUTncrTO. 
Toxeg f] T«Ta Xeei toO (TkuXiou* „ti juoKajaes, XeXe u.ou! ttuj$ vd 
irdvuj otov dqpeviri jaou 6ixuug pouXa; £Xa Twpa vd ae KapaXXi- 
Keijjuu!" Kai to KaftaXXiKeipe TrdXi Kai Tr^Ye 'KeT ttou niav dpaY- 
jLieva Td xapdpia. Kai a' dKelvo to Kapdpi ttoO Koveipav, 6 kcx- 
paftoKupic; eixe mdaet to i&io ipdpi. C H Y«Ta laYoupoipipovTav 
Kai jutaoupiZe TrdXt, ki 6 Kapa(3oKupi£ eme* „|uaipe, ti Ka Xn YdTa 
jjoy^\i&<; rjpjiejuppdbu 9d 7Tdvuu (Tto (Jttiti vd qpKeidaw touto to 
iydpu Kai 9d t\\<; pEu> t 5 ctvTepa vd Td (par)." 'Ekci 7ToO Ka9d- 
pt£e to ipdpi Kai TG y eppixve t' dvTepa, TTecpT' f\ pouXa Kai Trjv 
dpirdZ;' x) TdTa* KapaXXiKeuei to tfKuXi Kai Trdei o*tov dcpevTiKO ti)<;. 
Xdv TrfJY' n YdTa k' eibe tov dcpevmo Tr}<; xo\\o.O}jl£vo, u.iaoupi£e- 
judou, |idou. Ki 6 dcpevTns crdv Trjv eibe, „Trjv &pepes, juiup' YdTa," 
if\<; X£ei, „Tfj ftouXa;" „Tr)v Iqpepa, dcpevTri, u tou Xeei, „nove vd 
cTKOTUJcrri^ to ctkuXi, YictTt ty\v ?ppi£e juiecra crrf) GdXacraa, k' liraOa 
Toaa KaKa, Sao vd Trjv eupuu TrdXi," Kai toO biriTn^Ke oXa 8<xa 
&ra9e. T6t€<; auTo^ iTfjpe to ToucpeKi vd to aKOTubar], juov' r) 
YdTa TidXi tov ^irobiae Kai toO erne* „a9cre to Tiupa, fia^ eq>d- 
Yajue tocxov Katpo u-aEi ipuujui." Kai tot€£ airros to aqpiqcre. 
"Yarepa Trfjpe ty\ ftouXa Kai Trjv lEiiye, k' epxeTai 6 'ApaTrriq Kai 
toO Xeer „ti TrpocrrdZeiq, dcpevrri;" „Tujpa vd qpepr^q to aapaYi 
ttoO 'vai oty\ 9dXa<Jcxa £&w," tou Xeei. 'Ajaeauu^ 6 'ApdiniS to 
Icpepe. To Traibi ujrfJKe jaeaa, ppkncei tov 'Apdnri, ttoO koijuujv- 
Tav jue Trj paa'XoTrouXa, Kai tov (TKOTUucre. Tatepa irfipe Trj yu- 
vama tou, k j ^Erjcrav oXri ttj Zvjy\ tou$ KaXd. 

^3. '0 Kup AdEapos k' oi bpaKOi. 
(Epirus) 
"HTav eva$ jLiTraXtujaaTrig Kai tov £XeYav AdZiapo. Kai juvid 
juepa 6ttou jUTrdXujve, f^aZ!uj9riKav iroXXeg M u iTe^, Kai Tpdprjcre ?va 
juTrdio Kai aKOTwae aapdvTa inuiYeq. ToTeq irfiYe k' ^qpKetaK' 2va 
a7ra9i k' eYpaipe* „|ue juvid TpaPricrid aKOTiuaa aapdvTa ipuxe<g." 
Ki dcpou to ?q>KeiaKe to <jTra9i, Kivricre Kai Tufte 0"nrj HeviTeid* 
Kai adv irfiYe buo |aepe<; jaaKpeid diro tov tottov tou, rjup' eva 
TrriYd&i k' Iireae k' eKoijLiri9riKe. 'EkcT ^Ka9ovTav oi bpaKOi. T6- 
Te$ iip9ev eva<g vd Ttdpr] vepo k' eibe to AdZiapo, ttou ^koi|liu)v- 
Tav eibe Kai Keiva ttou rJTav YP^M^va ctto cnra9i tou, Kai irriYe 
Kai eme Kai tuiv dXXiuv. Oi dXXoi tou etirav, vd tou 'rrri vd y^- 
vouv pXdjaribe?. TTfiYev 6 bpdKoq Kai tov £cpdbva£e Kai tou eiire, 
Sv tyei euKapiaTrjcn vd y^vouv pXdfirjbeq. e Ad^apo^ tou eiTre, 



240 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

■mix; OeXei, mi yiv'kcxv Kai KaGovTav dvxdjaa. Kai toO emav oi 
bpdtKOi vd rrriYctivouv jue xr)V dpdba yid vepo Ka9w<g Kai y\a EuXa. 
TTfJYav of bpaKOi Ytd EuXa Kai Yid vepo. "'HpGe k' f] dpdba tou 
Ad£apou vd Trdvri vd cpeprj vepo. Oi bpaKOi efyav £va dcFKi, ottou 
?Traipvav vepo, k' ?Tiaipve biaKomeq OKabes vepo. '0 Ad£apoq 
|u£ ]ueYd\r| bucTKoXia nr^e to dcrKi dbeio crxo TrrjYctbi, k' ^rreibr] be 
jLiTTOpoucre vd to cpepr] to vepo, bev to tfe^ae to dcxKi, juov' ?- 
tfKaqrre 'XoYupa to Trr)Yabt. Oi bpaKOi, crdv apYncre 6 AdEapo^, 
^cpopiiG'Kav k' £oreiXav evav vd irdr) vd ibf), ti yiv'kc. c bpd- 
ko$ TifiYe Kai tou erne* „ti Kaveic; auTou, Kup AdEape;" „Ae 
jLiKOpuu," tou Xeei, „Ka0e juepa vd epx^iuai vd Ttaipvw vepo* vd 
(peptu juvid qpopd oXo to TrrjYabi, Yid vd EeYXuTweruj !" „l~id 6vou.a 
tou Geou, Kup AdEape," tou Xeei, „u.r|! y^ti ipoqpoujue diro ty\ 
biipa, TniYcxivou|ue 'iieiq 0" T1 1 V dpdba aou." 

Tou flpGe f] dpdba toO AdEapou vd qpepr] Kai EuXa, k' 
eneibri be umopoucre vd cpopTuuOfi eva bevTpo KaGdx; oi d'XXoi 
bpaKOi, £beve oXa Td bevTpa \xe TieiGeq. Kai crdv dpYnffc &<; to 
Ppdbu, eaxeiXav irdXi oi bpaKOi eva bpaKo vd ibrj, Ti Kavet. „Ti 
Kavei£ a\JToO, Kup AdEape;" tou eiire. „0eXuu vd qpepuu oXo to 
poujudvi juvid qpopd Ytd vd EeYXuTwcru)," tou Xeet. „Mrj! Kup 
AdZape," tou Xeei, „YiotTi 0d ipoqpr]crou|Lxe anb to Kpuo* Trrpfai- 
voujiie 'jaeTq cTTriv dpdba crou." Kai irfipe 6 bpaK0£ to bevTpo 
Kai to TrfJYe. "Ycfirep' diro Kd|U7TO(Tov Kaipo emav oi bpaKOi vd 
tov (TKOTtbaouv, ki direcpdo'icrav to flpdbu vd tov xTUTrncrouv oXoi 
duo juvid TcreKOupid. c AdEapo<; Td Fikouct' auid Kai to ppdbu 
e[3aX' eva KouTcroupo Kai to ecrKerracxe jae Trjv Kaira tou. To 
Ppdbu dx™™! "^ to KouTdoupo oXoi diro ,uvid Kai to emvav 
KOjujaaTia Kai TidvTexav, ttujc; tov ecTKOTuucrav. 'Aqpou dTT0K0i]ur|6'- 
Kav oi bpaKOi, 6 AdEapos irfipe to KouTcroupo Kai to 'piEe dSai 
Kai TrXaYiacre, Kai 7rpo<; Td EruuepubjuaTa e^ouYYiEe, Kai tov r|Kou- 
aav oi bpaKOi Kai tov pduTriaav Kai tou emav „ti exei<;;" Ki 
ambq tou^ eiire, oti KajUTioaoi ipuXXot tov dTcrijuTrricrav. Oi bpd- 
koi navTexav, oti ipuXXou*; evojuiCe Ti<; TcreKoupieq, Kai Trjv dXXrj 
juepa tou eiirav, dv ?xfl t^ 011 ^ 1 ^? Y^vaiKa, k| av BeXr], vd tou bub- 
aouv eva-TaYapi cpXoupid, Kai vd Trrpfaivrj aTO (Tttiti tou. c Ad- 
2apo^ Toixg eme, ttox; ?x 61 euKapio"Tr|CTi, Kai vd ixdpr] k' ^va bpaKo 
drro auToix;, vd tou Td q>eprj Td cpXoupid ctto ctttiti tou. TTf|pe 
to bpaKo cpopTiujuevo to qpXoupi Kai tthy^ ctto o"ttiti tou. Xto 
bpojuo 07iou TtriYottve, tou erne toO bpdKOu* „crTdcrou, vd Trr|Yaivu> 
vd becru) Td iratbid juou, vd \xy\ o*e qpdv! u TTfiY€ k' Sbecre Td Kai- 



TEXTS 241 

bid tou ju£ koiti (TKOivid TraXid Kai tou$ eme* „ovia<; ibfjT€ to 
bpaKO, vd cpwvdEeTe* Kpeas airo bpaKO." Ki oviag eTrXriaiaG"' 6 
bpaKOc;, £qpwva£av id Traibur „KpetaTO airo bpdico!" '0 bpdKo<; 
jLie |Li€Td\ri ipo|udpa aqp'Ke id cpXoupid k' &pirfe. Zto bpojuo ottou 
TTriyaive 6 bpaKO^, ryupe juvid dXuurroO, Kcti tov pwTrjcre, yiccti eivai 
Tpou.apicxu.evos tocto. Ki auToq to"' eiTre, ttuj£ octo fMTwcTe, 6d 
tov erpuuYav Td Traibid tou Kup Ad£apou. „Att' Td Traibid toO Kup 
Ad£apou etfKidxTriKec; ;" toO erne* „auTO£ efye buo kot€$ Kai tv) 
u.vid toO Tf)V SqpaTa £ipec;, Kai Tfjv aXXrj ®& Trdvw vd toO Trjv 
cpdcu Tdupa* ki av bev maTeurjS, eXa KovTd juou vd ibr^* becrou 
arc' t\]v oupd u.ou." 5 Ebe9V 6 bpaKO<; air' Trjv oupd Tfl^ aXwirous 
Kai TrfiTe vd ibf). "OvTas ^rrXricriacTav ctto ottiti tou Ad£apou, 6 
Ad£apoq £cpuXae jue to VTOuqpeKt, fiafi ecnad^ovTav die' touc; bpd- 
Kouq. Xdv etbe Trjv dXumoG, ottoO epxouvTav u.a£i u.e to bpaKO, 
TO"' eiTre* „be o~ou eirra vd cpepris jliovov airrov to bpdKO, u.ouv' 
vd touc; q>epr)c; oXoucj." Auto aKOuovTac; 6 bpaKOcj If we dqpavTOcj' 
ki diro ty\ jueydXri tt) pia, ottoO enaipve tx\v dXumou, eipoqpricre. 
Ki depou eXeuTepwG'Ke drro touc; bpaKOUcj 6 Kup Ad£apocj, SqpKeiaae 
to airm tou XajuTrpo k' I£rjcre KaXd. 

4. c O cpTtux6<s Kai 6 ttXouctioc;. 
(Naxos) 
"HTav evac; qpTwxbc; jue troXXd iratbid k' ribouXeuyav oXoi 
jae ty\ Tuvakav tou 6\y\ jnepa* Trdcra ppdbu ttoO 'Tave Koupaff- 
uivot, rjGeXd vd (pave to ipujjLidKi Tuuve fjcruxa ki dveTrajueva • dire- 
Keio vd maa' 6 TraTepacj vd TTai£r] to XupaKi tou vd xopeufouve 
Td iraibidv tou Kai vd Trepvouve juid £wr) dYT^XtKiV AirrXa rjKd- 
GouvTav evac; ttXouctioc;, Kai crdv rjKouevt Ka0e ppdbu Td yeXoia Kai 
Tai x a p£<S T o0 cpTuuxoO, eirapaEeveuTouvTave * „Tru)g eruj juaGeq vd 
jariv ei|nai tocto qpKapicmijLievoq ki dvercaiuevo^ adv euToq; 6Xr| jaep' 
dEivi-j Kai to ppdbu Z!euKi, u Xeei, „vd Tuuve buuKuu GeXuu ypocra vd 
'biiu, iVra 8d Td Kajnouve." "Tldei, ppiaKei to cptujxo, Xeer „€TT€ibf) 
ae Hepuu Timo dGpuurro, vd croO bivuu xiXia Ypocra, v' dvoi£r]g Trpa- 
judTia oti 9e£, ki av Ka^avTicrrig, juou Td bivei^, eibejurj^ crou Td 
Xapi£iu." "OXrj jnepa ma crdv Td 'mipev 6 cpTiuxo^, ncruXXoouvTav, 
iVra vd Kajur^ Tocra -fpocra* Td 'qpepvev diro 'bdj, Td 'cpepvev aTco 
'kei* „v' dvoKuu TrpajuaTeuTabiKo,* vd Td pdXXuu cttov toko, vd Trdpuu 
diurceXoxuJpaqpcx." "EpxeTai to ppdbu jurjbe XupaKi md vd maar}' 
juiXid Taix vd Kavave Td Traibtdv tou, vd feXdcrouve, Td judXiuveve* 
oXifvuxTa bev ripouXuucreve judTi gtx) auXXori* ty)v d\\r\ jnepa )nr|be 



242 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

cr£ nepoK&juaio vd irar] \ir\be TroupeTic; ££uu juou atr| cruXXorV tov 
dpwxav i r ] uvakav tou ivid 'xei; vd rove Kajnr] vd YeXdan, euxog 
irjv ejLidXuuveve vd tov dqpr|Kr) fjcruxo* dqpnKpdTai 6 TrXoucrioq, 
Trepvct juidv aYpabuvid, Ttepva dXXrj, irepvouve Tpeiq \xr\bk XupaKi 
TTid fjKoueve jurjbe 2Xoia |ur|be xopo tujv Traibulr juidv Taxuiepvr) 
pXeTrei to qpTiuxo k' £pxeTai — „vd, xptcTTiave, Td Ypocra crou Kai 
jLirjb' auTd GeXw jun.be tv[ ffKOTOupav Tuuve." ATTOCFTOTe TtdXi Trdei 
Xapoujuevo^ oto ctttitiv tou 6 qpTuuxog, fjiraiZieve to Xupdw, nxo- 
peirrave Td raxibidv tou adv Kai TtpujTa Kai Taxuxepou air\ bou- 
Xeidv tou. 

^5. Oi cpiXoi. 
(Ancient Syra) 

Mvid cpopd nrave buo TraXXnKdpta, jud iyrave iroXXd cpiXoi, 
ttoO 6 evas tov dXXo bev r|£exwpi£e, |u6vou to Kaipo ttou rjOeXe 
vd KOijLxr|6ou. Md rjpxe Kaipog, ttou 6 evac; rjTravTpeuTnKe, ki 
aTro t6t6£ dpxeipe if] ZiouXia k' r|vfd|uujve to cpiXov tou Kai bev 
tou 'XeYe Trapd juvid „KaXr) juepa," Ytd vd jLifjv Tuxfl Kai Tove 
Ttdpr] oto ctttitiv tou Kai tou £eXoYidcrri t\] Yuvakav tou. IvTd 
'Kajiie Xomov euxoc;; TTidvei Kai xxiV ?va ctttiti ju£ Tpeis TraTuucries 
Kai pd£ei Trj vevev tou cnriv KdTiu TraTwertd, Tfiv TreGepidv tou crni, 
beuTeprj Kai if\ Yuvaucav tou cttf)v dTtdvu), k' r|Trp6crraEe Tr| ve- 
vev tou, jLifjv Tuxri Kai irdn dcrepvucos KaTrjg ki dvoiSr) k' £jLmri 
juecra. Ti tou KaTacpepvei Xomov 6 qriXoc; tou; TTdei ki dXXd£ei 
tx\ cpopecridv tou Kai VTuveTai ad Xopboc;, Kai crdv rjSepe, ttoxj 
eKeivfjs 6 dvTpa<s ryrave ^rfj bouXeid, Trdei Kai xtuttoc ctto ctttiti 
€ut6- Kai PYottvei f\ vev£ tou cptXou tou. „*E, uipa KaXrj, Kepd." 
„KaXujg to TraXXrjKdpt." Tov dpuuTa Xomov „ti GeXeiq £buu;" 
,,'Eyuj," Xeei, „Kepd, eiju' ?va$ Xopbos* to ctttiti auTo ju' dpecTKei 
TToXXd, Kai 9d juou Kdjunq tt) xdpi v' dcpnKn<j vd 'juttuj juecra vd 
.TrdpiL) to tfKebto." „ c O Qeb<; cpuXdHr], TraibdKi juou, bev l^w tt\v 
dbeta d-rro to yio Mou v' dcpricruj juecra Kaeva." „Tov bivuu £KaTo 
Ypocrta, ki dcprjae jue vd 'juttui)-" lav rjKoucrev euTt] f] KaKOjuoipa 
Td kaTO Ypocria, Td Trfjpe Kai tou 'tt€V „2|UTTa$, jud YXriYopa vd 
cpuqg, vd |ur| 'pipdpn 6 Yiog juou. a Aomov, eixe bev eixe, euToc; 
dvepaivei Kai (TTr) beuTepriv TraTiucrtd, Tove YXe-rrei r\ TreGepid* Xeet 
tou* „ti Qks dbdb;" Aeer „iipxa vd cTKebidcruu to aTUTt." Euxr) 
^Yupei|/e vd tou KouvTpacTTapr], Kai bkv tov dcprjve vd juTrrj juecra. 
BYdvei Kai tx\<; bivei dXXa 'KaTO Ypocria* r|CFToxd(TniK£ euxr) vd Td 
Trdpr], ki dcDoO tov dcpiqKe f] judvva tou, ivTa 'qpTaie Keivrj ; Nd Td 



TEXTS 243 

KovToXooOjue, dvejtaivei Kai OTf|v aTrdvw TraTUKXid. Zdv tov lb\e 
f\ KOTieXa, ^|xp6juaE€ Kai tov dpumiEe, ti fjOeXe' „to (JKebios 0d 
Trdpuu toO crmTioO/'^n^9e\e„^d_Kdjuri; Tov dcpriKe k' riirfipe 
to (TKebio^' (Tdv to Triipe, KaTepdvei orr| beirrepriv TraTWffid Kai 
Kd0eTai. ToO Xeei rj TreGepid- „qpeuYa£ YXrjYopa, jufjv epxfl 6 
YajUTrpos jLiou." Aeer „b£ qpeirfuj, a be |ao0 biiJKris Td 'KaTo 
Ypocna!" 'IvTa 'GeXe vd Kdjurj; iVpoftouvrave jur|V £pxr] 6 YajUTrpog 
Tris, toO bivei Td 'KaTo Ypocxia, Kai crdv Td rrfipe, KaTepaivei OTfjv 
KdTiu TraToicrid, Kai \xk tov ojuvoio juobos Traipvei ki arco 'kei t' 
dXXa £mTO Ypocria Kai cpeuYei Kai irdei Kai aTajaaTa & eva ju^POS? 
air' ottou rjHepe ttujs f|9eXe vd Trepdcrr] 6 cpiXos tou, ki aKapTepei. 
*0 cpiXog tou Tinepacre airo 'jLmpos T °u, ™ v ^ l ^ *ai tou Xeer 
„KaXrj juepa!" „Ti eme^; KaXf) |uepa; Kai bev TiKoucres tov 
opiajuo, ttoO 'PY^Xev 6 (SaaiXes, vd \xx\ Xeve e KaXrj juepa/ jutovou 
\a\r\ jnepa, k' ruuaGd to*;" „KaXn crou juepa k' fjjLxaGd to!" 
Kai qpeuYei Kai Trdei OTo cfttitiv tou* Xeei rf\<; veveq tou* „KaXrj 
juepa k' r|jua0d to." Eimf) b£v iijuiXriae, dvepaivei crrn beuTepnv 
TraTUJCTid, ppioxei tt\v TreGepidv tou, Xeer „KaXf| juepa, TreGepid, 
k' njuaGd to." „Kai adv to 'ixaBtq" Xeei, „f) |udvva crou Td 
cpTaiei, YictTi tou 'voi£e k' FijUTre juecra!" Tpexei Xomov euTuc; 
KaTw giy\<; judvvas tou, Xeer „ttoioO nvoiHe<s, k' njLnre jneaa;' 
„*HTave, TraibdKi juou, evas Xopbog, k' r|9eXe vd TtdpT] (TKebiog 
diro to cjttiti aou." Tpexei aTrdviu, Ppicncei tx\ YuvaTmv tou, tt|v 
dpaiTct. Aeer „ti vd crou 'ttu); 6 cpi'Xoq crou tyrave mKapiijuevog, 
ttws bev tou juiXeis, Kai bev r|£epe, jne ti TpOTto vd ere biaovTpeipr) ." 
Totc^ md r|Kajne Trjv dnocpacri, ttws, 8cto ki av ?xfl Kavei<g crcpa- 
Xixth Tr) Yuvakav tou, eivai juirocriKa* Kai tct' ?buuKe Trjv ^XeuTepid, 
Kai adv iivTdjuwve to cpiXov tou, fiTave ^w KaXd irapd TipaiTa. 

6. TTtfis ^qpTeidcTTr) 6 XaYo<; Kai to XaYiuviKO. 
(Legend from <t>€\X6i]) 

'0 XpKJioi; Kai 6 bidftoXog flcrav juaZIi. Mid fijuepa XeYei 
6 bidpoXog eig to XpiaTO • „oti ecpTeiacra eva irpdiua ottou bev to 
Ttidvei tittotc." ■ — „nd vd ibai", tou XeYei 6 Xpi(TT6<;, „ti IcpTeia- 
creg." ToTe<; 6 bidftoXos aTroXdei diroKaTiu d-rro Trjv KaTTOTa tou 
to XaYO, 6 6tto!os ?Tpexe ttoXu. Trjv dXXriv rjjuepa 6 XpiCTTog tou 
Xeei tou biaf36Xou* „Yid aTroXucre IkcTvo to Trpdjaa ottou eqpTeia- 
oeq." 7 Kai 6 bidftoXog a|na to aTroXucre, aTroXdei Kai 6 XpiaTO? 
to XaYiuviKO Kai tov ^TTiacre. 



244 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

c O btdpoXog JXuTTrjGr), btoTi 6 Xpioros ^qpxeiacre KaXuTepo 
rrpdu.a duo ^Keivov Kai ejmdCuuHe oXoug tou$ XaYOug Kai tou$ (3d- 
vei KdGe vuxta Kai opYwvouv TCt xwpdqpia tou, Kai ocroi bev Trd- 
Touv, keivous tou$ dqprjvei Kai Toug mdvouv id XaytuviKa. 

7. *H Aau.Trrib6va. 

(Legend' from Patras) 

Tty\v TTeXoTTOwrjCTov d-rrdvou cttov "flXevov dcpuTpun/e KdGe 
Xpovo Kaid tbptcrjuevriv uipa Kai jaepa axeq bwbeKa Tfjs vuxTac; 
eva XouXoubo, oirou oirotog to 'ppicTKe Kai xr| pi£a tou Trjv eXuuuve 
Kai epuve air' airr6 to vepo jueaa ere x a XKUJ]Lia Xuwuivo, ejUTio- 
poucre vd to Kctjar] judXajua. Aonrov evaq BeverZdvos KaTreTdvtog, 
OTTOii e?xe 'ppeT crrd KaTdcrnxa tou TraTepa tou, Truuq ff' auTO to 
juepog dcpuTpwve to cpuTo dKeivo, &puYe dtro Trjv rraTpiba tou ju6 
Kau-TToaous biKoug tou fid vd 'p9r] vdv to 'pprj. "Ajua Xoittov 
ecpxacre, dirfjpe to bpojuo KaTd irou tou 'beixve to pifSXio, Kai 
uffxepa anb TroXXd YupejmctTa T 6 'pprjKe to u.epoq. 'EoTajudTrice 
kei KOVTd k' &Tepiu.eve jue irpoffoxn* ap-a fjpGe f\ wpa f\ ibpi- 
crjuevTi, gXajuipe fj Xau.Trrjb6va Kai djLiecrujg ecrpncxe. 'AXX' eKeivoq 
av Kai to yupeipe \ik ouXa Ta u.effa, bev dujiopeffe vd euprj rig 
piEes tou. Tov dXXo xpovo rjpGe irdXi Kai eTrXrioiaffe tocxo kovto 
tou, ottou au.a 2Xajuipe fJTave juaxpeid eva Trdffcro. Auiaux; Xomov 
ecrrjjudbeipe tov totto, to Yupeiye, ecn<aipe Kai to 'ppe. Zujaqpujva 
|ae to ptpXio &pKeiao*e ftg pileq Kai fig eXuuucre Kai airo Keivo 
epuve crrd x^^u-axa Kai Ta 'Kave |udXajua Kai xpnM^Ta. IV auTO 
du-Tiopecre k' ScpKeiaae Tocra Kdarpa tou Moptd. 

8. c O cruupog tou MapaGwva. 
(Attica) 

Ztov KdjLiTio tou MapaGOuva KaTotKOuae tov iraXaio Kaipo 
ttoXus Xao$, Kai tov ^Kupepvouaav Tpta 7TpiYKr)TrOTrouXa, Kai Ta 
Tpia dbepcpta Y^apbiaKa. 'HpGe aipa KaKr) Kai to eva TrpiYKrjTroTrouXo 
appduaTrjae papeid. Of YtctTpoi TtiroTe bev djuiropeffav vd tou Kdjuouv, 
^TreGave Kai to e'Gaipav eKeT dvdjuecra o~tov Kd^Tro, Kai oi kotoikoi 
8Xoi toO KajuTTOU air' d'Kpri cr' d'Kpri earjKiJbGrio"av GXtjajaevoi, eTrfjpav 
aTio jaid TTobtd x^M« k' eirfjYav Kai tx]v IppiEav aTrdvuj cttov Taqpo 
tou. Kai duo totc 6 tdcpog tou TrptYKriiroiTouXou £rive aujpog 



TEXTS 245 

9. 01 MuXopboi. 
(Delphi) 

Of MuXopboi b£v eivai xP l(yTiav0l ' 5 IRCfri Kaveig bev Toug 
eibe iroTeg vd kcxvouv t6 araupo Toug. *H Y^vid Toug eivai aixb 
Toug TraXaioug eibwXoXaTpeg AbeXcpiiirreg, ttou cpuXayav to pio 
Toug eig eva Kdaipo Kai to 'Xeyav AbeXqpoug, anb Toug buo dbeX- 
cpoug • Td paatXoTTOuXa ttou to 'x Tlcra v- "Otov r\ TTavaYia Kai 6 
Xpicrrog iipGav a' auToOg Toug TOTroug Kai oXoi o! dvGpumoi 6X6- 
yupa TivrjKav xpi^navoij oi AbeXqpiurreg eaKeqrrriKav, irujg f|Tav 
KaXiiT€pa Yl' auTOug vd cpuYOinr k' IqpuYOt (XTrj OpayKid Kai irfjpav 
Kai oXa Td irXouTrj Toug jaaH. Att' aiiToug eivai oi MuXopboi, Kai 
epxovTai Tdupa £bw Kai rrpocTKuvoOv auTd Td XiGdpia. 

10. Oi Kopeg tou KaCTpou 1 ). 
(Athens) 

"OTav 6 MuXopbog eTifjpe ty] jutd diro Tig e£i Kopeg toO 
KdcTTpou, dqprjcre TrapaYY^Xia (XToug ToupKOug vd tou KoupaXrjtfouv 
Kai Tig dXXeg ty\ vuxTa. AXXd \ei ttou mfraivav vd Tig PYaXouv, 
Tig aKOuv vd (7kou£ouv XuTnyrepd Kai vd cpun/d£ouv Tfjv dbepcprj 
Toug. Oi ToupKoi Tpojuaajuevoi Kcpuyav, Kai jue Kaveva Xoyo bev 
rjGeXav vd boKijudaouv vd Tig PYdXoyv. Kai dXXoi ttoXXoi KaTw 
diro to KdcTTpo jig aKouYav Tig juapjuapevieg Kopeg vd KXaiv Trj 
vuxTa Ytd Trjv dbepcprj Toug ttou Toug Trjv Trfjpav. 

x ) The reference is to the Caryatides, one of which Lord Elgin took 
to England. 



II. ARTISTIC LITERATURE. 

a. Poetry. 

1. TloXefJucrTrjpiov. 
(Prjyas *€patos, of BeXcaTii'os in Thessaly, 1754-1798) 

*Q<Z tt6t€ TraXXriKdpia vd Zujjuev crxd axevd, 
Movdxoi, crdv Xtovxdpia ctt^ pdxeq, crrd (Souvd; 
ZTrrjXi^g vd KaTOiKoOjuev, vd |3XeTruj|uev KXabid, 
Nd cpevfujix' arc' xov Koafiov yid xrjv rnKprj (TKXapid; 
Nd xdvcujuev dbeXcpia, iraxpiba Kai Yoveis, 
Tou<; cpiXouq, xd Traibid juag ki oXoug xou$ (7uYT€vei<;; 
KaXuxepa jaiag ifipag eXeuGeprj 2Hair|, 
TTapd crapdvxa xpovwv (XKXaptd Kai cpuXaKrj. 
Ti & wcpeXei Kt av Zf\Or}<; Kai elcrai axrj (TKXapid; 
Zxoxdcrou ttujs Gk tyevouv Kd0' ifrpa gty\ cpuuxid. 
AuGevxri^, bpaYoujudvog, PeEiprjg Sv (XxaGffo 
r O xupavvo^ ere Kdjuvei dbiKws vd X ^^- 
AouXeueis 8X' fuuepa eig 8xi ki av aoO 'Trfj, 
Ki auxos TracrxKei TtdXiv, xo ai|ua vd crou Tnfj. 
Avbpeioi KaTrexdvoi, TiaTrdbeg, XaiKoi 
ZKOxw0r)Kav ki dyabe^ arc' abiKO arraSi. 
Ki diuexprjx' dXXoi xotfoi Kai ToupKoi Kai TpaiKoi 
Ziurjv Kai TiXoiixr) xdvouv x^pi^ Ka|uuajx<popjutfj. 
'O.ZoOxcroq, 6 Moupou&is, TTexpaKr)^, ZKavaf3ris, 
rKiKa<s Kai MaupoT6vrj<s Ka9pe7rxr)S eiv' vd fbife. 
Ta<; Kp&lex f] iraxpig eras, a&q OeXei, eras Trovei, 
ZrjxeT xf)V owbpojurjv eras ju£ jurixptK^v qptuvn. 
'H PoujueXrj adq KpdZei ja' aYKaXaq dvoiKxd^, 
Za$ bibei ttXoOxov, xottov, d£ia<; Kai xijudg. 

'EXdxe jit' £va ZjfjXov a' dxouxov xov Kaipov, 
Nd KaiuiujLiev xov opKOv dTrdvuu exxov Zxaupov, 



TEXTS 247 

XujupouXous TrpoKOjujLievoug jn€ Tiaxpiuma^ov 

Nd pdXw^ev, dq oXa vd fcibouv 6pKT]Li6v. 

e O v6\xo<; vd 'vat ttpujtcx; Kai juovos 6&nYoq, 

Kai xf]s Traxptbos £vag vd Y^vrj dpxnYOS. 

"Oxt k' f) dvapxtcx ojuotdCei xf)V aKXaptd, 

Nd Zaijuev \hq 6r|pia €tv' ttXio cTKXripfj <pumd* 

Kai xoxe jLie xd x^P ia M>t]Xd crxov oupavov 

*Ag 'ttoujli' d-rr' xrjv Kapfcid \xaq dxouxa axov Oeov 

,'Q pacriXeu xoO Koajuou! 6pKi£ojuat eiq Ze, 
„Xxf)v Tvujjarjv xujv xupdvviuv vd jurjv £X6u> Tioxe, 
„Mrpre vd xov bouXeuaw, jurjxe vd TrXavriOw, 
„Et<; xd xaHijuaxd xou vd juf) TrapaboGw. 
,,'Evoauj Zuj axov koctjuov, 6 juovog juou ctkotto^, 
„nd vd xov dqpaviffuj vd eivai axaGepog. 
„TTktt6<5 dq ir\v iraxpi&a auvxpipw xo £uyov 
„Kt dxwptaxog 6d €ijuai airo xov dpxHTOv. 
„Ki av Trapa|3u) xov opKov, v' daxpdip' 6 oupavog 
„Kai vd jnfe KaxaKaipr), vd Y£vuu_ujadv KaTrvog." 

2. Tepos Kai Gdvaxog. 
('Iwdmjs ByjXapas, of Joannina in Epirus, 1771-1823) 

"Evas Y^pos ere cpxwxetas dvayKri 
"AXXov xpotto vd friar] 5ev e?xe, 
Xdupia HuXa vd Koqpxr) axov Xoyyo, 
Mexd Pidg xo ipujjLii xou vd foalr). 

Midv rijuepa flapeid (popxwjuevoq, 
TTepTraxujvxag a' 6p06 jnovoTrdxi, 
'Ox xov kotto Kat Kdjua xoO fjXiou 
Tiqv dvdaa vd xrdpr] be cpxdvei. 

X' evav oxxo t' dvdaKeXa Tieqpxer 
Kai axo jueYa ttoXu Koupaajud xou 
Trj lix)f\ xou jutaujvxag pape^exai 
Kai xo Xdpo ju£ ttoGo xou Kpd£et. 

Nd 6 Xdpos ojnTTpog xou Trexeierai 
To bperavt Kpaxuuvxag axo x^pi, 
M' aYpiav oipi Kai axnjua xpojudpaq, 
„["id jue, Yepo," xou XeYei, „x! GeXeig;" 



248 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

„ v Ax!" 6 T^pog eiiTug dTTOKpiGrj, 
,T6 ZdkiKi jnou (xuto bev ujcopoucra 
Not crriKiucTuu' ere cpiuvaEajS fcoXiog, 
Nd juoO bujKrjg 6\iTn Por|9eux." 



3. OiXapyupoq. 
(By the same) 

c O Karjuivos XpucxoXdTpris 
HdTrXa Kevrerai, Poyt^^i, 
Me to Xdpo TToXejuder 

'EXaijadpTH^^v 6 boXiog, 
Ti fioMotTiae ak <jttiti 
Kdrroiou ttXoucjiou crujuTuoXmi. 

Tou eirp6j3aXav KajuTrocroi 
Me Kapbidg ki aYdTrrj^ lid 
To fiaipo vd TrpocJKaXecrr]. 

TtbpajauTog Kai rr|V appujCxia 
Kai tov Kivbuvo XoYtd£ei, 
Mov' Td ?Eoba Tpojud£ei! 

"Evas qpiXog tou dcrreios, 
Me 0"kott6 vd xwpaTeiprj, 
ToO^eme, janiruug &ob£\\)\) 



TTXio irapdvw ott\ Qavr\ tou, 

r Av dTTOjuvrjcTKev dnojua 

"Etcti dvruuiTOpoq ctto aipujjua. 

Totc TrXiq^KaTaZaXiorr] ' 
TTavTOxn Kai 6dppos x«vei 
Kai cptuvdZier 0d Tre0dvrj! 

Kai oi ttovoi tou dpyaTaivouv, 
Kai TiaTpoO ZjjTdei tt\ xdpi, 
Mr) 6 6dvaTO<s tov Trdprj* 

'EEavdXape dig tocto 
Me oXiYa Trjv uyeid tou. 
Mov' yi' aiiTf) tx\ crujuqpopd tou 



TEXTS 249 

"EKajae opxov, oao &5<xij, 
Nd bemvdr) jnov' to ppdbu 
Me vepo Kai iraBjudbt. 

4. Oi Xdpeg Kai 6 "EpuuTa£. 
'AGai^aios XpiaroTrouXos, of Castoria in Macedonia. 1772-1847) 

Oi Xdpes jue tov "Epurra 

'ETrfjYav vd fctaXe£ouv 
Ztou$ Krjirou<; TpiavTdcpuXXa, 

Kopubveg vd xd TrXe£ouv. 
Ki 6 "Epurrag xapoujiievog 

'E5dj k' €K€l 7T6TO0a€ 

Kai juovog tou id KXdbeue 

Kai Te^ UTrnpeToOae. 
KXabeuovTa^ aTTpoaexTa, 

'Qcrdv XujXo iraibaKt, 

T6V K€VTp(JU(T€ TO 6aXTuXo 

TTiKpd eV dTKaOdKi. 
TfeTdei Td TptavTaqpuXXa, 

To KXabeuTipi pi'xvei, 
Kai KXaiovTag crrec; Xdpeg tou 

To 5dxTuX6 tou fcetxver 
„"Qx! ^X- u T€^ Xeyei, „YiveTat 

"Ev' aTKaGdKt (novov 
Nd TipoEevrjan, Xdpe^ juou, 

MeyaXov Toaov ttovov;" 
„Aev eiv'," toO Xev, . 7 Trapd£evo, 

Aev en/'- YtctTi k' eKeivrj 
C H to err) craiTiTcra gov 

MeyaXov ttovov bivei." 

5. c O Xoyios. 
(By the same) 

Tf toO KaKOu 'KomaleK; 
Kai dvoryra anovbdleiq, 

Tid vd jLiaGnq texviku, 
T eivai t' dXqpa Kai to gfJTa 
Kai Td T^jujua, 6eXTa, lr\xaj 

Kai Td dXXa Td KaKa: 



250 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

s Epurru> ere, ti Kepbaivets, 
*Av YpajUjuaTiajuevos t^vi^, 

*Av cpiXoaocpos (3a9us; 
Tdxa bev KaTaXajufSdveis, 
"On irdXe 0d 7re0dvr]g 
Zdv 6 Trparros djuaGris; 
*Acp<je toutti <jou ty] TpeXXa 
Kai KoXXrjaou arfjv (SapeXXa, 

TToO ae Kpd£ei ju£ x a pa* 
Nd <re judOr], yid vd Yivrjs 
ZiroubaioTepos vd irivrjs 

"Eva juieipov otriv cpopd. 
ToOto pXeire vd (TTTOubd£r]s, 
ToOto TracrxiEe vd TrpdErjs, 

Ki oxi t' dXXa id xpeXXa, 
GejLiax' d'pprjTct YP<weva, 
Kai vepd KOTraviajueva, 

Kai bacxxdXou Xd, Xd, Xa 

6. <H VuxouXa. 
(Aiovu'o-ios IoXcdjxos, of Zante, 1798-1357) 
'Qffdv tXukottvoo 
ApocraT' depdia 
Mecra <xe avSoTOiro 
T Kei6 to iraibaKi 
Tf)v u(JTepr| SpraXe 
'AvaTTVorj. 

Kai f) ipuxouXa tou 
Eiq tov depa 
rXrjTOpajivepaive 
TTpos tov aiGepa, 
Zdv XtavoTpejuouXT] 
ZiriSa juiKprj. 

"OXa Trjv ?Kpa£av, 
"OXa t' dcrrepia, 
K' iKeivY] eHdirXujve 
AeiXfj Ta xepia, 
TiaTi bev f|£eup€, 
Ze ttoio vd jUTrf). 



TEXTS 251 

AXXd vex, toO 'bwae 
"Eva aYYcXaKi 
To cptXi dSdvcxTo 
Zto juayouXctKi, 
TTou ?£acpva ?Xajnvp€ 
Zdv Tr)V auTT|. 

7. e H cpapjLiaKUj|a^vr|. 
(By the same) 
Td Tpayoubta |uoG Td 'Xeyec; oXa. 
Touto jliovov bev GeXei to 'irr)^, 
ToOto jliovov bev GeXei t' aKouari^, 
"Ax! xrjv TrXdica xou Tdcpou KpaTei^! 

*Q irapGeva, av rijuiropetav oi KXdipeg 
TTe6aju|U£VOi) vd bwtfouv £iur|, 
To <?€£ ?Kajaa KXdijjeq yid ffeva, 
TTou GeX' IxflS T ^ v TrpdiTrj 7rvorj. 

Zucpopd! ere Gujuouju' ^KaGocrouv 
Zto TrXeupo jliou jne TrpocruuTro dxvo* 
„Ti exeic;;" crou 'rca, Kai o~u \i' diroKpiGriS' 
„0d TreGdvujj qpapjudKi Gd muu." 

Me cncXripoTaTo x^P 1 to Trfjpeg, 
'Qpaia Koprjj ki auTo to kopjui, 
TTou toO ?TTp67re cpopejua fdjaou, 
TTiKpo adpavo nupa cpopeT. 

To KopjLii aou dxei juecra cttov Taqpo 
To crroXi£ei ffejuvr) napGevid* 
ToG kcxkoG a' dbiKoGcxev 6 Koajuos, 
Kai aov qpwva£e XoTia Kmcd. 

Teroia XoTia av rjjUTropeies v' dKOuarig, 
5 0x to CTTojua crou t' rjGeXe pYfi ; 
„T6 cpapjudKi, ttoG TTfjpa, Kai oi ttovoi 
Aev ecTTaGriKav tocto cncXripoi." 

Kocrjue ipeuTr)! Teg Kopeg Teg .uaupeg 
KaTaTpexeig ocro eiv' ZiuvTavec;, 
iKXrjpe Kocrjue, Kai b£v Toug Xu7rdcrai 
Tfjv Tijiiriv, OTav eivai veKpeg. 



252 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Iiima, (Tuma! Gujuricrou ttujs Zx&$ 
OuYaTepa, Y^vaiKa, abfeXqpiy 
luma, f] )Liaupri Koijudrai ctto nvfijua, 
Kai KOijictTai TiapGeva aejuvrj. 

0& £uTrvr|crr] ty\v ucrrepri riiuepa, 

ElCJ TOV KOajUOV OJLtTTpO^ vd KplGf], 

Kai (Ttov TTXacTTti Kivdivrag ju£ (Tepas 
Td XeuKQt TriS Td x^pia Gd '*rrfi * 

„KuTTa jLieaa (Trd cmXdxva |uou, TTXdaTrj ! 
Td 9ap|udKUJ(Ta, dXr|Geia, f) rriKpri, 

Kai jnoO PYn K6 w 0X T ° vo ^ ^ 0X} ^ T rctT ^P a 5 
TToO TrXacrjLieva jnoO Tdt \e<; ecru* 

"Ojaujg Kirn-a aid (TTiXaxva juou ineaa, 
TToO to KpT)ua touc; KXalve, Kai Treq, 
TTec; toO koctjuou ttoO qpwva£e Tocra, 
'Eouj jLiecra fivjEiv' dXXe<g TrXrjTe^." 

TeTOia, 6)HTTp6<g ei<g tov TTXaa'Tri KtvwvTas 
Td XeuKot ir\q Td X^P ia ? $ a 1X ^- 
Xuma, Koaiue, KOijuotTat ctto juvfijaa, 
Kai KOijaotTai TrapGeva (Tejuvrj. 

8. c O euyevriq. 
('AXegaySpos Iouto-os, of Constantinople, 1803-1863) 

Zopicxe tou$ titXous oXou^ 6 Tpot£f]V an' t\)v 'EXXdba. 

TToioc; ojuujc; tou$ dcprjvei; 
Kai d7rXou<; TroXiiriS ndioq KaTabexeTai vd jueivrj ; 
To „TTaveKXajLiTTpe jliou TTpiYKrw" ?xei tootjv vocrri|ud6a ! 
5 EKXajaTTp6Tr|Te^ ebd), eKXajUTrpoTHTe^ exer 
c 'Ottou Tidg, jaid eKXajurrpoTrig jiie to Tpumo to ppxxKt. 

"Ottou ki av araGri Kaveic;, 

Nd crou k' eva^ eirfevric;! 

Kdhruj cpecria Kai Ka-neXa! evas TTpiYKr|TTas irepva* 

V rjY^oviKO ttoO ?x ei - 
BXeTiei oXous cydv inupjuriYKia Kai Td juaria tou aqpaXvcr 
5 Att' Tf] jiOTri tou ibere f\ euY^veia ttujc; Tpexer 

Trb u.avbr|Xi tou qpucxa, 



TEXTS 253 

Tajn7raKiZ!e.i, EepoPnxei Kai Td XoYia tou ixaaGq, 
5 H|urropcT vd 'Trfj Kaveig, 
TTOu^ 5ev eivcu euYevrjg; 

"AKouae tov fipuud juag, cxKOucre tov ttujc; XaXer 

„TTiIi<s jatcruj tou<; briM-OKparas ! e£eTrdpGr|Kav 7toXu- 

Kup eiravw Kai Kup k<xtuj EecpiuvtZouv eiq t' auii crou 

Ki arc' iimpoq crou ki air' ottictou- 

Xe cpiXeuouv ju' eva Kpuo bruuoKpdiiKO ecru* 

Aupio 6d ere Kepdaouv Kai cnro KaTrrjXeio Kpacri. 

Ti koko vd £rj Kaveic; 

Me dvGpumous a^eveis!" 

E?X€ oikio vd (pujvdlri 6 Mrcapovos 6 Ya|uppos M-Ou, 

Kai 6 TTprp<rm; 6 uios juou, 
Kt 6 iraxepa^ u.ou 6 Kovies, Kai f) judvva u.' f) KovTecrcra, 

K' f) ymyid M-' H TTpiYKriTrecraa • 
„Me xwpionrrjbes dvGpw7rous Trpocrexe KaXd ui]v |UTrXeEr)s ' 
AY£vf)g Kai £ujo eivai, irpdYjua £va ere 6uo Xe£ei£. 

Nd cpuXctYeiai Kavei<g 

Att j dv9pumou<; aYeveT$!" 

> Eyiv€, x^piTi Geia, f) c EXXdg u.as pacriXeta' 

Me tou$ Kup airroxOovds u.a$ 9d Td eixajuev dxpeux. 

Tujpa Get 'xwjuev, ^XiriZiuj, Td KaXd tou Trapabeicrou 

Kai Toug Gncraupou^ toO Kpoicrou* 
TTpiYKriTTag eYu> Gd eijuai, TrpiYKr|7Tag pe Tpeic; oupe;, 
Kai cru, TTpiYKr|7rd jaou cpiXe, irpecrgus eKaxov epopeq. 

Aev lUTcopeT vd 'iTrj Kavei^, 

TTOug 5ev eijuacrG' euYeveig. 

9. BdcTavog. 
(Uaua.yi(Jjr ]$ louTaos, of Constantinople, 1803-1868) 
Zdv bev ere pXemju, ti Kar}|u6q! 

Ti fTKOtog KaiaxGovio! 
Kai crdv ae pXeTiw, ti TiaXjuo^! 
Ti pdaavo aiuuvio! 

Ze pXercw, k' eu9u<; XaxTapw 

Nd TpeEuu crriiv dYKaXrjv crou, 
Me juaTi (3Xemju cpXoYepo 

Td crrf\Qr) crou, Td KaXXrj aou. 
17 



254 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Ze pXerrw, kouw kou yuxpoc; 

Ibpubg jue irepixuveTai, 
lav cpuXXo Tpejuw, juvriaK' ibxpog, 
K' f\ opaais juou aPnveiai. 

Mou Tridvex' i] dvaTrvori, 
To CTOjaa jlioO Hnpctivexai, 

K' f| f\(uaaa juou jue beveiat. 

10. GdXaaaa. 
( 9 HXia S Tai/TaXiSrjs, of Constantinople, 1818-1876) 

*Av ncrouv, OaXaaaa, Kpaai, 
*Q! tot€ ti bouXeid XP U( ? ] V- 

Kovia aou 6d Tcaaxiauu 

To (Xttiti |liou vd Kiiauu, 
Kai vd jaeGuu Kai vd |ueGuj, 
•Xwpic; Troxe vd papeGw, 

Nd ttivuj Kai vd irivw 

Tov dqppiajuevov oivo. 

*Av ricrouv, GaXaaaa, Kpaai, 
Tujovti ti bouXeid XP u(T n' 

Zdv dXKUibv biKrj aou 

Nd ipaXXw cnrriv dKtr| aou, 
Nd jLie KTUTra KaGe jSpabeid 
Ko|navTapia<; jnupiubid, 

Kai jueGrj vd dpxify 

Nd \xe diroKOtjuilri * 

*Av naouv, OaXaaaa, Kpaai, 
Ti tux*!, Ti bouXeid XP u(J n- 

N' aKOiiuu vd acpupi£r]c; 

Ki dcppou^ KpaaioO v' dqppKijs, 
K' kei vd TpcbT^ Ta (parid 
Me ir|v Kpaaevia aou juaYid, 

Kai to vepo ttoO ttivuj 

Kpaai vd eiv' k' eKeivo. 

*Av 1'iaouv, GaXaaaa, Kpaai, 
Gee juou, t'i bouXeid XP UCT H- 



TEXTS 255 

Eiq to Kpaoi eTrdvw 

TaEibia vd Kavai. 
Nd koXuju(3w Kai vd Poutuj 
Kai vd (Te ttivuj evTauTw, 

K' f\ vd (T€ ttiuj vd (TKdauu, 

*H me jue vd xopTdaw. 

11. Pobov Kai xopidpi. 
(rcwpyios ZaXaKworas, of Syrracos in Epirus, 1805-1858) 

"Eva XouXoubt, ottou Kupxo tov fjXio aKoXouGoucre, 
("HXtog ^XeyouvTav Kt auTo) 
Ei£ evav Kf)Trov cpouvTUJTO 
TpiavTacpuXXid dYaTroucre. 

„*EXa vd yivwjue Ta buo Zieuydpi Taipiao~|Lievo, 
"EXa, TpiavTacpuXXid xP u(yi H? 
RaTi euxai jnupcubdiT] ecu 
K' efd) Kajuapuujuevo." 

„Xdjrra, XouXoubi du.upiCTo, XouXoubi X^Pk X^P 1 / 4 
c 'Eva dribovaKi too juiXa* 
„T6 pobo ttoO jLAocrxopoXa, 
Aev jLiotdZiei crro xopTapi." 

12. NeKpiKr] d)br\. 
('ApioroTeXifjs BaXacjpiTT]s, of Leucas, 1824-1879) 

Tf]V afr[r\ jue tv] bpocrouXa &;ecpuTpujcr' eva pobo, 
Tfjv auTn jue if] bpocouXa ejuapdGriKe to pobo! 
Tid |uidv dvoi£i juovdxa end Treprjcpava KXapid tou 
'ETpaYoubrja'e t' dr^bovi, eKajue Kai ty\ cpuuXid tou . ♦ . 
Zdv r\ dvoiHi Yupitfri Kai t j drjbovi ad Yupiari, 
Tr\ cpuuXtd tou rroO 0d aTr\ar) ; . . 

"OTav e'PYotive f] aeXrivrj, OTav e^Yawav t' acrepia, 
Me dYarrri to eGuupoucxav, tou dirXuivave Ta x^P ia - 
Zdv vd rjGeXav exe! errdvuu vd to rrdpouv to Katijuevo, 
"EXeYav ttujs eiv' dbepcpi, eXeYav ttujc; TrXavrjuivo 
T' oupavou to juovorraTi t' opcpavo Gd efye x a crei. 
"'Qx- acnrepia! dux darepia! YPHYOpa trou Gd adq cpGdarj! 



256 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

KotTioioi ttoO fjKOucrav t' drjbovi ctto KXapi tou vd XaXiJ, 
Eiirav bev eivai xpaxoubi, juoipoXoYi civ' £k€i . . . 
Ki ocroi eibav xok; aKfivas tujv dcrrepuuv t' oupavoO 
Nd yeXovv vd Trarfvibi£ouv jue Td qpuXXa toO opcpavou, 
Eijrave Td qpaiTa eKeiva dx! bev eivai Tfjs x a Pd<5, 
Emav oti eivai td cpuuta veKpnajs Kepobocxds. 

Tr]V aupi H-e if] bpocrouXa ££eqpuTpuja' £va pobo, 
Trjv carpf] jue xf] bpocrouXa IjuapdGrjKe to pobo ! 

Mfjv enepacrev iKeiGev 6 Bopids 6 TraYtujuevos 
Kai o"dv eibe tetoio pobo 6 tfKXripos epurreuivos, 

c Ap7raEe tx] juupwbid tou 

Kai Tf]V TTfjpe crrd qrrepd tou ; . . . 

Tocrov eivai juapajuevo Kai Td cpuXXa tou ?x ei dxvd, 
'Ottou \kq oti Yid xpovoug tx)<; auTouXa^ r\ bpoad 
Aev to dbpocriae to juaupo. Toaov eivai TriKpajuevo, 
'Ottou Xeq oti eTTavoj ae Kopua aa(3aviuuivo 

Kdrroio x^P 1 to efye crrricrei 

NeKpucd vd to cTToXiar]. 

Tf]V auYn jue ty\ bpoaouXa e£e(puTplJua' , 2va pobo 
Tf)v auYf] jue Tr| bpocrouXa ttu>s dxdGriKe to pobo; 

Aev to Heupuu ! . . Kdjroios erne, oti eiyes to Ppdbu ppdbu 
Elbe Kairoiove vd cpeuYq tfdv KaTrvos jue tov dyepa. 
T d'XoYO tou t\to jaaupo adv if\<; vuxTa$ to tfKOTabi 

K' eXaqppo crdv tov aiGepa, 
Eiq to x^P 1 ?ov epaarouo'e dxajuvo EeYuu.vuuu.evo 

''Eva pobo u.apa|uevo. 
"OTav ecpeuye didouGujVTas toO ireXdou TfjV d'Kpr] aKpri, 

"Ax! bev ?x uv ' £' vot baKpu, 
Movov ?XeY€ ctto Kujaa, ttoO tov pXeirei Kai TpajSeieTai, 

„Kuu.aTd u-ou, emere, emere, 
Aev eiv' ojuopqpo to pobo;" Movov Xerei ato xopTapi, 

TToO uTtOKaTuj arc' to Tiobdpi 
Tou dXoYOu tou TreGaiver „Aev eiju' dHioq k' tf\b 

TeTOio pobo vd qpopu);" 
TeTOia poba Kai tou Xdpou Kdvouv cijuopcpa Td crrriQia. 

Eivai dXrjGeia, eiv' dXrjGeia! 



TEXTS 257 

13. e H fiapKovXa. 
OlouXios TuirdXSos, of Ccphallenia, 1814-18S3) 

EuTrva tXukckx |u' d*fdTrn, 

K' f] vuxxa eivai paGetd. 
KotjadTai oX' f) qpOmg, 

K' eiv' oXa criumrjXd. 

Movov t' dxvo qpeTTdpi, 

TToO adv djue dYpUTrvqc, 
Mea' ctt' oupavou dpiueviCei 

Trjv fjcruxn epruuid. 

*Av judg xvjpilri Tuupa 

Mid GeXn.cri cn<Xr]pr|, 
Midv dKpav Yns Gd 'ppoujue 

Nd Zrjcxijujue juaZ!i. 

EuTrva T^uKeid jaou dxdTrri, 

K' x] vuxxa eivai paGetd 
Mas Kapiepd f] papxoOXa 

XtT)v aKpoGaXaacnd. 

K' evw to cpeYrapdKi 

Tou$ cpeYiei euairXaxviKO, 
Me judna oaKpudjueva 

To xaipeToOv k' oi ouo. 

14. e O KXecping. 
(* AXe'Jay&pos P. PayKaP^s, of Constantinople, 1810-1892) 
Maup' eiv' r\ vuKia aid Pouvd, 

Xtouc; Ppdxouc; TreqpTei x i 6vr 
Zxd aTpia, ord CKOieivd, 
Ireij Tpaxe<g TreTpes, aid cnrevd 
*0 KXeqpTri<s EearraGwvet. 

Tto oeS x^pi to tujuvo 

Baaia dcrrpoTreXeKr 
TTaXdii e'xei to pouvo, 
Kai CKerracrjLia tov oupavo, 

K' £Xrriba to tou<P€ki. 



258 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Oeirfouv oi xupavvoi x^w|itoi 

To |LiaOpo tou |uaxaipr 
M' iopuuia Ppt'x^i to vywjui, 
Eepei vd £r|CTr) jue Tt|urj, 

Kai vd ireGdvri Hepei. 

Tov kooV 6 boXos bioiKet, 

K' f\ oEoik' eijuapjaevrj • 
Td TrXouTrj £x ouv ° Cl xaKoi, 
K' ibd) axous Ppdxou$ KaTOiKeT 

C H dperr] KpuiujuevT]. 

MeTdXoi e'jUTTopoi ttwXouv 

Td lQvr\ crdv Korrdoia* 
Trjv Tflv irpooioouv Kai tc^ouv, 
'Eb' ojuiug dpjaaxa XaXoOv 

Zt' dirdTTiTa Xorpcdoia. 

TTriYaive, <P^<* Trjv TTOoid 

TToO boOXoi TrpocTKUvoOve' 
'Ebw crxd Tipdaiva KXabid 
Mov' to airaGi tous Td Tiaibtd 

Kai tov cnraupov (piXouve. 

Mr|Tepa, KXaig! Avaxwpur 

Nd jn' evxnQ^ Yupeuw • 
"Eva iraibi ae ucrxepuu, 
"Ojuuu? vd Zy\Gvj bev jurropuj, 

r Av £uj fid vd bouXeuw. 

Mr) KXanre, jadxia YaXavd, 
OwaTfjpes itou dpecrw* 
To bdKpuov Ga<; jue irXava. 
'EXeuOepog Cw tfTd (Souvd 
* K' £Xeu9epoc; Od Treaw. 

Bapeid (tapeid PotZ' rj yf\ 

"Eva xouqpeia ireqpTei. 
TTavToO Tpojudpa Kai aqpayri, 
'Ebw qpup], dKe! TrXriYH ! . . 

'EaKOTwcrav tov KXeqpTr]. 



TEXTS .259 

Zuvtpocpoi d'cJKeTTOi, izeloi 

Tov cpepvouv XuTrrjjuevoi 
Kai rpaTOuboOv 0X01 |ua£r 
j/EXeuGepog 6 KXeqmic; £fj, 

K' dXeu0epos ireSaivei." 

15. To 6pcpavo xfj g Kpnxn^ 1 ). 
fAxiXXcug napdoxos, of Kauplia, 1833-1895) 
"Eva TiaibdKi errpoxOes crdv Kpivo juapajuevo, 
Eiq eva bpojuo ctkotcivo, 
s EKUTTaZ!e tov oupavo 
Me jnctTi baKpuajaevo. 

MaOpa qpopouat to tttwxo k' ckcTvo ffdv £jueva 
K' e?xe Trjv oijn OXtpeprj. 
TTuu<s ctTaTruu ottoiov cpopeT 
'EvbujuaTa 9Xi|U|ueva! 

MoaxopoXoOcre dpxovnd, ki aq ?\tov Tujuviujievo. 
5 AK6)Lia xdlq jLiecr' <jty\ qpwXtd, 
ZTflq )udvva^ xou Trjv dTKaXid 
TTeToOcre to Karuuevo. 

"Ojauj^ ToucpeKia ppovTrjcrav <TTr|v Kpiynrv juidv f|juepa* 
Tou tttip' dyepi tx\ cptuXid, 
Tf] jadvva ToupKOu mcFToXid, 
K' r\ jadxri tov iraTepa. 

'AjLiiXrjTo Kai a'KiiGpiUTtd to bdKpu tou KpaToOae 
Ki cmXujve x^P 1 l** evTpoTrr) * 
"Ojuuug bev f)0eXe va ^ 
To |naOpo, Trujg TretvoOae. 

"Ax! OTtoioq 6ev eTreivatfe, „tt£ivu>" ttot£ bev \e(ev 
Aev tov dcprivouv oi Xirfnoi* 
KuTTdZiei juovov to ipuujLii 

Atto juaKpeid Kai KXaiyei . . . 

Trr\v dTKaXid jaou to 'paXa jue ttovo to Kan,uevo 
Kat tou '5u)Ka TTiKpo cpiXi* 
''Ojnujg auTO ti wcpeXei 
Zto ?pr||uo to Hevo; 

l ) Composed on the occasion of the insurrection in Crete, 1867. 



260 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

l~i& touto crnjuepa k' £yw Td x^pta pou otauptuviu, 
Ki on y\& |ueva bev Zt|tuj, 
IV auxo yupeuuj kcxi y\* auTO 
TTovou cpuuvrjv uipubvuh 



MrjT€pe<;! 6ttou ex eTe Traibtd euTUXicxjueva 
Kai KaXocruvri arrjv Kapbid* 
ITeivouv tx\<z Kpr|Tri<S id Ttaibid 
Kai Kpuwvouv Td Karj|u£va! 



16. '0 navdpns- 

(A. K<5kkos, of Andritsena, 1856-1891) 

„TTdpT€ crracpuXia pa&xKtd, Trdpre yXuxd oraqpuXia . . ." 

— *Exuj pobireg TpaYavou^ id pobivd t\]<; xeiXia! 
^TTdpre YXiwd poodKiva, \xi peXoubevio xvoObo . . ." 

— "Exui id buo Trig juaYOuXa dTijLtriTO peXoubo ! 
^TTdpTe rrepipoXdpiKa Kai jneXajjueva auKa . . ." 

— Mavdprj, f\ dtdTrri juou eivai T^aTrj Y^Ka! 

17. e x<xpOKar]|uevos. 
(rcpdo-tfios MapKopas, of Cephallenia, b. 1826) 

"Evas eXijajuevog TroirjTrig eKurraZie juia juepa 
M£ pXejm)Lia Kpuo ty\ OdXacrcra, if\ ff\ Kai tov ai9£pa- 
T dvOia, to cpujg, Td KujuaTa xajuoYeXouaav, bi'xws 
N' dvoiSrj jaecra tou f) ipuxr) Kai vd TreTaErj 6 an'xos* 
TiaTi ]uia tootj dvaicrGrjCTid Kai Eivr\ XaOpa Totfn; 
5/rd qpuXXoKapbia 6 OdvaTog tov efye qpapjuaKdbaei. 
Aoto bev ipYave* jue juidg Trepicrtfia KaTePaivouv 
TTouXaKia wpaia Tprpjpiu tou Kai dbeXcpiKd tou Kpevouv 
v Ttx] aucpopd ttoO a' euprjKe, otov ttovo t\\<; vjjuxrj? crou, 
TTeToujuevo toO TTapvacrcou, t' aXXa TrouXid jLiijuncrou " 
AyKaXd TtecpTei Kai a' €jud<^ mKpo OavaTOu p6Xi, 
KiXaibiajuog aTeXeiuuTog eivai rj lvjr\ |uac; oXrj." 

18. EeviTeid. 

(ridL'vryjf Ka^nruoTfis, of Corona in Messenia, 1872-1901) 

*0 k6(T|lio<; ttoO b£v TrXdffTriKe (ruvTpipetai, 

K' eiv' 2pjuo to juuaXo jaou • 

["upiZw 6Xo00e ki dvwqpeXeuTa Yupi£w, 

TiaTi eijuai dir6£evo trouXi cpepjuevo dtro dXXov koctmo. 



TEXTS 261 

YeXvuu ipcrroubi dYvtupicrro, 

KctTTOia oXojtiovaxri ipuxn vet auYKivrimu, 

Ki dvTiXaXdei \xk jiieva 6 ttoOos 1% ocfanY\q 

Atto xrj YnS dvaKOutfTos dirdvou end cpeiYdpta. 

Eijucu to diToSevo ttouXi Kdiroiou dXXou koct^ou, 

TToio^ Hepei ttuis &b\h dTTOTrXavnjuevo. 

Me cycpiYY€i 6Xo09€ f\ Sevrreid, 

Ki ottou biapui ki ottou cTTaGui, be PpitfKW juid Traipiba. 

19. TpaYOubdKi. 

('lutfmjs nairaSiajjianroTrouXo?, known as a French poet under the 
pseudonym Jean Moreas, of Athens, 1856-1910) 

"Ottou crraGuj, ottou Yupiffw, 
Ztov koctjlio f| Gtt\v epr)juid, 
TTaviou Kai irdvia 0' dvTiKpuauu 
Trjv £b\Kr\ exou £uuYpacptd. 

BXtTTUj Td |uaupa Td juaXXid crou 
Mea' ctto (TKoidbi to paGu, 
BXeiruj ty\ qpXoYepn naTid crou 
Ztou f]Xiou if] cpeYYofioXiV 

Td axf\d\a crou Td xiov\G\xLva 
ZTf]v dvGicrjLievri |uuYbaXid, 
Zxd poba xd juiaavotYjueva 
Td x^H crou Td bpoo"€pd* 

BpfaKuu tt)v dboXr) Trvorj crou 
Eic; to Gujadpi tou fiouvou, 
Akouw Trj YXuKeid cpiuvri crou 
Eic; to TpaYoubi tou dr|bovioG. 

"Ax, Kai cttou Tdqpou jr\q to x&M * 
C H TTOvejaevr] juou ipuxn 
0d dveipeueTai dKOjaa 
Tf)v oipi oov Trjv Tpuqpeprj. 

20. Ttx] pejuaTid. 

(Tcwpyios Apoo-ii/Y)s, of Missolonghi, b. in Athens, 1859) 
*EXa, Trap' to luovoTrdTi 
OappeTd, YopYd Kai juovr) 
Kai |H€ TTOvnptd TrepTTaTei, 



262 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Mr) tfe voiubaouv oi t^itovoi. 
Meo*' orrj pejuaTtd, ttoO Tpexei 
Xputfo cpibi TO V€p6 
Kai xvoubdroug Ppdxous Ppexei, 
*EXa Kai ok Kapiepuu. 

KdTiu £k€i ttoO xd TrXaidvta 
M£ Gecuponra KXapid 
Zuvvecptd£ouv Td oupdvia 
Kai toO f)Xtou tx] Guupid, 
TTou Kai juecr' cfxo KaXomipi 
Xopxo oXobpoao exet Pt^i 
Kai cpucra yXiwd t' dyept, 
Ze TrpocTjueviu air' xrjv au^t'i. 

"EX' dTdirr) juou, eKei Trepa 
MaKpei' duo xo x^pio |uaq, 
Nd Tcepdo'ujjue juid juepa 
'AXriajaovrixriv oi buo juaq* 
"EXa dKei Kai tfe TTpoajuevuu 
Ze |itdv aKprj ZrjXeuxri, 
TTou bev pXeirei ludxi Eevo, 
Aev aKOtiet Eevo aim. 

*Oxi, be 9d Eecrxo|uio"uj 
Aoyi' ayaur^ TTOve^evrjs, 
"EXa Kai be 9d baKputfiu, 
"Oao £.oi) KovTa juou juevetg. 
KaGuug OeXeiq, eKei Trepa 
0d 'ju ai TrdvTa xapwTroq, 
"Ottou 0d ppabudarj f] juepa, 
Kai be 9d xo voiujcrrjs Trwq. 

*Av ireivas, be 0d a' aqpnauu 
NrjaxiKr], KaarravojudTa. 
Zdv uouXi 9d ae TaTcruu 
MaOpa juoup' dno Td (3aTa. 
Kt dv tuxov irdXi biipdcrr]^ 
K' exeis cTTOjua cpXoYepo, 
0d crou cpepw vd xopTdcrrj^ 
Zt^ 7raXdjue<; juou vepo. 



TEXTS 263 

Ki dv vu(JTd£ris, 9a aoO orpubcruj 
ZTpujjua juaXaKO Gir\ qpTepr), 
Ki ajua KoijurjGfis, 9' arrXibaiJU 
Zto KecpdXi crou to x^P 1 ? 
Trig dTdTrn^ to crreqpdvi 
Nd crou pdXuu, uTrvapou, 
TToO Nepdibes to \ovv Kdvei 
Atto t' dv9r| tou vepou. 

21. C H uaTepvfi juaTid Trjq. 

(Kdxrrfjs naXap.as, of Missolonghi, b. 1859) 
"Orav f] boXia f] (udvva juou tov koctjlio TraparroOcre, 
M' enfyfav k' tfovajiaa, jutKpo ttouXi, jLiTrpoCTd xrj^, 
Tf)v TeXeuTaia tx]<; in/of] 6 Xdpo$ £pocpou<rc, 
K' 2jLieve jliovo GXipepri, crdv KdTi vd £r|ToOo"e, 
C H uGTepvfj naTtd Tr|$. 

Nd <y$r\Gri bev tr\v deprive ad cpuus &no KavTr^Xt, 
TTpOToO tx\<; eupr) juid cpwXtd vd jLioid^rj Tf) qpiuXtd TriS- 
Z' d'XXri KavtrjXa f|6e\e to yvjq ty\<; vd to crreiXr], 
Kai r]p6e juecr' crTd judTta jliou Kai trdXi v' dvaTeiXr) 
f H uaTepvf) |uaTtd t\}<;. 

Kai duo tote oti Giupuj Kai a' on CTajuaTrjcruj 
To Koupaajuevo pfj|ua jliou, mKpfiq Cuufjq fciapdTrjq, 
Zd judvva 6d t' aYKaXiaaGw Kai 0d to aYairriauj, 
TiaT' eivat jaecr' CTa juaTta jliou, ocfo vd Eeqnjxnaiju, 
e H uarepvr) juaTtd Tr|<^. 

22. AGflvat. 1 ) 
( J lu>dj>er]s rioXefXTfjs, of Andros, b. 1862) 

Trrv uipa ottou xpuaoqpwTos 6 fjXioq (3aaiXeuei 
Kai x^veTai Trepnqpavog Cty\ fcuai, 

C H boHa^jxTr' tov Trapdfceiao dvGri x^wpd ju^euet, 

To jli€tlutt6 aou, AGrrva, vd aToXiarj. 

Kai Td aKopiri£ei 6XoYupa <jto oupdvio aou KecpdXt 
Kai TTpog tov TTapGevwva KaTe(3aivet 

Kai pXerrei Ta auvTptjujwa crou ki dvaYaXXid£ei rrdXt, 
TTaTpiba juou, AGrrva boEaajuevrj! 

*) The literary form. 



264 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Ki 6 kogixoc, pXeTrei t' avBrj aou, jud 6 voug tou bev id cpGdvei 

Kai cruvvecpa ttu>c; eivai Td vojuilei, 
Kai bev mateuei ttujc; Guupei t' avGoirXeKTO cnecpdvi, 

TTou \] A6£a KdOe ppdbu croO xapilex. 

23. XiiTiuai 1 ) 7T0ir|TiKfi^ dbuvajuia^. 
( s ApioTO|A^Tjs ripopcXeyYtos, b. 1850 in Siphnos) 

Heiipuj TTOTajLiia ttou kuXouv ireprjcpava ki &<ppi£ouv 

Kai |uecr' end bidepava vepd tujv, 
Td faKava oupdvia, tr\v TtXdai KaGpeqrriZouv, 
Ki o0e irepvouv, juaYeuouve jae to jaoupjuoupicrjad tuuv. 

Md I£acpva to peOjua tujv YKpepiZeTai Kai rrdei 

KdTU) ae x«^«pa paGeid Kai md o~to cpuic; bev Privet. 

ZTd TdpTapa rixoXoTd, pOYT$ ^ai Tpayoubdei, 

Xdv dXXou kocjliou juouaiKn,. TTou Taxa vd irr|Yaivri; 

"Etcfi Kai to Tpayoubi juou, ttoO eixev dvappucfei 

Att' ty\v Kapbid juou ujadv ppuat, 
Zdcpvu) KaTax^JVidcTTriKe, dveXiriaTa IxaQr] 
XtoO crrr)9ouc; juou Td TpiafJaGa, aKOT€iviatf|ueva pdGrj. 

5 Ek6i aKOuaj /LioucTiKn, IkcT Tpafoubia voiujGuj 

TXuKd, oupdvia, juayejueva, 
Kai jli' oXo tov eyKapbio, tov cpXorepo juou ttoGo, 
"Ax, vd SeGdipuu bev |UTT0pa) Tparoubi |uou Kaveva. 

TToid buvajuiq, rroid^ ludficrcrac; Gd Td XuTpuucrr] x^pi 

Att' TX\q Kapbidc; |uou Td cTKOTabia, 
Nd fXuKojuoupjuoupicrouve |ue t' oupavoG t' dyepi 
Kai cfTfjq Zuufjq Td cpcuTepd vd Tpe£ouve XayKabia; 

ATaTTTi, ttou adv Muuufffjc; dvoiyeic; (3puo~i Kpua 

Kai oV aKapTTO XiGdpi aKOjua, 
TToO Kai to ttio KaKoqpuuvo £cru juavGdvet<s tfTOjua 
"Hxou<s vd PpicTKi ( i Tpucpepoug, vd river] dpjuovia! 

ATaTrrj TravTobuvajui, o*u t?iv Kapbid juou aeicre, 

Td TieTpiva TiXeupd ty]<; axice, 
N' dvoiEouv djueTpes TrriYec; k' eKeiGe vd Tinbricrr] 
Tou Tpayoubiou juou 6 iroTajuoq Ti]v TrXdai vd cpiXi'icrr). 

l ) Form of the literary language for oriy/ie'r. 



TEXTS 265 

24. "Oveipo. 
(iTuXiayds Xpucro/idMTjs, of Argostoli in Cephallenia) 

Elba rroupvo o"' eV 6'veipo, oTaX|uevo 
Atto KdTrota ipuxn ttoO jli' aYaTrdei, 
"Evav oEtt^X' wpaio, xapmjujuevo, 
Zto Kpeppdn juou dvriKpu v' dKoujLmdr]* 

„Ei,uai 6 Gdvaxog", jlioO eirre, „Kai Ttpocrjuevuu, 
'AcpoO Toao f] Kapbid aov to fryrdei, 
Nd ere rrdpw air' tov koctjlio to BXijujuevo 
Xt' dcrrepia ottou f] x«pd nxoXoYaei. 

Nai, 0d croO bwoui £va cptXi ato arojua, 

Toao y^ko, ttoO TeXeia jLiaYejuevrj 

'H vpuxn o"ou 0d. cpuyr] arco to awjua." 

"ECKuipe, ajua eme airrd, vd jue qpiXiicT^ * 
Eurrvricra, drijue! . . . Tdbpa 6 KarjjLioq juou jaevei, 
TToO dcpiXrjTO to orojua jnoxei deprjaet. 

25. MaxatoboEia. 
("EpiioKas, pseudonym for rieTpos BXaoros, b. 1879 in India) 

Mecr' crrriv Kapbid juou Kurra£a Kai Mebouaa rcavujpia 
EavTiKpucra, ttoO juaYicrcrac; aYeXaara Kai Kpua 
MaTia dpYOO"d\€U6. "AXiKa Td x^iXia ths YvaXiCav 
K' uYP<ij era odYKajua epurra vd Td 'xe jaaTUJjueva. 

Ki oti KaXo e?xa jueaa jliou, Trpd£es a^vec; k' \bee<; 
Kai GOjuriaeg TraibiaTiKeg ki dYarreg Kai XaTpeia 
Tf\<; ojuopcpid^, ir\<; m 'biva jut' aYYapejaeva x^P ia i 
Trfe Td 'biva, Kai to 0epi6 Td HecTKiO'e pouqpwvTas 

Xdv afjua 0eia^ rjbovfjs drr' t' dvoixTd tou^ cnrXdxva. 
Ki dcpaYavrj ocro (TrrdpaZe, tocfo k' f\ djuopepid ir\<; 
'ApYaTiEe ki aKpdvorfe to orojua Yaupiacrjuevri. 

Kai oxXdpou jaou 7 p8e mGujuid, vd jurropeYa vd ttviEuj 
Mecr' arriv Kapbid juou Kei (3a8eid Trjv drrovT] ir\ XTpiYXa, 
TToO rf\<; Zwf\<; juou to xupo TupavviKa arepeuet. 



266 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

b. Prose. 

1. Xajuevot \6fict 1 ). 

(Jean Psichari [¥ux<*Pn<L I 888 -) 

KdoroTes ju' gpxeiai 2 ) vd cpuuvd£w buvaid, ttou 3 ) o\og 6 
^Koaixoq- va~ ju-aKOucrri • „Mrj! jar] ! \jly\\ \xr\ xctXvdie rr\ YMucrcra 4 )! 
KaraorpecpeTe Tfjv dpxaia Kai xf] vea \xali GeXeie ^Xwaaa ttou 
vd juoidfr] tovti^ jue Tf)v dpxaia, ttou vd eivai f) i'bia YXwcrcra; 
TTdpTe xr) Ykwcrcra tou Xaou. OeXeTe £evr| TXuuacra; TTapxe xrjv 
KaGapepouaa- 0d beiEr) a' oXo tov koctjlio, ttoO 5 ) tovtic; xdGr|Ke r\ 
dpxaia. GeXeTe vd TraiHeTe; GeXeie vocni|udbes, x^paidbec; K( *i 
Kwjuiubiec; ; Toieg vd Ypdcpeie ifjv KaGapeftoucra ! GeXeie eiriarrijuri, 
kotto Kai |ud9r|(Tr|; GeXeie vd Tridaeie o"o(3apr) bouXetd; Nd Ypd- 
cpeie T\]V eGvixri crag f\wo<sa. 'Atto rr)v aTTOCpacrri (Tag, Od cpavfj 
qv eiaie f| dvipes ?| Tratbid. 

'Acpricne Trjv ipecpiojudGritTri? T1 l v ipecprocTocpfa, tou^ crujupi- 
pacxiuou^ Kai tov<; bacncaXous. Mrjv TTtOTepeie ocra Xev 6 ), ttou 5 ) 
^ PaGjurjbov 7 ) r) *f\(bG(Sa 0d KaXriiepeipr) Kai ttou 0d YPdcpoujue 
juid |aepa crdv tov Zevocpwvia. Movo ttou otiq Xeei Kavetq leioio 
Xoyo, crdc; beixiei ttou 5 ) bev KaidXape aKojuri jurjie ti eivai Zevo- 
cpaivTag 8 ) jurjTe Tt 0d Trfj yXtijoaa. BaG]ur|b6v 7 ) Eepeie ti 0d 
Yivr); 0d x a ®§ fl £0viKri juag yXwaaa Kai Gdcpavt'creTe tt\v dpxaia. 
Ti jue |ueXei ttou 0u|uwveTe iwpa ja' ocrouq crag jaiXouv eicTi; Mtd 
juepa 0d KaiaXdfteie oi ibioi to KaKO ttoO judg KdjueTe 9 ) 6'Xouq* 0d 
KXahe Kai 0d XuTrdaie Kai be Gd jUTropfjie md vd btop0wcreTe to 
Xd0o£ cra^ 10 ). "Ax! ti pdcravo ttou eivai vd pXe-rrri Kaveig tx\v akr\- 
Geia Kai vd junv jUTropfj vd xr) beiEr) cttou£ dXXoug! 

Mr)v Td GeXeTe 6'Xa jutcrd. 'AjudGeia Kai Trepricpdveia eras 
ecpepav 11 ) tctoio koko* Treprjcpdveia, yioiti 12 ) GeXei 6 KaGeva^ vd 
cpavTaEr) Kai'vd jurjv eivai crdv to Xao* djudGeia, y^ti KaTavTrjcraiue 
vd jurjv £epou|ue tx\ YXwcrtra tou Xaou, yioiti ToXiurjaav 13 ) oi baCKaXoi 
vd Ppiaouv 14 ) 6'Xo to £Gvo$ Kai vd Trouve (3dpf3apri juioc YXuicrcra, 

a ) In regard to the author's orthography (which has been retained, 
see the Foreword) it should be particularly noticed that he writes the 
diphthongs ai>, ev according to the sound which follows, a<f) e<£ or a/3 <$. 
The alterations in the second edition (1905) are given in the following 
footnotes, the orthographical changes only in the lirst instance in which 
they are found. 2 ) fiov tpxerai. 3 ) nov. 4 ) -yXoxro-a. 5 ) 7ra>s. 6 ) XcVe. 
r ) (3a9fir)86. 8 ) EevocfravTCis. 9 ) /ca/xare. 10 ) to kcik6 instead of to X. (?, 

n ) (pepave. 12 ) ytari. 13 ) To^firja-ave, 14 ) ftplo-ovve. 



TEXTS 267 

7tou bev Tr| cnroubaEav 15 ) dKOjur). AcpTf) fj YXuxTcra ojuu>g imdpxer 
jUTropeixe vet irjv Kd|ueTe KO|U|udTia* Kaveig be 0a judg xrj oriKducrri. 
Me Kavevav Tporro b£ Gd YvpicTfl menu f\ dpxaia. Oi tcrropiKoi 
v6|uoi yid crag b& GdXXdHouv 16 ). ToO KaKou ppiZieie Tr|v e6vu<r| 
juag f\{jjaaa Kai jy\ Xere TrpoaTuxr), Kai KajuObveaie Tiuug jurjie Hepere 
ti eivai, Kai TroXe|udTe vd |udg beiEere, ttou 5 ) juiXeire ir|V dpxaia, 
ttoO 5 ) f) dpxaia aKOjurj Zi}. 

TToTeg, oxi! TcoTeg be Gd Kaiueie tov kocfjlio vd adg Tncrreipri. 
Tou KaKou TpdqpeTe YpajujuaTiKeg ix\q Ka6uu|uiXri|uevr|g Kai (3d£exe 
luecra oXrj xr|V dpxaia YpajujuaTiKri, TTepnroauXXapa, uTrepauvTeXiKOug 
Kai |LieT0xe<g, ucrrepa ludXiara x«piZ!eTe Ta piflXia o~ag oroug Sevoug, 
Taxang Tid vd crag Ka|uapubaouv 17 ). TTavra Gd crag KaxabiKacrr] f\ 
eTTicrxriiLiri k' f) opGrj Kpicrrj. TTdvia Kdrrou Gd PpeGr) £vag vd o~dg 
to Trri — ki 18 ) av TrdXe be ppeGf), bev Treipd£ei! C H dXr)Geta Gd 
jneivri dXrjGeia. e H dXr|Geia, pd vd {mdpxq, bev ?x €l dvayKii |ur|Te 
vd Tf| bioOjue 19 ), lurjxe |udXicrra vd £epou|ue xrjv uTcapErj Trig. C H dXrj- 
Geia 20 ) luoidZiei jue Ta |uaKpivd TacTTpa 21 ) ttoO be qpaivouvTai juecra 
crrov oupavo, ki 22 ) dig tocto Xdjurrouv 23 ) 6Xo|u6vaxa, ki ag jur)v Td 
pXeirr] Kavevag! 

e H Kapbid juou TioveT vd (Tag aKouuu ! To x a ^ °" a< » GeXexe* 
to KaKO aag "fupefteTe |u6vo. ^Av r)£epav 24 ) oi bacncdXoi Trjv dpxaia 
jue Ta GwOTa Toug, be Gd TroXejuoOcrav 25 ) KaGe ulpa vd jadg beiEouv 26 ) 
Trojg Trjv Sepouv 27 ) Kai Gdypacpav 28 ) tttj brjjuoTucri, depou k' oi dp- 
Xaioi oi i'bioi ^Ypacpav 29 ) ty\ brj)LiOTiKr| Toug YXwacra. Me Tfjv ipeqpTO- 
YpajLijuaTiKri be qpTeidveTai yXaicrcra, be qpTeidveTai cpiXoXoyia. Ti 
Xoyia vd ppuu Tid vd jue TnoTeijjeTe ; XaXvdTe juid fXaicrcra ttoO 
eivai Grjcrappog yid Trjv eTnorrijur), ttou Gd o~dg boEdcrr] crrov kocjuo. 
XaXvdTe juid YXujcrcra ttou juovrj Trig junopeT vd adg bducrr] juiot juepa 
eGviKri qpiXoXoyia, Troir|crr| Kai qprjiLiri, juid yX&OGa ttou Gd o"dg Kajnr] 
vd |uoid£eTe icruug Kai creig Toug dpxaioug. Mr|! Mrj! Mrj! a 

"Ax! Nd ei'juouv 30 ) KaTi Kai fiib! Nd juTropoucre Kaveig vd 
jli' aKo\3a^ ! 'AcpTo to KeqpdXaio vd juiropoOcrav 31 ) SXoi vd to bia- 
pdcrouv 32 ) — Kai vd jue tcio"t61|;ouv 33 )! Ti ZjjToGjue; to KaXo. Ti 
iroXejaoOjue; vd TrpoKOipti, vd jueTaXducrr] to eGvog. ''ETrpeTTe k' oi 
baaKaXoi vd eTvat juali juag. 'AcpTo GeXouv 34 ) Kai Keivor ag biouv 35 ) 

15 ) enrovbderave. 16 ) 6dXkd(ovv€. 17 ) Kaixapcacrovvc, 1S ) ki. 

19 ) /3X€7rovjU6. 20 ) KdnoTts added. 21 ) /i€ rdcrripia to. fiaicpiva. - 2 ) ki. 

23 ) Xdfinovve. 24 ) tjtpavt. 25 ) 7ro\ep.ov crave. 26 ) dctgovvc. 27 ) gepovve. 
28 ) 6a ypd<j)av€. 29 ) ypd<j)av€. 30 ) tifiovvc. 31 ) fnropovcrave. 32 ) hia- 
fidcrovve. 33 ) Trtcrre'^ouve. 34 ) Oekovve. 35 ) biovve. 



268 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

to Xoitto, jue ti ipoiTO 9d to KaTOp9wcrouv 36 ). *Aq Trdpouv 37 ) KaXr)- 
Tepo bpojuo. "Ax! vd ixaq eKa|uvav 38 ) TOuXdxioro juid Trap a - 
Xibpr\Gr\ m vd jarj Xev 39 ) TrpoaTuxn xrj TXuicrcra tou XaoO, vd 
judGouv 40 ) TeXoc; irdvTa ttou 41 ) 6 Xaog Kai jliovo^ 6 Xaog ?Kau.e 
Kai Kdjuvei 42 ) 6'Xec; t\<; fXuJcycye^ tou koctjliou. Toco ja' eqxrave 43 ) 
k\ dXXo be 9d ^rjToOcra. ToTeg be 0d |i' £jueXe fid. tittotis md 44 ) 
Kai 9d TTpocrjueva to 6dvaTO jli& x a P a - 

2. Td ovojuciTd juac;. 
('ApTV'PI? 'E^TaXitfmjs, 1890.) 

01 crcpayeg tujv Vapujv Kai Tf\q Xxoq eivai jiuKpobouXeie^ i\i- 
rrpos cTTrjv KaTacTTpocprjV ttoO ^Trecre crrd 6vou.aTa u.a<;, crdv dpxicre 
to £'9vo<; vd to aicrOdveTai, TTwq £avaYevvr|9r|Ke. f H ibea, ttujc; 0d 
Yupicroujue buo Tpei$ x i ^ ia ^ e ^ XP° V K* ttictuj Kai Od TrepTraToOjue 
juecra crrriv aYopd vd pujToOjae „XeYeTai ti Kaivov;" epi£op6Xn,o"e 
tocto ftaGeid cftttv Kapbid juag, ttou KaTavTn,cre crnjuepa vd XP €1( *- 
ZeTai TictTpiKO aujupouXio Yid vd \xdq f^Tpeipr)! 

"HTave jaeTaXr] i<ai ojuopcpn. ibea cnrov Kaipo Tn,<g, totcc; ttou 
&Ywvi£ou|aacrre Kai aepvajue oXov tov TroXmcrjaevo koctjuo KaTom 
jiia^, TictTi auTog bev f|£epe Trapd Td TraXtd juag, k' ev9oucna£ou- 
Tave vd pXeTTr] juid TeTOia jueYdXn, Kai Xajuirpd veKpavdaTacri. Oi 
ibeeg o|Liujq eivai auvveqpa Kai irepvouv, f] Eupiimri diro TOTeg &<; 
ecrrjiuepa dXXaHe a' eva TtToio paGjuo, ttoO Kai 6 Bupuavag, dKOjut] 
vd ZoOae, 9d judq ?Ypa<pe biaTpifJeq Yid Teg 9ewpies tou Aappivou, 
— k' £jue!s eirdBajLie to vootijuo tou Nacrpebbiv XoT£a jue to 
veqnr Ixou^e aKOjLiri ttoXu bpojuo vd -rrdpoujue! 

'Apxicrajae qpucriKd d-rro Td euKoXurrepa* arc' Td ovojaaTa, ki 
arc' tt| TXuJcrcra. I/rd ovojuaTa to KaTaqpepajue, Yid if) yXajaaa 
b£v eivai biKrj juou bouXeid vd to eHeTacruu. Md eKeivo ttou jue 
Kavei Kajuid qpopd vd x a MOT^Xu), ocro xo^^^^og ^ki av eijuai 
Yid rr\v KaTaaTpocpri ttou Y^Ke, eivai ttou Kavevoc; juag bev nX9e 
ctto voO tou vd cpopecrri k' eva Tpipwva! >X H Kdv vd Traipvr] k' 
eva XouTpo TTpiv KaGiZiri ctto cpayi tou! TeXog TravTuuv vd y!vi,i 
laidv ctpxn Kai vd Y^picrouv oXa Td iraXid, eibejuri ttuj^ 0d pa- 
CTTaxGrj Mid aTTiKT) YXwcrcra bixujq aTTiKn £wr)! 

Idv vd juiaojueTavoiuuvuj ttou to ema, y^ti juiropei vd to 
KaTaTTiaaTrj icavevag Kai touto ! 

36 ) KaropOacrovve. 87 ) 7rdpovve. 38 ) Kavavc 39 ) \4v€. 

40 ) fxaSovvc. 41 ) ircos. 42 ) kovu. 43 ) ftov etprave. 44 ) pod efxcXe 

ma yut nVora. 



TEXTS 269 

*As £XGoujue end ovojuara. 

OujuoOjuai aKojua adv r^XGe 6 irpaiTos ArijuoTtKos AdcjKaXog 
oro xwpio M a< 5- "Hiave KaXoq 6 Karijuevoc;, Kai \i&<; ?cpepe ttoX- 
Xec; KaXeq ibieq. Md$ ?Kajue Bif$XioGr|Kr|, \xdq ef$Ya£e TrepnraTO, 
judc; €|udGaive vd auXXoYi£ou|uaaTe |ue Teg epcuiricreig tou (Guu.oG- 
jnai aKOjua adv ja' epwTr|cre, av r|GeXa vd eijuai Aewvifcag f| 'EcpidX- 
tt|s, Kai eireibri to beirrepo jnoO cpdvrjKe ttXio KaivoupYio, tou enra 
„ 5 EcpidXTii<; a — ki aKOjua kokkivi'£u> crdv to cruXXoYoOjuai !), jud e?xe 
ki auTog jua£i jue 8Xt]v Trjv dvacXTr|u.evr| Puuu.iocxuvr| ir\v TreTpid 
tojv eXXrjviKuuv ovojudTuuv. Kai ti Td Gere, Trjv Ttpurrri u.epa ttou 
\xd<; u.d£eipe cTTrjv irapdbocri, judg KaTeaqpaEe oXouq ! "Otfa cpajuiXiKd 
ovojuaTa u.Tropoucrav vd „eEeXXrjvi(j0oOv", e£eXXr|vi<jGr|Kave. e O 
Kupiafrfjc; epve KupiaKoO, 6 KwaTavidpag KuuvaTavTivou, ki av 
flTave Kai Kavevag KaTrXdvofXoug, Gd YivouvTave ki auTog Aeov- 
Tifcrjc;. "Oaa TtdXi bev u.eTacppa£ouvTave, Td eppi£e oXa, <jdv dbiop- 
Gurra ottoO r|Tav, KaTiu aio XirapTiaTtKO pdpaGpo, Trfjpe Td pa- 
qpTiaTiKd tujv iraTepuuv juag, ?Py<x^ diro to aaKKi tou u.epiKe$ 
cpouxTiec; - 1 b r| ^ Kai -dbris, judg Td KoXXrjcre juid 'jLiopqptd, Kai 
jLiTToXiaaGrjKajae oXoi "EXXrivec; xwpi? vd to KaTaXd(3ouu.e ! 

AtiTd Y^vriKave cttov Kaipo u.ou Kai crro xwpio juou. Xt£<; 
TroXrreiec; juecra r^Tave rraXid bouXeid! Atto Trjv 'Erravda'Tacri Kai 
Tcpiv aKOjaa e?xe dpxicxei to qpoviKo. XiXidbeg cpajuiXiKd ovojuaTa 
TrfiTotv cxto KaXo, Kai iroXXoi ttou Yupeuave vd beiHouv cttov koctjuo, 
t! TraXio cTKapi eivai to 5ik6 jua^, bev f|GeXave vd Sepouve tov 

TraTTTTOO TOU$! 

Ajue Td KaGauTo, Td (tacpTiaTiKd ovojuaTa; eKeT bd T^vrjKe 
to |ueTdXo koko! e O Tidwrig, 6 ["iwpYOS, 6 KObcrTas, 6 Ar|jar|Tpig 
Kai Toaa d'XXa dYamuueva ovojuaTa eTifjpav Td pouvd k' ecpeirrave 
criYd aiYd Td Karju.eva, Kai cttov totto tou^ epxoiivTave adv jLieXCcr- 
cria oi AXKipidbribe^, oi TTepiKXfibeg Kai oi MicTTOKXfj&e^. KaGuu<£ 
pXerreTe, Y^P^otve oi Y^poi Kai oi YPi^g \xa<; vd Td dvGpwTTicrouv 
XiYaKi, jud toO KaKou! e O bd(JKaXo<; dcpflKe Toug Y^pouc; vd irpo- 
cpepouve jae Td Y^wcrcftKd opYava ttou Toug ?bajcTe 6 Geo^, Kai adv 
KaX6$ 5a|uacTTri^ Trfjpe cTTa x^P ia T0U Ta TTOti^ia ^ai fvixvale yu- 
jLivaZie, Toug jLiaXaKuucre ir\ YXOuacra, ttou adv cptuvdCoujiie TOupa an 1 ' 
to dTrdvuu TraTUj|ua Trjv MeXTrojuevri Kai Trjv Tepipixoprj, Tpexei to 
jueXi tou T|ur)TToO air' to cTTOjua \xaq. 

T! KaTaXd^ajue jue tt\v dXXaYH toutti, eivai y\a jueva juuaTii- 
pio. Ti exdcrajLie, bev eivai KaGoXou luuCTripio. 'Exdcra]ue dXXr) jatd 
Xapi tx\<; Y^uJcrcrag \xa<z, eKoqjajLie Kai KaTairaTricyaiae dXXo eva Xou- 
18 



270 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Xoubi Trig. "HGeXa vd Hepw, ti \ojf\q TpaYoubi Gd TpaYouboucrajue 
ere Kavevav 'EirajuetvOuvba, av ?KXecpTe Kajuidv Apcrivor) ! *H ae 
Kavevav EuGupouMbrj, av u.dg eVratpve ty\v TT6X1! 

*Ag |uirjv d7TeX7Ti£oujuacrre ojuuug. Kaveva Gavamo bev flXGe 
gtov koctjuo, ttou vd jufjv d(pf]Ke Kai |uepiKoug vd bir|Y»l0oOv ti cruv- 
epr|Ke. c Qg Kai drr' tov KaTaKXucrjuo ecriuGriKe evag NuJe. "Etch 
ki arc' Tfjv KaracTTpocpri Touirj eYXuTdbfjave Kai dvGoOv aKojua ttoX- 
Xeg oiKOxeveieq jue id yXuKa 6v6|naTa tujv TrarnToubiuv Toug. Att' 
auTOug TtpeTrei vd eXrn£ou|ue cruuiripia, airroi Gd judg qpepouv ttictuj 
Toug ridvvrjbeg juag Kai Teg Mapieg |uag. 

Auo Xoyia pot Toug Xiurreg* Toug TrpeTrei evag erraivog ebw 
Trepa. Airroi crdv ecpuyav' air' to buenruxo vrjeri Toug k' ecncopTri- 
crGrJKave OTfjv Hevueid, eTrfjpav buo rrpdiuaTa u.a£i Toug* Ta eiKO- 
voordena Toug Kai Ta ovojuaTa Toug. Atto Trj crcpayf) tou 1822 
bev eyXuTUJcrave, Trj crcpaYr) ojuiug tuuv bacnaiXujv juag Trj HecpuYave 
Kai juecr' crrd cmiTiKd Toug juocrxojuupi£ouv aKojua Ta vrjcFiumKa 
Toug ovojuaTa juaS jue to Xipdvi Toug. Aev Xerw mug bev ei'jua- 
crre k' ^jLieig xpumavoi* jud airroi exouv Kai XP l cmaviKd ovojuaTa. 

3. C H <t>umd Tf]g Xapdg. 

TTapajuuGi Tf)g TTpurroxpovidg. 

(reibpTio^ Apoaivn^, 1891) 

Itiiv Kpua Kai crKOTeivrj KaXufSa Trig Y^pva rricriu f\ djuoipr) 
XHpa jue GXipepo TrepTraTr]jua. 

AuTf) fj Trapau.ovr] fng TipujTOXpovidg, tocto x a P°ujuevr| j\a 
oXov tov Kocrjao, yi' ainrrjv juovov eivai Y^judTri Xurrri Kai crrevoxwpia. 

TTouGevd bev pprjKe bouXeid, outc TraprriYopid Kav, oirre eX- 
Triba. c/ OXoi Trig Xcfav ju ? eva crrojua: 

„Zdv Trepdcrrj 6 x^Mwvag." 

Zdv irepdarj 6 x^M^vag — rroO Gd irfj ae TpeTg jufiveg. 
Kai Toug TpeTg auTOug juaupoug jufjvag ttuus Gd Ziricr^ n biiaTuxn 
Xnpa, Ttujg Gd ^rjerouv Ta buo Trig opepavd! 

Ki OTav efupicre Kai KiiTTa^e rrdXi Ta buo rraibid Trig ^ju- 
rrpog axr\ crprjajLievn Y^vid, Kpuujjueva, vricriiKd, x^pig Kaveva Trpuj- 
ToxpoviaTiKo x^P 1 ^^} &£v epdaTaSe uXid ki dpxicrav vd Tpexouv 
ppoxn Td baKpua drr' Ta juaTia Trig. 

TaK! TaK! 

Aev eivai ri Gupa rroO ktuttoI; 3 'Oxi! TToiog 9d Knmd; ZTriv 
dKpri aun] Tfjg eprjjuidg, iroiog Gd eivai Taxa, jUTTpoard crTrjv Gupa 



TEXTS 271 

rfjc; KoiKojuoipias, ir)V uip' auir] ttoO xaipexai oXo$ 6 kocF|uoc; Kai 
?XOuv rravriYupi k' oi qmuxoTepoi; TToio<^ 0d KTUira; Od eivai, 
KaXe, 6 depa^ f\ Kaveva KaKocrrijuabo vuxtottouXi. Auto Gd uvea. 

Tok! TaK! raid 

EavaKTUTroOv rrdXi Kai ktuttouv Tujpcc buvaid, tocto buvaid, 
ttoO juktoEutcvoOv id buo opepavd Kai juitfavoiYOUv id judna jaoup- 
juoupi^oviag* 

„Mdvva, judvva!" 

Kai jue. juiaq dvoiYeiat f] Gupa Kai o*to KaiOuqpXi Trpo^aXXei 
evaq Y^pos jueYaXocTLujuo^ jue Kaxaaicpa yeveia KaTefSacrjueva aid 
<TTr|0r) tou. 

Kai jue jaid cpuuvrj xovbpf) Kai d'Ypia, ttoO rjro irepiacroTepo 
(popepa Ttapd DiTiaveia, Xeer 

,,Aer|]Liocyuvrij xP lcrTiav °i •" 

Zto x^Pi Kpaia eva x°vbpo paflbi, crrov ujjlio ?xei Kpe)ua- 
apevo eva craKKOuXi, Td pouxa tou eivai KOupeXiacrjueva Kai rrepi- 
TraTeT SuTToXuTog. 

„K6ma(Te, KaKOjuoipe," tou Xeei f\ x*1P a - ,A^ V ^Xw Trj bu- 
vajui vd a' eXerjaur |ud ebdb 6d Ppqc; TOuXdxicrrov XiYWTepo Kpuo 
Trapd eHuu, Kai jurropei^ vd KaGiarjc; vd HaTcocTTacrris juid CPrrfluri. 
korrtaae !" 

f O Y^pos ecfcpdXiae rrj Gupa Kai TrfJYe Kai KaQiae KovTd Gty] 
Ofi^GTY] Ywvid. 

„Aev eivai out' ebuj £ecmi, oihe cpeYY^ KaXd. Aev juTcopeic; 
v' dvaiprjc; eva bauXi;" 

„Aev e'xuu!" drroKpiveTai f\ x*lP°t. 

c O Y^po^ KTurra to x^jLia l& T o X ov bpo pa(3bi Kai KaTapae- 
Tar Td buo rraibid Euttvouv ki dvaTivd£ovTat u' dpGdvoiXTa uaTia. 

„Nd! a qpuuvd£ei to aYuupaKi, „eivai 6 TVfioc; BacriXiq." 

Kai to KopiTCTaKi drrXOuvei Td x^P l0t T0U KCtT( * T ® v T^po Kai 
tou x«MOYeXa cpuJvd£ovTac;• 

^KaXiiaTrepa, 'AYie BacriXi!" 

Kai Td buo ju' eva (TTOjua EavaXeve* 

„Ti xotpi^aTa judc; qpepveis, TVpe BacriXi;" 

c O Y^poq tfdv vd jarjv t j d'Koucre Y^pva Kai Xeei rr\<; x^ipas* 

„Aev Gd juou bubals TnroTe vd (paw Kai vd ttiuj ; u 

v Td iraibid juou £cpaYav arijuepa Trjv TeXeuTaia Y^vid tou 
ipuujLiioO, k' ej\h eiu.ai vr)0"TiKri diro x^S-" 

„TTou Gd Tiri bev ?x ei( S ^bib out€ ipuujui, out€ q)WTid, oi5t€ TirroTe;" 

v Jittot€, u drroKpiveTai r\ djuoipn Y^vaiKa. 



272 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 
c O Y^POS OY|KWVeTai, pi'X vei T0 0"CtKK0l3\l (TTOV UJJUO KOtl Tpa(3a 

Kara xfj Gupa KTUTruivTas kcctuu jue Gujuo to pafSbt tou. 

„Mdvva," qpujvd£ei to KopiTtfcki, „Yiari eivai Gujuwjuevoc; 6 
TVfios BaaiXis;" 

„Mdvva," cpuuvd£ei to drfwpdKi, „juitv dcprjvr]^ tov TVr/io BaaiXi 
vet cpirrr) erar." 

Kai Td buo ju' eva orojua £avaXeve* 

„[~id ^ibec;, bev u.dc; x«P l0 " e TtiroTe I a 

Kai Td buo Traibid KXaive k' f) buaruxri |Lidvva Td cpiXei Kai 
KXaiei juaCC. 

„reid tfou!" ppovTOcpuuva 6 Y£P°S (Xto KaTwcpXi xfj^ Gupag. 

„Mri cpeuYqc;, 'AYie BaoiXi, jur] cpeuYTic;," qpwvd£ouv Td buo 
Traibid. ,, 5 Eu.ei£ eijuaore Toao qppoviu.a. a 

„AXrj6eia," Xeei Kai f] xnp a > „eivai tocto qppovijua!" 

"ErreiTa YupvwvTac; KaTa to Y^po TrapaKAnriKd* 

,,MeTve, a tou Xeet OTfaXd, „jueive XrfdKi, jliovov ujc; ttou vd 
EavaKOijurjGoOv euxapiarr|]iieva, Kai vd ibouv or' oveipo tou$ tov 
c Ayio BacriXi. lav bev tou$ x a P^ ei ? TmoTe dXXo, xapio~£ tous to 
yXuko auTo oveipo. 

'EKeTvos eKOVTOO"Td9riKe" 

„MeTve," tou Xeei rrdXi f] xnp a i ^eive, K I #jua KOijurjGouv, 
Gd 0"" dvdifjw \ifx] (puma vd ZiearaGrjc;." 

„KaXd Xoittov !" drroKpiveTai 6 Y^po^. „Twpa ttou dpxi£ei£ 
vd Ytveaai arrXaxviKri, uevw." 

AeYovTa^ Td XoYia auTa dvacrepvei drr' tov Kopcpo tou eva 
juiKpo oraiuvaKi Kai KOVToZXiYwvei ard Traibid* 

„TTieTe to auTo jne juid^. Eivai d'Ypio Kai Gd Oaq TpUTrnar) 
to cTTOjudxt. Md uorepa Gd KOijurjGfiTe YXiwd Kai Gd ibflTe KaXd 
oveipa." 

Td Traibid rimav, f|Tnav dxopTao"Ta k' erceaav KaTUJ adv 
aipuxa jue yXuko x^MOY^o ord x € ^n* 

„T' eiV auTo;** epurra f) xnP a - 

,,TTie Kai au," aTTOKpiveTai 6 Yepos* „eivai paKi." 

TTivei, TTivei Kai f\ d,uoipri Ywaka Kai TreqpTei k' eKeivrj KaTU) 
crdv aipuxfy Me Y^uko xajuoYeXo o~Td x^M* 

K' eEaqpva GappeT, ttuj^ 6 jepoq £r)Tidvoc; eivai oV dXrjGivd 
6 TVpoc; BaaiXi^ Kai ttw£ T\\q Xeer • 

„Aqpou Kai au, ttou bev Ix^c; tittot€, f|GeXe<s vd u.' dXencrr)?, Gd 
a' eXeritfuu k' b(6) TtJupa. KuTTaEe ttujs Gd Zioucrav Ta Traibid crou, 
av bev epxojuouv ebiij, KurraHe Kai ttj ^uurj, ttou Gd Ttepdcrouv Tiupa. ct 



TEXTS 273 

Kai f) £uurj, ttou 9d Trepvoucrav Ta Traibid ir|£, tttov qpTuuxiKV) 
ki dTreXmcyjuevri. To aYwpi envoTave Tarceivoq bouXemric;- €Kepbi£e 
to v|juu|ui tou ]ue tov ibpujra tou, Kai KaTao~TrapaY|U€vos airo nqv 
dppwoTia, ttou tov eaapaKwo'ev duo Ta TraibiaTiKa xP 0Via TOU i 
e£ei|iuxoOo~€ aio voaoKOjaeio. Kai to KoprraaKi, x^pOTepa aKOu.a, 
KaTavToucre TrXdajua xajuevo, Kai judvva Kai xnpa ki aviY\ jue* 6p- 
gavd rraiotd, ttou 0d TTpocr]uevav , k' eKeiva vrjCTTiKd Kai EerraYia- 
ajueva tov TVfio BacriXi. Kai auTd TcdXi 6d Y^vvoucrav dXXa nai- 
bid ouoruxiffjueva, ki dXXa ki dXXa* ki 6 koo"juos oXo<; 9d fe\xi- 
lev drco KaXupe^ qmuxiKes Kai XHP^S Mavvec;, ttou 0d irepvouffav 
Tr) vuxia Tf\<; TTapa.uovfjs KaGux; auTrj. 

Ma f) Zwy\ ttou 9d Trepdaouv Ta buo opqpavd Twpa u.e ty\ 
Xapi tou TVfiou BaatXi, ti £uur) x^poujuevii ! TTavTou Eacrrepid, 
TravToO xpuadqpi, TiavToO TTarp/ibia Kai Travrrfupta, TravTou TpaYoO- 
bia Kai Y^Xoia! Ki 6X' auTd |ueo"a ae jui' dTeXeiwTti, tou f]Xiou 
XajLiTrpdba. 

*Q ! ti yXuko^, ti £€0"t6s, ti xapoujuevoc;, ti ejuopqpoq fiXios ! 
TTujs dvoiYev oXoqpiuTos |ue jiid<; iprjXd arov oupavo adv Kaveya 
GeuupaTO XouXoubi. 

I~id jLiid 0"TiY)Lir| f\ djuoipri xnP a picrdvoiEe T( * MaTia t\]<; Kai 
eibe tov Y^po CnTidvo ttou Sppixve Kan ki dvaqpTe tt\ aprjaiaevri 
Ywvid. 

Kai Tubpa auTr) f) qpumd rjTOV ttou Xa]UTrdbia£€v oXoqpurni, 
]U€ juid^ adv Kaveva GeiupaTO XouXoubi. 

'OXoeva u.€YaXuT€pos, xapwrcoTepo^, leaToxepoq q>eyYO$o\o\j- 
crev 6 vjXioq. 

Kai juecr' crrov ^akavbv oupavo, xpucroqpumo"|uevov airo tov 
fiXio, dvdjuecra ord TraiYvibia, crrd TravrjYupia, o"Td Y^Xoia Kai ord 
TpaYoubia, Ta buo opqpavd eEeqpTepoirfiaZav \ik opQdvoixTa qpTepd, 
qpTepd XP U(T( *, qpTepd KOKKiva, qpTepd ttou KaGdjq eEetfTrdGiuvav 
o~tov depa, y\vKo\a\o\)Oav oupdvia tyaXjuiubia, ipaXjutubia tou 
'Qaavvd ! 

AoEatfjuevos 6 TVpos BaoiXi^ ! KeXabouaev y\ jnouaiKr) eKeivn.. 
AoEatfjuevos airroc; ttou \idq eKajue tttv KaXuTepn, £X€n,|uoffuvr|, au- 
to<; ttou ixaq ecruuaev aTro 8Xe<; Te<; buo"Tuxt€^, auTos ttou \xdq dvoiEe 
tov Tfapdbeicro, auTO<; ttou jud^ eKoi|uio"e Yid TrdvTa \xia J gt j 6Xo- 
jaopqpo ovepo |aa^ Kai \xd<; eKoijuicre too"o paGeid, ttoO TircoTe TrXid 
bev jairopei vd \id<; HuTrvriar]. 

Kai f] ajuoiprj xnpa dvoiEe TrdXi Ta juaTia Tr|<; Yia uo"T6pri 
cpopd, k' eK€i ttou evvoiuuGe, ttox; Heipuxa Kai TreGaivei ki auTrj, 



274 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

el5e t& 5uo iraibid Trig neGajujueva ejuiTpog Trig Kai XajuTrpotpumtfuiva 
and tov 6X6cpXoTov fjXio, ttoO dvaipev 6 arrXaxviKog fryndvog eKei 
oty) Ttuvta, cpumd Trig X a P<*S T^vvr|jLievri dnb ti]v toot| butfTuxta. 

4. C H BacTiXoTrouXa ki 6 TiapdXuTog. 
(KuuvcrravTivoj; Mdvcx;, 1893) 

TTopqpupOT£wr|Tr| fkxcyiXoirouXa, KorceXa beKdEi XP^vwv, r) 
Zair), f\ KOpr| toO KaXoYidvvrj, f|xave to pobo toO TTaXaTioO. Oi 
juoipeg ir)v ei'xave irpoiKtcrei y? 8Xeg fig djuopqpieg Kai ja' oXeg fig 
KaXocrOveg. TaXavojudia Kai xP u ^OM a ^^o0aa, baxiuXibojuecrri Kai 
(kpYoXuYepri, dyvr) Kai a*o|3apr| Kai KaTabex TlKr b judyeue Trjv KaGe 
Kapbid. 

TpiYupicrjuevr) duo fig bouXeg Trig Kai fig (3aYieg Trig Kai 
fig dvabeHijuieg Trig Kai Toug avGrjcpopoug Trig, deprive cruxvd Td 
7repri(pava bdujuaTa Trig TTopqpupag, eujraive <JTr| aebia Trig ^ai Ka- 
Tepaive orriv TToXi vd ^oipdcyrj eXerjjuoauveg. K' oi cpTuuxoi Trjv 
7rpoo"Kuvouaave adv oEyy^Xo, adv oupdvia irapGeva. 

Kai jurcpog gty\ XaXKfj, gty\v TTopTa tou TraXaTiou KdGouv- 
Tav evag TrapdXuTog, dbg eucom xpovuuv. Tov efyave qpepei juid 
|uepa, Trjv ujpa ttou emotive f) |3aaiXoTTOuXa. Oi bouioTiKoi tov 
btuuxvave ju£ Guu.6 Kai u.e cpuuveg. Md rj paaiXoirouXa tov eibe 
Kai Tove airXaxvicTTiiKe * 

„XapiaTe tou qrnjuxou u.id Ywvid cttov fiXio Kai juid crK6Trr| 
d-rr' tx] ppoxn ki arc' Td x i 6 via -" 

K\ diro t6t£ tov dqpr|vav £k€i. Kd9e cpopd ttou emotive f) 
pacnXoirouXa auTov irpujTOv dXeoucre. Ki OTave Yupi£e ctto iraXaTi, 
rrpiv jUTTf] axr] XaXKf], toO ecrxeXve ]u£ to paaiXtKo xaMOYeXo Trig 
TraprjYopid k' ^Xmba. 

'EXuiba; Kai ti juiropei vd eXTrtcrr] to ctkouXtiki Trig y\\q; 

Ki ojaujg! Airrog, 6 qpnuxog TrapdXuTog, 6 KoupeXiao'juevog, 
6 pimapog, airrog, to ctkouXiiki Tr\q y^K, dYairricre ju' oXo tov 
epurra Tfjg vjiuxng tou Trjv aiGepia 7T6TaXou5a, jr\v iropcpupoYev- 
vrjTr| PacriXorrouXa. Ki 8Xa Td pdaava, ttoO eixe Tpapi'iEei ibg tote, 
f] qpTubxeia k' f] KaKOjuoipid k' y\ appOucTTta k' r) ppuujua k' fj 
KaTriqppovta, r|Tave TiiroTevia juirpog (TTd criiuepivd tou. Teroia 
Xaupa Kai TTiKpa Kai Karumog ! 

Kai KdGe qpopd ttoO Trjv fe'pXeTTe, exave k' £va KOjujuaTt Trig 
Ziiufig tou. Kai HeipuxoOcre diro aYdTrrj. 

Mtd *]uepa l^faive irdXi fj pacriXoTrouXa. K' flpGe KOVTd tou 
Yid vd tov eXerjarj. Ki 6 impdXuTog Tfjg erne* 



TEXTS 275 

„ 5 E\er|(Te jue, pamXoTrouXa u.ou, Kai boc; \xov to qptXi aou, 
nou u.6vo jLiTiopet vd |ue TTOTpeyrj." 

K' f) TropqpupoYevvr)Tr| paaiXorrouXa ?aKui|/e Kai qpiXriae oto 
luerumo tov TiapdXuTO. Kai Trjv i'bta aTiY|itr| 6 cpTWxocj Eetyuxncre. 

Kai Y^Tpejuevri k' eXeuGepr) rj ipuxn tou dveprjKe ctto Y a - 
Xavov aiGepa. 

5. e H Bpuai Tfjcj K 6 p rj ^» 
(Mr|Tao<; XatEoTrouXog, 1893) 

Mea' am xpovia id TTaXid, ra xpovia xd euTuxtajiteva to 
PaaiXoTiouXo tv\<z xwpacj pYfiKe oto kuviiyi M^ T ' daKepi tou. TOpiae 
pouvd Kai XayKdbia, irepaae Xoyyoucj Kai Kdjuiroucj, oao ttoO eq> 
Tacr' eva qpXoyepo juearjuipi aTa pi^id t' dij/nXou ppdxou jue ir\v 
opGr) Kai KaTaiyr|Xr| Xeika aTrjv KopqpfV 'EkeT Xijuepiaae ju£ t' 
daKepi tou. lav bpoatae XrfdKi, to paaiXoirouXo dvefSriKe dtyr)Xd 
gty\v KOpqprj, aTO SdyvavTO, KaTajnovaxo. Kavevacj bev dvePaive 
TroTe cTTrjv Kopqpr) toO ppdxou. 'EKeT Trdvw r|Tav u.id KaXupa itXcy- 
juevri ju' djuaXaxieg Kai cpTepecj toO pouvou. Meaa CTr|v KaXupa 
KaOouvTav juid poaKOTiouXa ojuopcprj, oao vd Trfj^. Tav tx\v eibe 
to pacriXoTiouXo, nfjYe vd xdarj Ta XoYiKa tou, adv to eibe f\ po- 
cTKOTTouXa to PaaiXoirouXo, ?xct^ to vou Trie;. 5 Ek€i crxf) q>TuuxiKrj 
KaXupouXa I'aTrjae xrj cpwXid tou t' aYaTrrmevo £euYapi, ckci ctto 
eprnuiKO KaXupi enXeZe \xk xpuafj KXiuaTrj Tic; Kapbiecj toucj 6 ?pu>- 
Tac;. TTepaaav juepeej,. jurjvec;, xP^vocj, Kai t' daKepi toO- kokou 
Yupeue vd judtGr], ti XoYfjs depopjufj eixe to paaiXoirouXo vd KaGe- 
Tai Toaov Kaipo a' £Keivr| ir\v eprjjaid. 

"ETai juid uipa ?pxeTai juiXr)|Lia ctto paaiXoirouXo vd rrdrj ctto 
aeqpepi. KaKO ki dTreXTTicrjuocj ctt' dYaTrriu.€vo Taipi ! . . . C H Kar|- 
uivr] f] poaKOTrouXa eireae jueaa (TTrjv aYKaXid tou KaXou Trjc;, tov 
ecrcpiEe aqpixTd a9ixxd |ue Ta x^pdKia Trjg, Kai tov KpaTrjae 8Xr| 
ty] vuxTa aTrdvuj aTa (TTrjOaKia ttjcj Kai bev tov deprjere vd cpuYrj, 
TTpOTou vd Tfjcj opKicrTfj cTTa juaTia Trjcj Td YXuKa, ttuicj YPHTopa 
0d EavaYupiZie ctto KaXu^aKi to eprjjuiKO. Kai to irpiuT to pacri- 
XottouXo ecpuY€ jue Kajuevrj Trjv Kapbid. "EcpuYe Yid vd jurjv Hava- 
Yupicrr) ma. TTfiYe aTro koko orraGi ctto aeqpepi. K' r| Poctko- 
TrouXa r) Karjjuevr) KaGouvTav jaepovuxTa CTTr|v Kopqpri tou ppdxou, 
jue Y^pi^eva Td u.aTia Trepa KaTa tov KdjuTro, k j Maie, eKXaie 
oXoeva. Td iroXXd Td baKpua adv eneqpTav KaqpTepd, PaGouXai- 
vav tov Eepoppaxo Kai TrriYaivav paGeid aTa airXdxva tou. TTe- 
paae Kaipocj k' f\ poaKOtrouXa eKXaie, ?KXaie, oao ttoO aTrojueivev 



276 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

evag icnaog juovdxa. Air' tt\v rroXXri Trig OXTipi xrjv aujuTrovecre 
TOTeg ki 6 £epo|3paxos* dvoiEe u.id vuxTa Tr|V Tierpivri aYKaXid tou 
xai Tr)v eKXeiae juecra crrd arrXaxva tou. Md Kai u.ecra ctto f3u96 
toO Ppdxou KXaiei, KXaiei aKOjua f\ poaKOTTOuXa, Kai id baKpua 
Trie; KaTao~TaXd£ouv and tov Eepoppaxo jue GXtjkpo TrapdTrovo, yu- 
peuovxag to butfTuxicXjuevo fkxcriXoTrouXo, ttou TrfjYe diro KaKO o~TraGi 
ctto aeqpept. Md bev to ppio~KOuv TrouGevd, Kai YivouvTai qpapjuaKi 
Kai TftKpr) x°^\ oXoeva Td TroXXd Trig baKpua, ki dXXoid ki dXXoi- 
p.ovo o~Tr| XuTepr) tou xwpioO, tcoO 0d GeXricrr] vd Y^jnicrrj ir\ 
ordjuva Trig diro ty\ Bpucri Tfjg Koprjg. 

6. 'H Nea AiaGrjKri, KaTd to MaGGaio k. 13.. 
('AX&avbpos TTdXXns, 1902) 

'EKeivrj Trjv fijuepa PYfjKe duo to ctttiti 6 IrjcroOg Kai Kd- 
OouvTav KOVTa (TTfj Xiu.vr|, Kai |ua£euTr|Kav KovTa tou TrXr|Gr| TroXXd, 
Toao ttou jUTrfiKe o~e Kapdj3i Kai KaGoTave, Kai to TrXfjGog ecn-eKe 
oXo cTTrjv dKpoTiaXid. Kai Toug u.iXricre iroXXd u.e TrapajBoXeg k' 
eiTce* „Nd, Pth k ^ ° CTTrdpTrjc; vd cnreipg. Kai KaGwg ecrrrepve, d'XXa 
necrave aijud o"to bpou.o, k' npGav Td itouXid Kai Td 'cpayav. Ki 
dXXa ?Trecrav dndvou o"e TreTpOTOTTOug orrou bev efye x&jua ttoXu, 
ki djuecruig pTn Kav ^ ^ to v d juf]v efye pdGoc; Yns, Kai °~d pTn^e 
6 nXiog, KaqKav, ki ovTag bixwg ptea EepaGr^Kav. Ki dXXa Trecrave 
oV ajKaQia aTrdvou, Kai lueYaXwaav t' aYKdGta Kai Td cruveTrviEave. 
Ki dXXa Trecrave ctto xwjua to KaXo k' ebivav KapTto, d'XXo eKaro 
ki dXXo eErjVTa ki dXXo TpidvTa. "Otcoios ?x €l auxid, ag aKOurj." 

Kai TrfiTctv oi juaGr)Tabeq tou Kai tou 'nave* „r~iaTi touc; 
M-iXag u.e TrapajSoXeg;" K' eKeivog aTTOKpiGri Kai Toug eirre ttujc;* 
,,'Etfdg (Sdq boGrjKe vd u.dGeTe Td juutfTiKa Tfjg ftacriXeiac; tujv 
oupavwv, jud cr' eKeivoug be b6Gr|K€. TiaTi a' ottoiov ex 61 && 00 ^n 
Kai Trepicro"eipri • ki ottoio^ bev ?xei Gdv toO Ttdpouv ki oti exei. 
Hd touto Toug juiXuj jie TrapapoXeg, ticcti pXeTiovTag be pXeirouv 
ki aKU)VTa<g bev aKOuve jurrre voiuuGouv. Kai Touq YiveTai r\ Tipo- 
cpr|Teia tou 'Haai'a, ttou Xeer c Me ty\v aKOurj G' aKOUCTTe Kai be 
Gd voiiuo~Te, Kai pXeirovTag Gd pXeipTe Kai be Gd bfjTe* TictTi xov- 
Tpr|ve toutou tou Xaou f] Kapbid, Kai u.e t' auTid papeiaKoucrav 
Kai Td |udTia tou$ o*cpdXto"av, jariv Tuxove bouvs jue Td MdTia ki 
aYpoiKiicrouv jue t' auTtd Kai ju^ ty\v Kapbid tou^ voiujctouv, Kai 
•fupitfouve Kai tou^ YiaTpeij;u)/ "Ojuuug eaaq KaXoTuxa Td juaTia 
YiaTi pXeTrouv, Kai t' auTid crag ykxti aKOuv ti dXrjGivd adg Xeai ? 
TTiIjg TToXXoi TrpocprjTeg ki Syioi aTToGujurjaav vd bouv Td oo~a 



TEXTS 277 

pXerreie Kai bev eibav, Kai v' otKOuaouv offa ctKouxe Kai bev oikou- 
aav. 'EcreTs Xomov aKoutfTe Trjv TrapapoXri tou arrdpTr]. KaGevo^ 
7t' aKOuei Tfj<s (tamXeiac; to Xoyo Kai be voiwGei, epxexai 6 KaKoc; 
ki apnalei to orrapjuevo |ueaa <sty)V Kapbid tou* airroc; eivai ttou 
airdpGriKe cri|ud oto bpojao. Ki 6 arrapjuevoq otouc; TreTpOTOirou^ 
airros eivai it' aKouei to Xoyo Kai ttou euTU£ jueTd x a P<*c; Tove 
bexeTai, jud bkv £x ei P l '^ a V^G® T0U > J aove e * vai Trp6o"Kaipo<;, Kai 
jLioXiq tux^I duo to Xoyo tfuqpopd f\ KaTabpojuri, euTuq CKOuvTacpTei. 
Ki 6 orrapiuevoc; juecra or' aYKaGia, aiiToc; eivai tt' aKouei to Xoto, 
k' f] auXXoYH tou koctu.ou k' f) dTrdTrj tou ttXoutou auvenviyei to 
Xoyo Kai TiveTai aKaprcoc;. Ki 6 cTTrapiuevos oto KaXo to x&u.a drrdvou, 
airroc; eivai tc' aKouei to Xoyo Kai ttou voiwGei, ttoO ha Kaprrocpopa 
Kai Kdvei d'XXoc; eKajo ki d'XXoc; £Er|VTa ki dXXocj TpidvTa." 

Kai jaid d'XXrj aKOjua TrapaPoXrj toucj erne XeYOVTacj* ^'E^oiaae 
f] paaiX^ia tuiv oupavwv adv dvGpumocj ttou 'orreipe KaXo arropo 
oto xwpdqpi tou. K' evai eKoiu.ouvTav oi dvGpiimoi, rjpQe 6 ex- 
Tpocj tou k' gorreipe KaTom dvd|ueo , a oto crrdpi rjpecj k' eqpuye. 
Ki 0Ta pXdatrjae to xopTO k' ?Kave Kaprro, totcc; qpdvr]Kav k' oi 
flpecj. Kai irdv tou voikokupi oi ffKXdftoi Kai tou Xev e AqpevTr|, 
bev eatreipec; KaXo orropo oto x^pdqpi <yov; ttwcj Xomov exei 
ripecj;' K' eKeivoc; touc; erne* e 'ExTpoc; dvGpumoc; to Vave auTOc;/ 
K' eKeivoi tou Xeve* 'OeXeicj Xomov vd Trdjue Kai vdv ticj u.a£eij/ou|Lie ;* 
K' eKeivocj Xeer ev Oxi, uiJTUJuc; jua£euovTacj Tic; npeg Eepi£wote jua£i> 
touc; to otdpi. Aqprjate Ta juaZii vd u.eYaXduo"ouv Kai Td bud ubc; 
oto Gepog* Kai tov Kaipo toO Gepou Gd 'ttOu cttou^ Gepiardbeq* 
jualeijiTe TrpujTa ti<; flpe<s Kai beore Te<; bejudTia vdv Ti^ Kdipouue, 
Kai to aTapi cruvdHTe to o*Trjv cltioQy\ky] jliou'." 

Kai juid dXXr| aKO|ua TrapapoXr) tou^ eirre XeyovTa*; * „Moid^ei 
r\ ftaaiXeia tujv oupavduv orcupi Civdm ttoO to Trfjpe k' eaireipe 
evas dvGpuurco^ aTO x^pa^i tou* ttou 'vai mo juiKpo<^ arc' oXoug 
Touq Crropou^, jud era jueYaXduar), Eerrepva Ta x^pTa Kai yiveTai 
bevTpo, tocto ttou irdv Td TreTOu|ueva t'. oupavou Kai qpwXid£ouve 
aid KXabid tou. u "AXXr] TrapapoXrj Toug erne' „MoidZ[ei f] paaiXeia 
t' oupavou 7TpoW|Lii, ttoO to Trfjpe juid yuvaka k' exwere jueo'a ae 
Tpia adTa enrapt, ocro ttou dvepnKe oXo." 

"OXa auTa Td jufXiicre 6 'Iricrous u.e TrapaPoX^ o"Td TrXr|Gr|, 
Kai x^pis rrapapoXri bev roix; juiXrjae TirroTa, Yia v' dXr)Geij;r] 
to eiTTiujLievo |uecro toO TTpoqpr|Ti'i ttou Xeer e 0' dvoiHiu jue rrapa- 
&o\e<; to aTOjua juou, Gd Py^Xuj Td Kpujujueva arc' OTa Geu.eXiujQr| 
6 Koajuo^.' 



'278 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

7. 'H cpiXoXoTta juag. 
(KwarfK TTaXaMflc, 1902) 

4>iXe Kupie, pandxe* imdpxei crrjjuepa cptXoXoYta aifjv c EXXdba; 
"AvOpumoi 5r|XovoTi ttou vd TrapaYouv epYa XoyoTexviKa, id djpaia 
iraibid if\q OavTaoiac;, Kai ttou vd TrpocrexujvTai Kai ttou vd 0au- 
jLidZiovTai. Auto to 6vo|ua cpiXoXo-fta koivo cr' djudg ebw, ottujc; be 
CFujuftaivei dXXou, Kai Y*d Keivous ttou arroubdZiouv k' £pjunveuouv 
tou$ KXacrcriKOuq, Kai Yid Keivous ttou Grcoubd£ouv f| epjLirjveuouv 
tov koctjlio yvpu) tou^ Kai Ta |3d0n. tr\<; yvxf\<Z, beixvei, ttujc; fj 
qpaviaaia bev exei o~' ejudg ebuu tov totto th,S £exujpiat6 Kai dva- 
YVuupiO"jnevo Kai irupTocpuXaxTO Ka0iiuc; dXXou. "Ojuuus TtavTou fj 
cpavTaoia uirapxei — „T6 TTveOjua ottou GeXet irvei" — Kai Kajuid 
cpopd 9a)uaToupTeu Eivai cpuTd ttoO dvGi£ouve ere oXa Ta KXijuaTa* 
ojliuj^ ebub dppuucrrriiueva Kai KaKOjuoipa, k' eKel juecrrd Kai aKO- 
XacTTa. To euYeviKujTaTo cpuTo ttou TtoirjTris 6vojud£eTai (Kai TroirjTr) 
a<; tov eiTuoujue Ka0e XajUTrpocpdvTaoto TrXdoTri Kdiroiac; KaXXovfjg 
jae to Xoto, jne tov tt,xo, ju£ to xpwjua, M^ T0 ^XflM 01 ? ^ T0 ^P- 
Yo), to cpuTO auTO bev ?xei cttt] x^jpa M ^ MH Te T ^ v dxdjuvia, 
ttou 0d eixe dXXoTe f| ttoO 0d e?xe dXXou, jarjTe to |uearujjua, ttou 
beixvei ere aXXouc; tottou^ Kai ttou Tatpia£e k' £bdu vd beixvri. ToO 
ujpaiou jua$ auTou qpuTOu bev toO qrraiei to xuJjua* toO Xeiirei to 
ttXouoto TroTicriua Kai to x^Pi to cppovTtariKo , ytd vd toO KpaTf] 
rrdvTa YuaXtoreprj ty\v Trpamvaba Kai t ? dvGia bpoaorcvoa. 

K' eTcri KaXd, qpiXe Kupie. "Exoujae dv0pumous biaXexTOus 
if\q ct>avTao"ia<g Kai T^q Texvrjc; d£tou<g. TToiog |ue Kairoia cTKeipi 
cpajTetvri Kai jne KaTcoia yvajjurj dveTnpeaGTn. 0d jLnropoucre vd emf], 
Trujq cpiXoXoYtot bev uTtdpxei ardv totto jua$; Airroq 6 totto^ etvai 
f3ej3aia KaXoTuxog, yiaTi |ue to cruupo toxjc, fijalei touc; ejueTiKoug 
depoKOTravicTTdbeg tujv Tre£ujv Kai tuuv ejujaeTpiuv qpXuapiOuv Kai 
touc; dXXouq eKeivou<s tou<; dvrj0tKOug, ttou eTreibr) bev 'exovv OTrXa 
io~6(3apa yid vd x^^H^ouv Td gpYOi ttou tou<; Kd0ovTai 0"t6 oto- 
judxi, iraipvouv aYte? Kai lepeg ibee<; Kai ttictuj aTr' at/rec; TajiiTroupiu- 
vovTai Kai KXecpTOTroXejuo arevouv KaTd tujv buvaTUJV Kai XucrcraXea 
jueTaTOTciZlouv Td Z!riTr|]LiaTa Kai |uoid£ouv eKeivou^, ttou cTKeTrdZlouve 
^ie titv d0viKri crrunata Td Trto xu° a ia tou<^ Y^evTOKOTrr||LiaTa, Td 
TcdGrj tous Ta irXeov dvibea. "Ojuiug auTog 6 Tbio<; totto<; ?x^ 1 to 
aTuxrijua juecra tou vd KpaTfi Kai KaTrota 6v6|uaTa, ttou KaTrujq 
beixvouv, iruug aY«Xia aYdXta craXeuouve k ? ebiiu Kai TrepTraToOv 
Kai uqjuJVOVTai Td cpiXoXoYiKa juag, Kai ictujc; Y^vvaiOTepa Kai dipaio- 



TEXTS 279 

Tepa dtTTo dXXoTe. TTepiopi£ou.ai ere jnepiKot (xtto id 6vou.aTa, ttoO 
dvacpepare Tic; irpodXXecj juetfa arr)v „AKpoTToXiv a J ) (xacj, qpiXe Kupie. 
'0 BepvabaKrjc;, 6 Apocrivrjcj, 6 KapKafJiTdacj, 6 TTaTrabiajudvTric;, 
6 MrjTCdKris, 6 MaXaKdori^ 6 Mnoeju. TviupiZa), ttujcj Td Trepiaao- 
Tepa diro Td 6vou.aTa auid 9d votujqouv Karrotav dvaipixiXa airo- 
aipocpf]g, ttoO Ztgi dcruXXoTicTTa Kovid to eva u.e to dXXo Td 'm- 
Guucra. Ti vd yivr] ! 'Ecrelc; qpTaiTe, Kupie, ttou bihoaiz Trjv dqpopu.ii. 

*Av Kdrroia Trepicppovrjcn Trpocj toucj d'XXoucj Koti ttoXu Trepicr- 
cxoTepo TTpocj toucj Yefrovecj Taipid£ei <7t6v TroirjTr) Kai toO buva- 
jLiujvet to epTO, KaOdic; tovujvouv to Kopjui Kdnoia ttoXu mKpd 
cpdpjLiaKa, cpo|3oujuai 7 ttujcj toO ei'boucj auTOU y\ rrepricpdveia to rrapa- 
Kdvei ebw Trepa. *Acj eivai. *Av jue purrdTe, £f\h rroXXd, ovojuaTa 
ti,uuj jue Tfjv Tijuri, ttoO KaOevocj toO irpeTrei. iTrjv iraTpiba tt]cj 
TroXuGeiacj TeToia XaTpeia bev eivat dTrperrri. "ATrpeirri eivai f] otau- 
pocpopia toO euvouxou (rxoXaoriKou KaTd toO ToX|ur|poO TexviTr), 
ttoO veoucj bpojuoucj i^dxvei v' dvof&j, tou Tre£oO depoXoyou, ttoO 
cpavTd£eTai vd baCKaXeipr] tov Troiryrri, iroid ibea irpeTrei vd tov 
crufKivfi Kai Troid YXwcrcra TtpeTrei vd u.eTaxeipi£eTai ! 

"AXXo to CrjTrijua, av rrpocrexei 6 kocfjuocj cttov Troinxri. e H 
irpoaoxn r\ dTcpoaeHia toO koctjuou bev exei TiTTOTe vd Kau^i jue 
ir\v d£ia toO Tronrrri, Kai bev eivai kavr) vd tou arajuonrricTr] to 
epyo. "Iaujcj dvdYKii vd Eexacrrrj XiydKi Kai vd KaTaqppoveOrj yid 
Kaipo 6 Trotrpris, fid vd jueivrj mo eXeinrepocj vd brju.toupYr|0-r) uio"a 
gty)v euepTeTiKr) dYKaXid Tfjcj jurjTepacj MovaEidcj. Eivai paGucj 6 
(XTixocj, ttou TeXetwvei eva tou TroirijLia 6 liXXep 2 ) Kai juiropei k' 
ebui vd TaipiadTfi : „"Oti Ypajuuivo eivat vd Zj|0"r) oto TpaYoubt, 
irpeTrei vd Xeupr) gtx) Zvjy\. u "OTav ojuujcj f) dbtaqpopia Yupw irapa- 
TevTubveTai, kivtuvocj eivai vd butfKoXeipr] Td Pr|]uaTa tou TroirjTri. 
f BepvabaKrj^ bev ejUTiobiZieTai vd Ypdipr) to „NiKr]cp6po OujKd"* 
]uovo ttujc; aKOjua bev iaT&Qr] buvaTo vd tov dvepdar] o'to GeaTpo 
ttoO 9' dhle. e Apoaivrjcj, jueda ctticj aXkeq tou cppovTibecj, vojlu£uj 
ttOucj ^XoTUTia qpuXdei ctto crupTapi tou Td irXeov dipoYa KaXXt- 
TexvriMaTa. e KapKapiTCJacj, eE6pio"Tocj o"Td x i ovia tujv auvopaiv 
tujv GeacTaXiKiLv, eijuai pepaiocj, ttujcj bev ejLmobteeTai diro touto, 
vd TrXdOr] aYaXia aYaXia jueYaXonvoo tov ,/ApjLiaTUjX6" tou. Ma 
6 dvGpajTTOcj be 0d |UTropf] rrXeov diro biKa tou KOjuirobejuaTa vd 
Turrujvri Td pipXia tou, Kai ujcj 0"Trjv dupa f] ToXjuri tujv cpiXoXoYiKiuv 
eKboTaiv bev aTrXuj0r|K' ebdb Traparrepa duo tov „TTepiTrXavujjLievo 

2 ) An Athenian newspaper, to which the essay is addressed as a letter. 
2 ) Schiller. 



280 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

loubaTo" Kai duo t& Xoyhs Xoytk 5 AvaYVuuO"juaxdpia. c O TTcnra- 
biajLiavTrig oxav r) Zy\ty\Gic; tujv TrepiobiKUiv Kai xujv eqpripepibujv 
Gujudxai ki auxov, TTpocrqpepei Kaveva xou birjYrmaxaKr (uct eivai 
juovabnco qpaivojLievo TTveujwaxiKf}q KaKOjuoiptdg, on PipXio bev arco- 
Xxrjae dKO|Lia evag arco xoug ttio TTOirjTiKOuq dvxnrpoaujTTOug xfjg 
veopu&xvxtvfjs xexvrjg. Kai tou MrjxadKr] Td Tre£oYpacpr||uaxa, ttou 
cpepvouv Zuurjpoxaxr) ty\ pouXa juidg ^Troxns dpYao~|uou cpucxio- 
KpaiiKoO oruuavxtKflg k' evog dvapxiKoO drojaiajaoO axri YXwaaa 
u.ag d£ioo"TTOubacrxou, eiv' eXTriba vd id EeGdtyrj Troxe Kaveig duo 
Kei ttoO ppiCKovxai, cxxebbv aYvwpicrxa; AoSa vd 'xouv xd ,JTav- 
aGrjvaia" 1 ), pXerroujue Kduoxe Kai ttox' £k€i Kowuaxiaorouc; Kdiroious 
ubpaious crxixoug xou MaXaKacrrj. "Oao Yid xo Mttoeju, diro xoxe 
ttoO KapaXXtKeipe dXd Nixcre 2 ) xfi MoTpa xou, Kaxaqppovei, wg 
xa-rreivd pe(3aia Kai ubq Trpocrxuxa, KdGexi ttoO Gd xoO Gujai^r] Kai 
xr) XeEi aKOU.a rjOoYpaqpia, ttoXu be xreptaaoxepo xr) xovxpoKomd 
xffc PoujueXri^. 

Kaxdpeg Kai TTepiYeXdcrjuaxa Ytd xo „PwjuauKO Geaxpo" xoO 
Yuxdpn bev IXeuj/av, KaGwg irdvxa. Kai xi u.' auxo; Mecxa aii^ 
xpaKOO*€g xou aeXtbeg f] £GviKr) ijiuxn juiXe! TTaXXrjKapiaia Kai u.€YaX6- 
axojua, Kai bev exoujue TroXucruvr)Gia'ei oe xexoio u.iXr)u.a (x' iLjaoXo- 
Yi](Te k' evac; arco xoug TrXeov xuqpXoug, dXXd Kai diro xoug TrXeov 
KaXoirpoaipexouq iroXejuiouq xou XeYojuevou Yuxapicru.ou, 6 qpiXog 
uou auvxdxxn? xou ,,'AYwvog") 3 )' bev eivai XiYa xd juepn,, ttou dvxi- 
cpeYY^i pica axo (SipXio auxo bpauaxiKa k' £XXriviKwxaxa f)Y^vaiKO- 
Xdxpiaaa qpiXoaoqpia xou Bivu, ttou EecTTrdei Kaxt dnb xo tfKXrjpo 
TrepiYeXao"u.a xou Apiaxocpavrj, ttou YXuKOKeXaibdei Kaxixi, ttou bev 
£epw Yiotxi (aou GujuKei „x' "Oveipo if\(; KaXoKaipivfjc; vuxxidc;" xou 
Xa&rtip. Metfa oe 6\r] xrjv Trapa£dXri ix\<; brmomoYpacpiKflc; Kai 
xfjg KOivwviKfis epYaaia^ Trig Mict YUvaiKa, f) KaXXippori TTappev, 
|HTTOpeT Kai KaxaYivexai o"xo Ypdipijuo if\<; fevvaiaq jauGiaxopiKfiq 
xpiXoYiag xriq- xo beuxepo veoxuTrwjuevo juepog xn?, „n MaYicrcra", 
qpavepujvet xfjv k. TTappev 0"uYTpctcpea \ie buvafAt biKr| xrjg, ttou 
cpiXoboEei vd Eavaviujarj xrjv eXXrjvtba uicra axo euXoYnM^ Pdcp- 
xiajna KaTTOiou aYYXoaaEoviKOu ibaviKOu jae xoXjur) Kai jue xexvrj, 
Yid vd xr] Zx)\e\\)ovv TroXXoi aTro xoug ojuoqpuXouq juag, k' ebub Kai 
dXXoO. 

c O ,,'Eaxaupuujuevoq "Epuug u xou k. ZevoTrouXou \xe auYKivrjcre 
fiXXoxe adv Kdxi xoao iLpaTo, ifiaxe vd xou vjjdXuu eva xpaYOubi. 

J ) A learned periodical. 2 ) Nietzsche. 

3 ) Name of a newspaper. 



TEXTS 281 

le Kcupo ttou f\ (SbeXXa pouiiva pu£aivet to Geaxpo ttio avr\\iep' 
aTTO Ka0e dXXo eibos qpiXoXoYiKfis TrapaYWYns, Kai tcou Kai |ueaa 
cr' aiiTO to irXoucria KaTapTicrjuevo BacrtXiKO GeaTpo Tiupa juoXi^ 
jueXXeTai vd bo0r) eva TrpuiTOpYaXTO epYO, „Oi epacrrrexvai tx\<; 
£uufjc; a toO k. TTOutt, 6 TroirjTris XprjCTTojudvog |ue Trj „Nea XKr|vr|" 
tou d£i£ei vd auYKivrjcrri oXouq eKeivouc;, ttou q>povTi£ouve Yid to 
EavdvGicrjua tx\<; tocto EeTrecrjuevris bpajuaTtKfis TexvriS- Elba tx\v 
7 ,*AXKr)OTi a Tprfupuu ae dbeiavd tfKau.vid vd -nailejai Eava£uuvTa- 
vejuevr) ae juid YXwcrcra, ttou aialex to xu]u6 Tf\q Zvjf\<;. Me Tic; 
uipr|XoTepec; crKrjveq tou „KpaTOucj toO Zoqpou" xaixo^ekovaave 
juepiKOt. Kai ti ja' atrro ; To „KpaT0cj tou Zoqpou" aicxxuXeio eivai 
dpicTTOupYnjua, Kai irocrr) x^pi Trpeirei vd xpwara f] cpiXoXoYi'a juag 
eKeivaiv, ttou Td |ueYaXa tuuv dpxaiwv Kai tu>v Eevwv iroirijuaTa, 
oxi baoxaXiKa, dXXd Troir|TiKd judcj Td TrapoucidZouve oty] YXOuacra 
|uac;, Ka0wcj 6 jueTaqppaaTns t^cj ,,'IXidbacj" 1 ), Ka0ubcj 6 k. KaXo- 
a-foupo^ jae tov „TTpojur|0ea" ctto „Ai6vucfo", Ka0wcj 6 TpicrxapiTuu- 
juevoc; TToirjTfig tx\<; „Xpucr6(ppubr|c;" jue tov ,,'AYajuejuvova" tou 
AicrxuXou, ttou jud^ eTotjud£ei. 

'EKti ttou TeTOia Spya qpaivovTai, ocra beiXd Kai dpaid Kai 
dTTOjuovuu|Lieva Kai aTrapaTr|pr|Ta, urrapxei cpiXoXoYia. Tirdpxei em 
ttou 6 BXaxoYidvvn^ crrd „TTpoTruXaia u judg bivei beiYJuaTa eEaicna 
TroiryriKfjc; Kai TrpaYjuaTiKficj biriYnnaTOYpacpiac; (TKaXio*jueva cfto ttio 
Ka0dpio jLidp|uapo t^c; 5i"huotikti^ judc; bivei beiYM^Ta Tre£ou icrropiKoO 
Xoyou qpTepaiTOu. Trrapxei eKei ttoO 6 f EqpTaXidiTr|cj, XoYOYpdqpocj 
jue qpXefta Mepijue, pYaXjuevoc; drro ttjv yvxf) tujv Trapau.u0iuJv juac;, 
judg cpepvei ri^ „Nr|aiwTiKec; icrropiecj" Kai tx\v „ r l<jTopia xn<s Puujuio- 
auvr|c;*\ Trrapxei eKei ttou 6 BacriXiKocj Kai 6 TTopqpupacj — 6 
TTpOuTog luecpiaTOcpeXiKog, 6 beirrepoc; KaTi crdv dvTiXaXog Tou'ApieX — 
bev eauvTpiipav aKojur) tic; jnouaiKoXaXe^ aiBepoTrXaaTe^ qpXoY^pcs 
Toug. Tirapxet eKei ttou oXoeva 6 iroiYiTri^ toiv „TToXejLiiKOuv Tpa- 
Youbiaiv u Kai ttio yXukou^ nxous Y^vvdei (TKuqpTO^ aTrdvuj ctto 
jaavToXivo tou* eKei ttou veoi, ctto ,,TTepiobiKov u tou veupiKOu Kai 
veupu>bou£ Boikou TTpaiToqpavepujToi, ojaiug aYViupicTTOi aKOjua Kai 
dTUTTUJToi, veoi Tre^oYpdqpoi crdv to BouTupd Kai 0dv to MaKp^, 
(TTixoTrXexTeq adv to AeXjuou£o, Kai crdv tov KajUTrdvri Kai crdv to 
Ar| t ui-|Tpidbr] — Yid vd crrjjLieiujcruj tou^ ttio yvwcftou^ jhou — jae 
EacpviCouv TroXXe^ qpope^ jue to op^tiko TrepTraTrijua tou ctti'xou 
Toug, jue Trjv TrpocfTTdBeia vd jueivouv juaKpeid ano Td xiXioiraTrijaeva. 

2 ) 'A\i£apdpos UolXKtjs (see p. 276). 



282 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Tndpxei qpiXoXoyiot era ttoO 6 TTpopeXefYios, crd vd crrevo- 
Xwpeierai Kai ad vd Trovr) ttou ppe0r]Ke pouXeuTris, ki d'XXo bev Kavei 
Tiapd vd oveipeueTai Td juicroTeXeuujueva tou bpajaara Kai Trepr|- 
cpaveueTai, ttou dirojuevei Troupe; AajuapTiviKO^, Kai en attendant 
lidq Trpoaqpepei to „AaoKOovTa" toO AecrcriYY aKabruua'tKubTaia. 
Tirapxei £ra ttou uTrdpxouv „TTapajuu0ia" 6X6xuTa duo if\v aKepia 
KaXXttexviKri yvxf] tou ttoXiitpottou NipfJdva, era ttou duo Kaipo 
ere Kaipo ttXoujui£ouv to 91X0X0YIKO jua<; oupavo TrXacrjuaTa juiag 
dpidTOKpaTiKfj^ x a P l S eHiwTiKfl^, crdv to ,,'Acrjua tujv AtfjuaTuuv" 
Kai crdv to „BaaiXea KojuqpeTod". Tirdpxei era ttou uirdpxouv 
Tocroi aKojua Texvnrec; toO TieZov Kai tou crTixnpou Xoyou, ttou av 
bev exw totto vd tou^ dvacpepiu ebw jua£i, bev tou$ TTpocrex^ 
Yid touto Xrfarrepo. 

TToiog Hepei! ucrrep' duo Xiyo r\ ttoXuv Kaipo, ucrrep' duo 
Kauid beKapid xpovia crei<g 6 ibiog, cpiXe Kupie, fj Kaveva^ d'XXoc; 
veurrepoc; ojuoTexvog crac;, 0d Ypacpq' „MTrd, ebw Kai beKa xpovia 
eixau.e TToirjCft, bpdjua, bufrrma, \xe Texvfres Kai juk TpaYOubicrrdbec; 
ttou bouXeuav Kai aKouYOVTav k' evTUTruucri dqprjvav, )ue koctjuo ttou 
tou? Y^peue Kai ttou tous jueXeTOucre! Twpa, dbiaqpopia Kai veKpa! a 
Kai Tri9avuJTaTa, ucrrep' duo beKa xpovia ocroi 0d XerroupYouve 
Yuptu o"to Puujlio tx\<; TexvrjS, 6d eivai Y^pwTepoi aTro judg Kai 
KaXuTepoi. "Eva jaovdxa ovojua £exwpi£eTe |uecra crrf| YeviKf) deppov- 
Ticrid Kai crrf)V eprnuwai, Ka0wg OeXeTe. To ovojaa tou ZoXuujuoO. 

5 AXX' i'cra icra 6 XoXiujuog bei'xvei cpujq qpavepd, oti xpeid£eTai 
Kaip6$ Kai kotto^ — biKa tou eivai Td XoYia — Y ia vd x™TTr|CF' 
ri boEa tou TTOtryrri crrd juaTia tou e0vou<g tou. c EKaTO XP°via 
eTTpeire vd biaftouve, Yid vd TTpopdXrj dvaYvwpicrjuevo, Ka0wq tou 
TTpeTrei, duo Tr)V eGviKrj tfuveibricri to £pYO tou, Yid.vd Yivr] KaTroia 
Oepjur) evepYeia Trpoc; aYaXjuaTiuv tou uipuujuouc; Kai (3i(3Xiujv tou 
TUTcdj|uaTa, Yid vd crumaivrj Yupw err' ovojua tou Ka0e qpiXoveuaa 
cpiXoXoYua] Kai Kd0e djucpiftoXia, Yid vd tov Tijurjcrouv Kai auToO tou 
KpaTOuq oi rrXeov emcrrijuoi dvTiTrpocrujTTOi crdv eva jueYaXov dvGpw- 
ttov. Md (JKuipe mo CTijud Kai ipdHe Ta oX' auTd cTToxadTiKaJTepa • 
pXeTrei<s TTiug 6 k6(J|uos evav ictkio dcrucrTaTO tou jueYaXou TroiriTri, 
?tcti CTTa TucpXd, TrpocTKuvdei, Kai nwq |ue tov dXr]0iv6 Kai jue tov 
aKepio ZoXuujuo, KaBdjg tou aZilei vd YvajpiaTf), aKOjua bev KaXo- 
YvwpicrrriKe. Atto Td 97 TroXejudjue vd tou TrovriYupicroujue Td ^KaTo 
Xpovia tou, ki 0X0 Yid ravov eTTiTpoTreq k' lTTiTpoTre<; ^Tiaveuouv, 
ki aKOjua bev to KaTopGibcraue, eva £6vos 6XoKXr|po, Y^d tov 
dauYKpiTO TroiriTri tou. TTrdpxouv dv0pajTTOi — Kai bev eivai oi 



TEXTS 283 

ttio Xtyoi — ttoO tov Eepouv juovdx' citto Tfjv „Eav6ouXa" icai 
airo id buo irpujTa TeTpdorixa tou "Yjuvou kcu be Y^peuouv TiTroie 
TiapaTrdvuj • aKouve, ttujc; jaeYaXoc; eivai Tronyrris, bev aKouve vd tov 
TrepiYeXouv Kai vd tov dvaGeuaTt£ouv ottujc; d'XXouc; — Tncrreuouv 
dYaGuuTaTa, ttujc; KaTi (3ej3aia Hexiupicrro 6d eivai, TreiGouv tov 
eauTo touc;, ttujc; era"i 0d eivai, xacruoupeiouvTai, avaKXaoKovTai, 
Kai TteqpTOUv euxapicnrriuevoi vd KOi|ur|GoGv. TTrdpxouv d'XXoi cro- 
(poXoTiuJTaTOt, oxt toctov auuf3iPaoTiKoi, Kai XoYiKurrepoi, ttoO, 
<pucriKd)TaTa, eivai dvriurropoi vd x^veiyouv Tf)V Texvri Kai ty\ 
<pr\ixr) toO ipdXTri tujv j/EXeuGepujv TToXiopKrmevujv" ' juovo ttou bev 
exouv aKojar] to Gdppoc; Kai rr\ buvaui, vd enrouve Kai Yid kovov 
aqpofta Kai ueYaXoqpwva Kai Hervoiaora Sera KorcaviEouv -fid d'XXouc;, 
ttou uecra touc; Kauoio aTua (3pd£ei ZoXwuiko, ud ttou bev touc; 
Xauirpuvei Kai tou ZoXujuoO r\ boEa. Kd-nota dvaTTobid iXapo- 
TpayiKn ebw Trepa qpavepr) YiveTai oto vou oto tfTOxaoTiKO. c O 
XoXujuoc; pepaia be bo£a£eTai ercri Hextuptcrrd, Yid tt]v dTdirri tou 
Trpoc; ty\v TraTpiba* 6 7iaTpiujTia|Li6^, XP^°S i € P° T °u dvOpubrrou, 
be qrrdvei uovoc; vd cpopecrrj tou Troiryrf] to crrecpavo Tfjg dGava- 
oiac;- oto. epya jr\q Texvn,c; t' dra0d atcfGr|uaTa bev e£eTa£ovTai. 
Tuvouc; TTpoc; Trjv eXeuGepia Kai TTpoc; tov aYwva juac; e'Ypaipav 
jue dvaXoyri 6puf| qnXoTraTpfac;, crtrfxpovoi tou XoXujuoO, arriv i'bia 
€TTOxnv dirdvuj KaTcu, 6 Piloc; NepouXoc;, 6 TTavaytumiS Xouto~oc; 
Kai dXXoi. Kai ttujc; eKeivoi be XoYapid£ovTai yid touto, Kai ttujc; 
touc; arixouc; eKeivujv touc; Gdiyaue paGeid crrd xwuaTa t^cj XriGrjq, 
ttujc; bev dfujviIojLiaaTe k' eKeivwv t' aYaXuaTa vd crrricrouue; TiaTi 
eKeivoi, ocro ki dv beixvouv TrXouata tx\v dYdirri Tfjc; iraTpibac;, 
exouve OTevf) Trj qpavTacria Kai uiKpr] Trjv Texvrj, aYvdvTia o"to 
ILieYaXocpdvTaaTO Kai o~to ueYaXoTexvo TpaYOubiCTTri tou "Yjuvou. 
TiaTi be bo£aZo\ie tov dv0pumo jue tx\v Kapbidv, dXXd tov KOirjTr] 
jiie to vou, Tr| cpavTaala Kai xf| Geia Trvorj, ir\v ibea Kai ty\ popcpr), 
to o"Ttxo Kai to puGjuo, tv) YXujcrcra Kai to Xoyo tou ZoXujjliou 
dxujpiO"Ta. K' ebu> eivai f) dvairobid. c O ZoXujuoc; iprjXd v' dva- 
CTuXujveTai Kai vd Ka|uapubveTai diro Xaov 6XoKXrjpo, Kai ocroi 
pXe-rrouv TTpoc; eKeivov, Kai ojaocpuXoi tou eivai Kai 6jLi6GprjcTK0i Kai u.' 
eva TpoTTo SexujpicrTov 6 KaGevaq, ojliujc; eKeivou ad vd cpiXoboEouve 
vd crujuTrXripujo"ouv to ?pyo, i^iovo ttujc; bey KOujuaTid£ovTai diro Ka- 
ttoiouc; TToXuGopujSouc; Kai HaqpviCT|Lievouc;, ttou TreqpTOuv KaTaTrdvou 
toucj Kpd^ovTac; Kai GuuiZiovTac; toik; KopaKec; Tf\c; TTivbapiKfjc; ibbfjcj. 
TTrdpxei judXiaTa qpiXoXoYia. Ae Gd eiTcf] |u' auTO, ttujc; 6'Xa 
pobiva Td pXerruj, Kai ttujc; KaGe o"tixo Kai ttujc; KaGe YP<Wri id 



284 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

pouqpuj ad YocXa. Tirapxei, 6'juujcj u.Tropoucre KaXuTepa Kai ttXoucfiuj- 
xepa vd UTrapxr)' M-d f\ dcpopjur], ttoO KpaieT KaTrwcj dcTieviKT] Kai 
Kdrriucj b€juevr| jr\ qpiXoXoYia juac;, eivat too ttoXu ££urrepiKri, oev 
eivat tocto JcruuTepiKn • be cpiaiei tocto 6 voucj, oaov 6 depag yvpw 
tou. "EKdjua oty]V dpxr) ir)v TTapaTriprjtft, mug xd epya xfjg qpav- 
Taoiag bev exouv 6'vou.a HexwpitfTO cttov totto u.ag. Eivai Kai 
Kan dXXo, ttoO be auu.{3aivei u.ovaxd o~' e\xd<; ebw. C H Trevva eivai 
to koivov 6'pYOtvo, ttoO CTrjjLieiuuvei irj Yvwjun tou Kai 6 Troir]Tr|g 
Kai Kd9e u.eXavwTif]cj tou xapTiou. Kai Xoittov 6 jueXavuDTrjcj qpav- 
TaairiKe, ttujcj CTuYYeveuei Me tov Troir]Tr|, Kai irwg exei biKaiuujua 
v' aKOuOTrj Kai vd Tijun^fl °" av eKeivov Kai vd tov diriKpivr) Kai 
vd tov aqpuptHr) ! Kai Xoittov crraupoqpopta Kaxd tou Trourrri, adv 
tov iroXejuo, ttoO Gd Kipurrav crrtTpecj Y^vaiKeg Kai Y^POVTOKopiTtfa 
KaTa jLtrjTepujv, ttou Kai TTponjTra ojwopqptdcj av bev eivai Ta iraibid 
toucj, TrdXi (Sapaivouv ttio ttoXu anb toucj (rfovoug oraupoqpopoug. 
K' e-rreibn cty\v c EXXdba 6 jueXavujTrig, evevrivTaevvea Toig kaio, 
mcTTeuei, Trujg jue ocro dpxaiKUJTepa Xoyici Kai TUTroug jUTraXubcrr] 
Td Ypot^pojuevd tou, too~o eXXr^viKduTepa oroxd£eTai Kai tocto juoid£ei 
tou 0ouKubibr| Kai toO ZocpoKXf], KaTacppovei tov TroiriTr) * YiotTi 6 
TTOiryrrig TrdXi, KaTa evevrivTaevvea Toig eKaTO, TTiGTeuet, mug ocro 
auu.q)ujv6Tepa Ta XoYia tou 6Xa Td puGjuitfr) u.e Td brijuoxiKd Tpa- 
Youbia (nag Kai jue Trjv eYKapbia yXibGGa Tfjg ZuuvTavflg Tprfupw 
tou * oXdvoiXTriS Zwi\<;, dAXo tocto &Ei£ei vd euXoYnGfi dno Toug 
e Ou.r|poug Kai dmo Toug ITXaTiuveg. K' ?to"i 6 TTOir]Tr)g eYive u.aX- 
X lap 6c;. Me t' ovojua toOto pdqpTio*e — 8d eirrf) jaid juepa f) 
'laropia — TTpocrruxog Kaipog dvTiTrotr]TiKdjTaTog KaGeTi ttou etxe 
q ttou rjGeXe vd Kajur) cpTepd. 



III. SPECIMENS OF DIALECT. 

1. Prom Bova. 
(Lower Italy, near Reggio) 

In this and the following selection the transcription (c/. § 1 n.) 
employed by the editors Morosi and Comparetti has been retained. 
A few signs have been borrowed from the Italian orthography; thus, 
ccM=k Jo', z=(v)tC dz (but 3i=f 3), gn—vi n' ; 6 stands for top c (§ 17), 
h' = German h (spiritus asper), 71=10. On d<} } v. § 31, n. 2. 

Mdgni 1 ) Jcazzedda 2 ), me hanni 2 ) pepdni% 
Na pepdni me Mnni esu, kazzedda. 
Sa mme tunda' ) lucchidcia 6 ) kanundi, 
Mu sSrri tin gardia me tin gordidda. 
Sa mmu plaUgui 7 ), pizzi ce jeldi. 
To joco 8 ) mu Mnni ti alupudidda. 
Ma cini imSra kali ih'ji na 6rti, 
Na su siro to 6ma sa mmia avdidda. 

Translation into the ordinary language : 

*0|uop<po Kopixai, u£ Kdve\<; vd ireOdvtw, 
Nd TT€0dvw u£ Kdv€t^ tab, Kopixai* 
Zd(v) ue 'toOvcx 5 ) uardKict (|u£) Gujpeu;, 
MoO adpvei$ xnv Kapbid ui Tnv KopbiWa. 
Xd(v) |li£ ui\dei<;, iraiZeis Kal te\dei<;, 
To traiYvibi |uou Kdvei<; Tfjs d\umoO$. 
Md Keivri u^pa Ka\n. £x& v <* 2p9n> 
Nd aou aOpw t6 alua crd(v) |uud dpo&Aa. 

2 ) magno, " beautiful." *) « maiden." *) v. § 29 n. *) Frag- 
ment of the infinitive, cf. § 277, n. 1. In the next line the same form is 
treated as a stereotyped subjunctive (3rd pers. sing, instead of 1st). 
*) Cf. § 144. 6 ) Ital. word with a Gk. suffix (-dti). *) § 23 n. «) Ital. 
word. 



*9 



285 



286 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

2. From Calimera in the Terra <T Otranto. 
(Lower Italy, near Lecce) 

On the transcription, see the note to No. 1. c=k before a, o, w\ 
ch=K before e, i\ c=t&; gh before e> t=-y(t); 3=C; dd=id in No. 1; 
y\t has the value of /s, t?. § 35, n. 2. 

CaUdda 1 ) xyiximmu. 

Ep6a 2 ) a mdddia dicuma ecanonistisasi% i cardia mu en 
m'ecame pleo*) napldso 5 ), ce panda pensSi 6 ) se sena ce teli 1 ) na 
cusi na milisune ghi'esena, ce mu vdddi pu issu 8 ), ce senza 9 ) na 
yero 10 ), evotd 11 ) turtea sto spitissu; cepoa cuo i font ndicheddasu 12 ), 
Xanno o milimma, a mdddia mu scuridzune, o musomu n ) o sdzi 
fondsi u ) pesammino lh \ a pddia etUlune pUo na pradisune ambrd, 
ce epetta 16 ) eci mesa, an evd en pensone 11 ) ca is ) mu sozune jeldsi 1 *) 
ecini pu en eyirune ti 4%p sti cardiamu ce possi lumera 19 ) esu 
movale cittin 20 ) emira pu ca 21 ) ecanonistisomma 22 ). 

Pisteo ca etteli ddda Uja — stipa posso se gapo — ghizi arte 
se sina na mu pit pdsso me gapd. Elimonizi n ) na mu mbieyi 2 *) 
in agdpissu? Cdmeto prista 2b \ ca evd steo n ) me ena poda cimisa 
ce me tdddo s6na nimma. 

Stdsu call ce pinsa 21 ) pdnda se mena. 

Translation into the ordinary vernacular : 
KaXrj ijajx^ |mou. 
"Oxav t& indTta rot bim \xaq frvraixuiQ^Kave, r\ Kapbid |nou be n' 
€Kd|ui€ iri6 vd koi^Ou) Kai irdvTa auXXofiCeTai a' iaiva, Kai 6d\ei v' dnouar] 
vd |ui\fiaouve fid aiva k<x! ui pdWei dird judaa, Kai x^pk v « Hdpuj, £pxo|aai 
dbw irepa o*to ottiti o*ou* Kai Sxav dKouuu tr\ cptuvn rt\ b\Kr\ aou, \dvw 
to imiXTijua, Td indxia juou OaiairiOvovrai, rd irp6auJTr6 jnou jtiTropeTt; vd to 

2 ) -edda, i.e. -ella, an Ital. diminutive suffix. 2 ) ep6a=oTr6rav 9 

on the loss of the r, v. § 22 n. ; initial r has also dropped off in the 
article (o=to, i=Trjv). 3 ) Cf. n. 22 ; for the termination, v. § 214, 

n. 4. 4 ) ple'o, v. § 10, n. 1. 5 ) pUnno " sleep." 6 ) § 199, I. 1. a. n. 

The stem of the word is Ital. (pensare). 7 ) v. § 20, n. 1. 8 ) "it 

drives me out " (pu <fssu=a7r6 ?<ra>). 9 ) Ital. 10 ) § 35, n. 2. «) " I 
approach." 12 ) § 143, n. 2. 13 ) muso, Ital. 14 ) § 224, 3. n. 3. 

15 ) § 20, n. 1. 16 ) § 14, n. 2. 17 ) Ital. form. 18 ) Ital. ca-che 

"that." 19 ) Ital. 20 ) =K€tf)v rrju (cf. ettdlune from en triune) ; 

K€i6s, § 146, n. 1. 21 ) Cf. n. 18 ; ca is pleonastic here. 22 ) The 

aorist pass, is here enlarged by -sa- instead of -*a- or -va- (cf. § 208). 
23 ) v. p. 136. 24 ) mbie'vo, Ital. verb with a Greek present formation 

(-eva>). 26 ) Ital. 26 ) § 22 n. ^ 7 ) Ital. form— imperative to 

pensare. 



TEXTS 287 

(puuvdaqq TreBau^vo, xd irobia b£(v) G&ouve irid vd irepirax^aouve ^Trpo<;, 
Kal (6d) ?TT£qpTa &cei \a£ool, av iy\h hi auXXoYiZ6|uouva, ttujc; rj6eXa jn£ *f eXdaei 
£k€ivoi ttoO b£v fi££pouve, xi £x w °" Ti n v Kapoid jliou Kai Ti6ar\ cpumd eaO 
uofSaXeg £K€ivri xriv f^pa ttoO dvxa|Mu6/|Ka|ji€. y 

TTicrretiu) ttun; o£ 9£Xei<; dXXa Xoyia — aoO Va ir6ao a' dyauui — 
irp&m xdbpa a' £o*£va vd uoO ttiJ|<; irdao jli' dYaTT^;. Ar]0|iov$<; vd JlIoO 
oibans xfjv dTdirri aou; Kdjme to Y^YOpa, T^t( ot6cw jn£ gva tt6oi £k€i 
ju^aa Kai jlx^ x' SXXo a' £va |avf||uia. 

Xxdaou KaXr) Kai auXXoYiZou navxa a' £uiva. 

3. Maina. 

For the pronunciation of <r and f, e/. § 28 : I have, however, some- 
times heard distinctly a pure o- on listening attentively. • As for the 
occasional dropping off of the -s, it was sometimes faintly audible. On 
t£=*c, cf. § 17. 

For the better understanding of the contents of both the elegies, 
which I wrote down in the year 1894 at the dictation of my Maniatic 
Agoyat, I here add (in somewhat abbreviated form) the information 
for which I have to thank the distinguished connoisseur of the m. Gk. 
popular art, Professor N. G. Politis of Athens: "Both elegies belong 
among the most popular in Maina. Both have reference to events 
of the fourth decade of the past (nineteenth) century. The first (a) is 
an elegy upon the death of Uapaa-Kevr) (UapaoTa-rj), the daughter of a 
certain Tprjyopis or Arjyopts (Ar)yopiT<ra). The mourner charges her to 
convey to her departed kin in the underworld tidings of a severe 
calamity which has overtaken the family, namely, that the fortified 
dwelling (' citadel ') of the family is besieged by the enemy. The besieged 
leader of the family is Tiapyos ^Kv^aKoyidvvrjs, who participated in the 
year 1834 in the insurrection of the Maniates against the regency of King 
Otto. The beleaguering party are Maniates allied with the Bavarian 
troops under General Feder. AiaKovoSiTo-ataKas is a Maniate of the 
name Aikcuos (see n. 4). The bastard' (jxovXos) of KaraelSapdovy or, 
more correctly, the bastards of K. were cowardly and stupid sons of 
a wealthy widow ; the * conies ' of Atov are the cowardly sons of the 
wife of a certain 'HAiaj, named contemptuously after their mother. The 
besieged (SKvXaicoyidvvrjs) was taken captive, and died in prison at 
Tripolitza. 

"The elegy (b) i^ also well known on account of the subject, a 
Maniatic vendetta which developed in a peculiar fashion. The husband of 
Arjyopov, namely, Ar]y6pts Berovkasy had been slain by Uirpos Ac6irov\os 9 who 
belonged to the same family, but after the murder came into conflict 
with his own relatives, on whom rested the obligation of avenging the 
murdered man. But because of the tie of kinship with the murderer 
they neglected to perform this obligation. The murdered man's wife 
(Ajjyopov) once went to Alika, a village in the department of Messa, on a 
visit to her relatives ; on the way thither she came through the village 
27T7j\iooTdviKa (near the village of M7roXapioi). In the former she saw the 



288 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

near relatives of the murderer ; and even the murderer himself. She 
greeted, and her kin returned the greeting, except the murderer, who not 
only refused to greet, but even derided her by punning upon the name of 
her late husband Berovkas (j3erovAi' a 'kid'). The murderer AiottovKos 
ironically proposes to pay blood-money for her husbaud, calculating the 
amount at highest at 9 piastres, i.e. about the price of a good kid. The 
widow, indignant over the insult, reveals her great perturbation when 
she came to her kin by not greeting them. Her brother-in-law Yannis, 
observing that it is something serious, approaches her and hears the 
words of the murderer. In other versions Arjyopov. reproaches him for 
leaving his brother unavenged. Yannis in wrath seizes his gun^and, 
with the devil's assistance, kills AiowovXos at his house from an ambush. 
He then flees and escapes to the house of the 2Kv\aKoyidwrjs, to whom 
elegy (a) refers." 

a. MotpoXoyi from Kitta. 

"E, AriYopiidcc napa<frdf|, 

*Av ev i6a\ tt&! 6tt\v koctou frfj 1 ), 
Nd Tifil toOv dGpumwve 2 ) )ua 3 ), 

"On TO K&CTTpO KpOUl€Tai* 

To KpoOei 6 BaftouXoXuxc; 

Tcfai 6 AiaKOvofcud'aiaKal 4 ) 
T<Jai 6 juoOXog ir\<; KaicfepapboOl 

T6a\ t& KOuveXta if\<; AioG£. 
*EXa vd chjcpuuyn#ujjuie 

y Avrpe 6 ) ivvaiT&e 6 ) duvTeid 
Zepovrec; 1 ) rdai jutKpd Tiatibd 6 ), 

Nd Tfjv dpTOt^WM-' airo 'to 
Tr| feuovia Tf|v Kaiidd 7 ), 

TiaTt iiuf\ bkv Ix ^- 

b. MoipoXoyt from MTrokapioi. 

Mtd dKoXrj idat \x\a idvpaTdf] 

Tcfai |aid 5euT€pa in 5 ) Aa|UTrpf]| 

"Ovt' apbtviddr' f] AriTOpoO 

Nd 7rd droOv dGpunrujve tti|, 

Bdj^ei 6 ) KouXXoutpa 6 ) 6ty\\x Troiod, 
K6t<W auyd dir\ couvapid, 

2 )§27. 2 )§62. 3 )=/Li5y. 4 ) The name AtKaZos is turned 

into contempt with Sicikovo- (BiaKovidpis) "beggar" and the pejorative 
suffix -a™? (Politis). *)§29n. 6 ) § 8, n. 2. 7 ) § 111. 



TEXTS 281) 

TTepa<£' and jovq MTuouXa'ipou| 

Tcft octto id iTrriXiuuidiviKa. 
Xdjuou drr| poirfa KdGouvia. 8 ), 

Teh oXouc; touc; edatpencre 9 ), 
Kaveva 10 ) 5ev ejuiXride, 

M' 6 n ) TTexpoq 6 AiorrouXos 
EiTre* „KaXu)c; ty\ AriTopoO, 

KaAaig Trj, KaXOuc; uipide^, 
Mcuipn 6 ), aju naq axouv dGpumwve aou, 

TTe| tou| vd Kdjuoujue KaXd, 
Td' ^|LieT^ tou| to TrXepwvojLie 

,T<klvo to iraXiopeTOuXo 12 ) 
Nf) e£t ypocftx vr| Td' eqpTd, 

"E, (frrjv dKpif3eiajot§ Trdei to 1 ' frvvid". 
'ETcretvn perrevfa'TriTde 

To -1 ebidrj 13 ) orouv dGpumiuve tk]<;, 
Xdjuou cfrr) pouya Trepade 

Tdai 5ev tou| edaipencte. 
Zdvvric:/) cfocpoc; TO"ai YvtutfTiKOS 

Xr)Kiu0r]Tde Tdai Tr|v IqpTade' 
,,Mu/ipr|, KaXuj^ Trj ArjfopoO, 

KaX0u| Tr), KaXu>£ tuples, 
Miu'ipri, ti 'vai fj Trucpa £ou, 

Tt 'vai to |uapd£i £ou;" — 
„Ti vd £e u ) 'ttou, dcpevTdTch jaou, 

TTepaa"' (xtto tou MrrouXaipous 
Tdi drro Td iTrrjXtujTdiviKa. 

Xdjuou &ty\ pouya KdGouvTa, 
Tdi 8Xou£ tou£ eaaipemda, 

Kaveva 10 ) be juou jLiiXrjd'e, 
M' 6 TTeTpo^ 6 AiottouXo^ 

EiTre- e KaXuj| Tr| ArjYOpoO, 
*Av Trd§ aToGv dGpumuuve cou, 

TTeg Touq vd Kdjuoujue KaXd, 
Td' ejueig tou$ to TcXepOuvojue 

Tdeivo to iraXioPeTouXo 12 ) 

») 3rd plur. ») § 21. 10 ) = K ai/eW. ") =/zoVo <J. *») See 
the introductory note and § 41a, 1. b. 1S ) § 208. 14 ) § 135, n. 1. 



200 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Nr) e'Hi Ypocfa vr\ t#' Iqrrd, 

*E, &ty\v dKpipeiq_ct£ irdei t#' £ivvidV_ c 
Zdvvrjg epeiTevidTnTde, 

Zto cfrriTi tou eibdr|T^■e 15 )• 
„nd bo 16 ) jliou, vucpri, to daXjuct, 

Nd irduj la 1 ) to p65i jua 3 ), 
Tdi a bev epGou 17 ) ub£ to irpuii, 

PiEeTe to x a ^iTdi juou 18 ) 
T& ejueva u.£ tou BeTouXa". 

Xto bpou.o TTpui 19 ) eirdicaive 20 ), 
"Eva peTOuXi (3eXa£e- 

„*EXa KovTd juou, tfarravd, 
Ndi 6 ) biopbwctou Trj bouXeid". 

4. Aegina. 
'0 pcccxiXeas "Yttvo^. 

Mia 1 ) cpopd tct' 2 ) eva TOaipo 2 ) f|Tave £va$ pacriXea^ 1 ), "Y- 
irvoq t' ovo|ud tou. AiirXa eiq to TraXdn £KaGoTave |uia cpTwxn 
Kopri Tcrai HevobouXeue TCai '£oucre. 'EvuxTopeue Tcrai ovTeq tx\<; 
IpXOTave 6 urrvoq vd TcroujuriGfj 3 ), frraipve KOUToia to"' eTpwe Ttf' 
?Xee- „flpGeg, uttve, KaXwg flpGeq, cpde KouTcria Taai qpuye." Att" 
6Hu) r]Tave f] bwbeKdba tou paaiXea to' dtKOUTae 4 ) vd Xer] f\ Koptv 
},fjp0eq, uTive, KaXdig rjpGec;, cpde koutoIoi Tcrai cpirfe." Enrave* „o y 
ami] ty] cpTuuxn Kopri eivat 6 pacriXeag juaq jueffct." Trjv dXXrj 
vuxTa TifiYe f) buubexaba toO paaiXea v' dKouar] ti GdjiTrfj. 5 E- 
Taeivr) vuxTopeue, to' ovTeq Tfjg epxoTccye 6 uttvos, eXee* „npGeq 7 
uirve, KaXu>s npGeg, Trdpe to o"Ka|uvi Tcrai KdTOe." Autoi ^Xeave* 
„6 paaiXeas jaaq eivai jueaa." Triv d'XXr) vuxtci TrdXi fi buubtKdba 
tTTfjTe v' axouari, ti Gd^eiTifjjfi Koprj, tct' dfaouTOe Td i'bia Xoyia. 
ToTe<g env^e f\ bujbeKdba orf) judvva tou paaiXea toou Tfjg enre T 
8ti 6 pacriXeas Trcrraivei KdGe vi^tcx a' amf\<; tt\<z cpTuuxfl^ Kop^c; 
t6 o*7TiTt. "Ovtgs t' aKOUTae f] u.dvva tou, tov ecpwvaEe TOai toO 

16 ) § 208. 16 ) =5aio-€ (So'ff). 17 ) § 213, n. 3. 18 ) The sense 

is: "consider me also like BeVovAas- as dead." In Greece the custom of 
piling up stones on the spot where a murder took place is wide-spread. 
19 ) =7roC. 20 ) =eVdya«/€. 

!) v. § 10, n. 1. 2 ) § 17. 3 ) § 6, n. 4, and § 17 n. 

4 ) § 202, n. 1. 



TEXTS 291 

eme* „ttujs Kaxacppovdeig xov £auxo aou, pqp'iXeaq ecru Kaxabexe- 
aai vet iraTaivr)^ KaGe vuxtcx a' amr[<; T*ng qpTuuxfis Kopris to airm;" 
— „ 5 Eyu> oifre Kdv ty\v exiu t&uujLi^va (TT& juotria jliou." — „Nd 
irdipris axo eSf]£, Traibi juou, vd miYaivris. TiaTi; bioTi be aou 
Kdjuet Tijurj." 

'EcpuuvaEe Ta' auxfi xr) cpTuuxn Koprj xaai xfls eme* „aTo 
eHfJg vd jLirjv exgs T ^ <JX^* T ou PaaiXea, vd jurjv xov bexeaai axo 
(TTrixi aou, Yictxi xi exeis vd Trepdaris!" — Trjs erne* „Troxe bev 
eyive xoGxo* Yiaxi eijuai aEa 5 ) 'yw juia cpxiuxn Koprj vd bexwjuai 
xo paaiXea axo arrixi juou; u AXXd xo 'Trfipe ttoXu emTiovou fj Koprj, 
bev rjEepe xi vd Kavrj. 7r\<; eXeav 0X01, 5xi 6 paaiXea<g ^TrrjYaive 
crxo arrixi xr|<;. TTidvet Xonrov Taai pdvei Travid crxf) TaouXia 3 ) xrj<g 
xcrai Kavei xo vjjeuxoYYacTTpiujLievo, PYaivei o£uj crxfiv auXrj, KaGexai 
Trdvuu ae juia ipdQa xaai bevei axfjv (kpri TrjS eva dXoxiepa xaai 
xpapoOae xn tpdGa ad Kapoxaa. 'EuepaKave 4 ) xpeig juoipe<;, Tfjv 
eibave xa' eYeXaKave u.' oXr] touc; xf)v Kapbia xaai eirrave* „xpeic; 
Xpovou? ei'xa ( ue vd Y^Xdaiujue xa' auxf] judg ?Kave vd Y^Xdacujue 
jli' 8Xrj jua<5 xfjv Kapbia*. xi vd xife euKrjGoOjue; vd xfjg euKrjOoOjue 
xo ipeuxoYYdaTpiujad xrj^ vd Yivr] dXr]9iv6, vd ppeOfJ axd xepxa 
xr]<; eva rraibi ibio$ 6 (toaiXeas "Yttvo^' f] tydOa vd Yivr] juia 
djua£a xpuafj, 6 dXoxTepa^ vd Yivr] eva dxi XP U G"6, xa' auxr) vd 
KaGexai axf] juear] T *te Kapoxaag xaai vd ppeGfj axou TraXaxiou 
xrjv Tropxa, xaai vd frixrjaouve oXoi Yid (SaaiXiaaa xaai vd irdpr] 
xo paaiXea xov "Ytivo vd Yivr] PaaiXiaaa." 

'Q xoO Gdjuaxos vd yivouv oXa ottuus tx\<z euKnGnvav' 6 ) oi 
•aoTpeg, vd xf) bexioOve oXoi jue jaeYaXr] euKapiaxnai, xo Traibi vd 
eivai ibio<g 6 paaiXea^ 6 "Yttvo^ vd eiTrouve oXor „xo Traibi eivai 
xoO paaiXea "Yttvou, Taai Trpeirei vd Tri aTecpaviuGri." Tou Xeei 
f\ jLidvva tou* „ti KaGeaai; To uaibi eivai biKo aou Taai TTpe-rrei 
vd Trj aTe(pavuuGfi<s." ToTeg Ta' 6 flaaiXeas to maTevpe Ta' aiiToq 
xa' dirocpdaixae vd xrj axecpaviuGfj. "ApYava, xoujurrava, x a P^ M €_ 
YdXeg* xr| aTeqpavubGriTae 6 paaiXeag Ta' eYive paaiXiaaa, kdGiTae 
aTo Gpovo Ta J dZiouaave eTaeivoi KaXd tTaeT, Ta' ejueig ebib ttio 
KaXuxepa. 

5. Ios. 

This story was told me by a very aged woman from the ranks of 
the common folk. The intermixture with forms not genuinely dialectical 
is striking. Palatalised < (§ 17) was pronounced- mostly as to-, but often 
approached a to- (tct). 

5 ) § 10, n. 4. 6 ) § 208 and § 221, n. 3. 



6- 



292 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

e O <S>\opedivo<;. 

*Htov ?vag paaiXea^ Taai eixe KaKouad orb TaecpdXr 
PaaiXeas Taai \xk tt\ Kaxouad jiTTopouae vd TrapiaiaaTfj. To 
jueTaxeipiEouda iroXXoi Yiaipoi, vd fl&vr) fj Xeupa* ttou efye ctto 
TaeqpdXi tou. Meaa aiaoi iroXXoi Yiatpoi 1 ) eupeGri evaq dXXos 
TictTpo^. Tou Xeei 6 Tiaxpo^* „paaiXea jaou, be Yiaivei<g u.e fK*- 
Tpixd, a bev eupris eva paaiXonaibo vd to aqpdEqs, vd Tpiqpxfi 
to Taijua tou vd Y^vr] KaXd". s A<pou tou to 'ire 6 yiaTpoq, ep- 
Xivicre v' dvaaTevdEr] • „ttoO 8d 'ppw t£toio iraibi vd to a<pd£ur," 
C H Kopr| tou f) TTpurrri toO Xeei. „Vwda 2 ) dvaaTevd£ei$ ;" — „riaTi 
bev ?xw dx^pi vd juou qpepr) auTo to Traibi". ToO Xeei f\ KOpn 
tou • „|uf) TiiKpaiveaai Tcrai Kdjae £v' dpu-au.eato 2 ) paatXiKo, vd yivu) 
KaTieTdvio^, f) jmid aou Kopr| vd l\xnr] Ka|uapiepa, f\ dXXr| XocTTpou-og' 
vd pdXr)<; 8Xr| ir\ Kou&dvia judaa Taai tou$ u.apivepous". 

"EireiTa r\q>ve to ttXoio Taai irdei oty\v Eupunrri, ottou ?i£epav, 
8ti eivai evaq paaiXeas Ta' efye jaovov eva iraibi aepviKo. 'Qq 
KaGuu^ to pXeirei 6 paaiXeag to ttXoio, Xeei Tcrfj paatXiaaa^- 
„ar|Kuu, paaiXiaaa, vd auYupiaTfjs * Taai auTo to ttXoio ttou 
'pxeTai eivai paaiXiK6, Taai Kavevas paaiXea<; \xdq to Kdvei irea- 
Taeai". T6t€ cpeuyei 6 paaiXeas Ta' y\ paaiXiaaa Taai to iraibi 
Tiuve 6 Oiopeefivos 2 ) to*' dnfiav ctto ttXoio to paaiXiKo. c Qq kolQujc, 
to eibav to uaibi, tou 'Kajuav Toaeg Taipinoyies Taai KO&XiuivTa* 
totc ?ipYaXav Td cpar|Td Taai Kd6iaa vd cpqtve. MeTd to benrvo 
aeppipave Taoi Kacpebec, aTou iraibiou to #aq>e 2 ) efyav uttvo* 
eTaoijnr|9r| to Traibi. A£ei r\ paaiXiaaa aTo paaiXea* „paaiXea |iou 
TToXuxpovejueve |liou, vd cpuuujLie, y^t( enepaae f) uipa". 'ETaeive^ 
oi Kopes aTaenaaav to iratbi Taai tou 'bwaav Taai dXXo uttvo, 
Taai nf\e to Traibi aTov d'XXo Koajuo 3 ). *H paaiXiaaa ^irfje Taai 
tou Xeei* „ar|Kuj, Traibi -aou, vd TTTiaivoujue". Totc TrapiaiaaTrJKave 
ejuTTpoq i\]<; dTaeive<5 oi Kope^ tou dXXouvou paaiXea Ta' eiTrav 
„YiaTi 0d irdpri<; to iraibi aou vd Kpudbar), ttou eivai vuxTa; Mhttuu^ 
Ta' e^aaTe Koupadpibe^ Taai cpopeiaai; 'Ejneig eif-iaaTe paaiXmo 
dp|nau.ecfo. To TTpuui 9d to ar|KU)auu|iie, vd to qpepujjae aTrdvaj aTo 
PaaiXeio aou". T& Ineua 70f\ Xeei 6 paaiXea^ • „b£ bexpalex 2 ), dq 
dcprjauujie to iraibi vd \xr\ Kpudjar)". "Eqpue 6 paaiX^ \ie ty\ 
paaiXiaaa Taai TTfjav aTo iraXaTi Tiuve. 'Qq KaGdjq qpeuYei 6 
paaiXea^, ^ar|Kuu0r|Kave, daapTrdpave Tfjv dYKOupa ttoXu aiYd Taai 

2 ) § 62, n. 1. 2 ) § 15, n. 2. 8 ) An exaggerated expression for 

" sank into deep slumber." 



TEXTS * 293 

cpuave. 'EcpTaEave aio fcaTepa Twve. To uaibi ivtcc nKajue ; r|KXaie 
to iraibi. Zdv ecpTdEave, fixctpn 6 paaiXeag, ottou toO cpepave 
Tiaibi, TCTai f)TraiEe Kavovieg duo Trj xapd tou. To Trflpav to Tiaibi 
Taai to Tnqave dirdvuj (Sib fcaTepa Tiuve. Autos duo ix\ xapd tou 
£u.r|vuae toO Yiorrpou vd Trdr] (Tto raxXaTi, fiaTi rjupe Tiaibi vd to 
acpdEouve. ToTe tou Xeei 6 TiaTpog- „(taaiXea u.ou, r|0eXau.e pa- 
aiXtKo Traibi, fid vd 'vai to faT|aa tou Ka0ap6. Tdupa a to aqpdErjs, 
irepiaaoTepo Kaxo 0d Kavris uapd KaXo* direibf) duo Td xXdjuaTa 
Td TToXXd, ottou f|Kau.e to Traibi, eivai to Yatya tou dvaKaTuuu.evo 
jue ix\ x ^ 1 !- Movo vd to Trdg ctto TrepipoXi aou u.e u.id aou Koprj, 
vd Kdvouve aapdvTa uipe^, vd Tpiuve, vd YXedKouve, vaKa0apiarj 
to YortMa 4 ) tou". 

'EcpTdEave oi aapdvTa u.epe$ vd to acpdEouve to TTpuut. 
Totg toO Xeet f] Koprp jjOiopedive u.ou, irea' aTrctviu juou aTa 
TovaTa juou vd ere ipetpiaw". To Otope^tvo tov dirfipe 6 uTrvoq. 
"Hpxicrevd KXair) f) KOpr]. Td baKpud Tarjg rinecpTave dTrdvuu tou. 
ToTe EuTrvrjae jue Td bdxpud xarj^, Taai toO ' Xee f| Kopr)* „ttujs 
0d to 'bu> vd ak acpdEouve;" — „Taai vd u.£ acpdEouve;" — Tctc 
Xeei f| Kopr) ■ „0d ae acpdEouve, ticcti ^X ei ° TraTepag juou KaKouad 
Taai 0eXei to YaTjua aou, vd tou Trepdar)". ToTe Tar| dTTOKpiveTai* 
„Ta' depou ^£ Xundaai, be cpeuYOjue;" — „0eirfO|ue, XtKo^naou 
KOjULjudTi' 1 . 'ETrije aTo iraXdTi tou iraTepa Tarjs t& dirflpe TroXXd 
Xpr|)naTa, Taai ar)Kuu0r|Kave Taai cpuave. To iruupvo dirrjave vd 
*ppo#ve to Oiope^Tvo vd Tove acpdEouve. "HTave 6 OiopecZTvog 
cpeuydTo? Ta' r\ Kopri toO paatXea. ToTeg Xeet f) paaiXiaaa tou 
paatXea* „Trr|aive vd Taoi TTpocpTdErjg". 'Eirriaive* Xeei TOTe f) 
Kopn tou paaiXea toO Oiopetfivou • „Yupiae vd 'brig maw aou, ti 
dvecpaXo epxeTat". Tafj Xeer „epxeTat KOTatvo dvecpaXo". — 
„Nd aou bubaw juid TtaTad, vd ae Kd|uuu ^KKXriad 5 ) Ta' eva KaXo- 
epdxai 6 ) vd arjiaaivrig ir\ gdbava. Ta' £y^ 6d y^vuu juid Y«tfTpa 
paatXiKo". 

^EireiTa ?jcpTaEe 6 iraTepag Tarig- „xaXoepdTai, bev eibeg 
Kavev' adpa Taai u.id Y^vaiKa vd uepdaouv duo 'bub;" — „Trj 
gabava juou arjjLiaiviu, ty\ gab&va \xov fvpe\)f\x) il . '0 paaiXeag 
r|aTpdcpri T o^ niauj aTo iraXdTi. ToO Xeei fj paaiXiaaa* „be Ta J eu- 
pfJTaeg;" Aeer „6xi, juid YdaTpa eibajne [xk paaiXiKo Ta' eva 
KaXoepaTai u . Aeer „auToi *Tave # Ytd vd Trduu ^\b l \ Taai irriaivei. 
PujTd r\ Kopr]' „ti dvdcpaXo ?pxeTai;" — ,^EpxeTai jaaOpo dvecpaXo". 

4 ) § 23. 5 ) § 10, n. 4. 6) § 22. 



294 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Acer „jLidvva jliou eivai. Twpa vd aou biuauu juid TraTad, vd a£ 
Kajnuu Xijavrj, xa' &fih jaid ixdma vd aou .aegYiaviaw jnecra. Ta' 
iioeivr] 0d |LioO Xeer ai xyarepa 7 ), Trdpe rove Ta' eXa, bev rj£epei£ 
Tn buaruxia |Lia^". 'AqpoO bev erosive, TOf\ Xeei rj [SaaiXiaaa • 
„£Xa au jixovri to' dqpnae auTove". r ETaeivr] r\ K6pr\ tox\<;, Yid 
vd iriv euKapicrrricrri, crcriaive ejuTrpo^ ejunpos ott\ Xi)nvr|, dXXd to 
T(jOjLia xrjv frraipve irdXi jueaa. 'EpapiaTiae f) judvva Taai xafj Kara- 
priairi Taai tcj' eine* „ v Ajue, Kopr| jliou, Taai judvva yio qpiXriar) Taai 
aeva Xriauovriar)" 8 ). 

'Hqpuave Taai Trrjave cririv Traipiba tou iraibiou. Taai tgx) 
Xeei to iratbi- „Kd8icre rrabd, vd Trdw vd cpepw juouarraeg, au- 
dleveiq jliou, vd ae icaTepdaojue |u£ juouaiTari". Ta' l-neua Trfje 
auxoc; ctto cnrixi Tuuve t& f\ |ur|Tepa tou Fj6eXe vd Tove cpiXricrr). 
„"Oxi, vd \ir\ fi£ cpiXricrr]^, |uaKpeid! Movo 0eXu> vd 'ToijuaaTf) f) 
jaoucrixcrfi tct' oi aud£eve?s, vd irdjue vd KaTepdaojue Trj yuvaiKa 
juou". BacriXiKog opiajuog, ^To^aaxriKave djueawq oXa. To Oio- 
pecftvo tov irfjpe 6 uttvo^. TTr|aivei 9 ) r\ jurjTepa tou Taai Tcroijaicjuevo 
to cptXeT. Ta' erreiTa tou Xeei f\ juiyrepa- „ar|Kw, iraibl jliou, oi 
ovdlevexq f|pxave 10 ), oi jLiouanraeq ^Toijue^, vd Tid^ vd cpepqq Trj yu- 
vaiKa aou". — ,,'Eyw bev ?xw YuvaiKa". e H (SaaiXiaaa erne* „vd 
qpuouve Td Tiaixvibia tcj' oi aud£eveis, Taai to iratbi jliou bev ?x €l 
YuvaiKcr juovov r|TOv duo to bpojao ZxtXiajaevos Taai to 'ire". 
'ETaeivr] Tt vd Kavr) ; to KaTaXape. "Enfjpe to bp6juo Taai KaTe^r] 
oty\ x^pa. ToTe Xeer „£va arcm bev eiv' ebib vd to vorradaur, 
Taai vd |uou 'ppouve jixid bouXa". 

e O Oiopedivos eixe eV d£dbepcpo, to 1 oi by 6 qpiXoi ripYd- 
vave TrepmaTo. "HTave juepog ottou Trepvoucre to (Tttiti ttou nTtiacre 
f\ YvvaiKa tou. v HTOve to (TOKaTcri ottou 'irrepva ai>T6g. e O d£& 
bepcpog tou 6 criop TTecpavog tct' oi buo tou qpiXoi Tr|V eibave 
tcj' emave* „ti ubpaia vea!" e O Oiope^ivog eme- „auTf) adq dpeaei 
f) TraXioYuvaiKa;" ToTe 6 criop XTecpavoq tcth bouXa Tcrriq 11 ) tct' erne* 
„Yid ire Tcrf] KOKova aou 12 ) vd Tafl bubacu xikia. -rre^aKoaa ypooa, 
vd 'pxw to ppdbu". TTdei Taai Tafj to Xeer „djLie vd aoO Td bduar) 
Taai vd 'pxq"- TaTepduTepa Tiaei f] bouXa Taai Td Tiaipvet, Ta' e- 
Taeivo^ puuTa, ti i&pa vd 'px*]. „TTecZe ulpa". 'E-rrfie auToq Trjv uipa 
Taai xTUTia- toO Xeer „Trol6g eiaai;" — ,/Eyuj ttou fjbiuaa Td 
XiXia iredaKoaa ypoGa". — „Ti uipa ^x^s;" — „nec?e". — „Nd 

7) =Q V yaripa. 8 ) The subjunctive without vd is rare. °) § 9 n. 
10 ) § 203, 5. ") § 29 n. 12 ) ^rys kokov(i? vov. 



TEXTS 295 

XOtGrjs otTro 'bw, xa' tf\h ?xw Se". TV liretxa 6 cpiXos FjGeXe vd 
Trdr) xa' exaeivos xaai Xeei axfj bouXa* „Yid Tie Tcrfi kokovcc aou, 
vd 'pxuj to ppdbu, vd xafj bwaw btaKoaa Ypoaa". TTdei xaai xafj 
xo Xeei. „ v A|ue vd aoO bwar] xaai vd 'px^- — „Tcral xi ujpa vd 

'pxw ;" — „Ixis e£e". — TTdei, yrviiq kxX e O xpixo^ irdXi Xeet 

vd buucrv] £icax6 Tpoaa. 

J EPYn KCtve °" T o cripYldvi juk xo Oiopedivo oi qpiXoi xcrai irepd- 
aave d-rro Kdxw xaai axevdaave. Toxe Xeei 6 OiopecZivos axo aiop 
Zxeq)avo* 

„"F exeiq, aiopi Xxeqpave, xaai xai^o^OYiaZeig; 

lav vd 'xaaes xo pio aou, axexaei$ xcrai Xoapid£ei£". 
'ATTOKpivexai 6 criop Xxeqpavo^' 

„*Oxi xcrdv eixa, xd 'xaaa, criopi Oiope^ivo, 

TToO xd 'xa, eiq xo y^o aou oXa vd xd aeppipiu". 

e O Oiopedivoc; xoO Xeer „xi £x €l S;" — »Aev r\bu)Oa xiXia 
irecfoiKoaa Ypoaa a' auxf| xfj xaupia dirdvu xcrai jmoO 'ire, axis 
Trerfe vd irduu, xaai jnoO 'ire ttw^ eivai ££e xaai J!' 2biuu£e". Aeei 6 
0iope^ivo<g* „be xrive cpepvexe axo fcaxepa, vd £e&epbeij/eTe ; Nd 
xnve Trdjue axo &axepa juou". Xdv eTrfjav auxoi oi veoi axo ftaaiXea, 
e?xe eva boGXo 6 paaiXeas xaai xoO eiTrave* „Trfiaive vd 'mfc xafj 
xaupiac; vd 'pxri axo traXdxi". v Eqpxa£e 6 boOXo<; xaai xa' eitre- 

„KoTridaxe, ttou a' 6piEouve xafj xwpaq ol papovoi. 
Taepd jliou, ae irapaKaXai vd 'xqs TioXXoi xaoi xpovoi." 

Taai fcaivei 3 ) axrj \xiaa Kajnapa, xaepva xov KaaxeXdvo- 
„Qd, aupe, Kwaxa jnou, vd Trfjc;, ttuj$ xwpa 0evd TTdw". 
Bd£ei xov f^Xio TTpoaumo xaai xo cpe^dpt axfjGo^ 
Taai xoO KOpaKou xo cpxepo pdZei Kajuapocppubi. 
„"EXa, Xpiaxe, axf| trada [xov, xaai TTavaYid, Kodd juou, 
Xrijaepa vd qpavepwGf) xa' ejae xo bixae|ud juou u . 

'Enriaive. C Q<; KaGwq xrjv ?bdve 13 ) oi daftaxZjibes, ei/nave* 
„Nd xrive ottou ?pxexai xaai xo Geo cpopoujaai, 
Mf| xrjv ibfj 6 paaiXid^, xiiroxa vd jafj 'boOfie." 

Toxe xafj Xeei 6 Oiopedlvoc; • „bev rjc?peTTOuaouve vd cpd^ xoO 
'voOs xd enaxo xaai x J dXXouvoO biaKoaa xaai xou aiopi Zxeqpavou 
xd x^l a Trec^aKoaa;" — 
(K6pr|) „HujTTa eau, jnfiv riirexaxxri^ ad xaaivovjpio^ dpoKaxo^; 
Taai axr) pdxaa jliou Gd Tieari^xa' uaxepa Gd jiiexavo±ujaris." 

13 ) § 183, n. 2. 



296 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

(ct>.) „Xumaae, urj &oXXouiXfj£, l\ ei TC^XoYia Xia, 

Taai toOto ttoO GuupeTg £bw, eivai naibi tou prjYOt." 
(K.) „0' apxicrw GeXuu ireioTepa oao vd ue fvwpians, 

riaT' dqpop|ur| dYupeipa vd 'pGw Ta' dyw crirj icpiat." 
(The Queen to the King.) 

„0uudaai, 0aatX£a uou, ida ud$ 2ir M3 ) 6 fios M-ot<g ; 

Qappuj, ttws eiv' y\ vuqpn uag, Gappw irujg eiu u ) Traibi ua<;." 
(0.) „ 9 AXXou ae TTapa Ta' rj(J9aX6^, vd 'Ppflq to piZuco aou 

Taai au Gappeis, papeiouoipn, ttox; €ijm 5 dfu) biKo<; aou ;** 
(K.) „0uudaai, Oiopedivo uou, Tcrai fidcZa b£ Guudaai, 

TToO rjTratpva Td TTOKauiaa to - ' ?ipxouuou to"' fjXXaEd ere; 

0uudaai, be a' drcidaave beuevo oi fpouadpot, 

ZtoO {SaaiXid a£ urjave u£ uid Tiur] ueYaXn;" 
(0.) „0uuouuat ttoO ue indaave beuevo oi ypouadpoi, 

Zto {taaiXid jiie Trrjave \xk uid Tijarj ueYaXn." 
(K.) „0uudaai, OtopecZivo uou, av efye TuaTepa;" 
(<t>.) „0uuouuat, ttujc Trjv efyave, ud^ou 16 ) bev Trjv eiba." 
(K.) „*Q biYVwue toO biYVuuuou 16 ), diriauj uou fupfceis, 

TToO ue Td bdxpua a' £Xoua, Twpa be ue Yvwpi£ei£; 
(To the Queen.) Taepd uou, &dva cpiXnaes tou Xoou aou to yio aou;" 
(Queen.) „ 9 E*rw Tcrai tov dcpiXnaa Taai au dxaTexes to;" 
(K.) „nd HavacpiXnae Tove vd 'pxn CTTd Xo'iKd tou." 

XTtfOpYet *) udvva Taai Tove HavacpiXet, t& £pxeTai auTO£ 0"Td 
Xo'iKd tou Taai Xeei aTfj gopr\- 

„KaXu>£ Tnv tx\ pouEeTa uou, KaXwg Tnv tx\ vpuxn uou, 

KaXuj£ Tnv, ttoO uoO x<*pttf£ dueva xf) £ujr| uou". 

6. Calymnos. 
MoipoXoYt. 

TiY\q vioTn<; aou Trjv drGnai 1 ) Taai Travtu aTfjv ouaia 1 
TTfipe a' 6 Xdpog, Trfjpe ae Taai ae (b)ixw$ 6p7ri(b)a 2 )- 
Kopn uou x a (&)e u evn uou, Tfjs udvvaq aou Kaudpi, 
TTu>£ riqpnTaeg 3 ) Ta' e-rrpoaTaHev 6 Xdpog vd a^ TTapn; 
Oi TeTpaKoaaoi 4 ) dvvrf^eXoi 5 ) Ta' oi (b)u)(b)eK > 'AttootoXoi 
ZoO.TTfjpav tt\ ipuxouXa aou aTo ^AZiio irepi(p)6Xi. 

14 ) =€fo(ai). 15 ) =/xa eya). 16 ) This turn strengthens the 

expression Styi/o/ior, cf. § 44, n. 1. 

!) § 35, n. 3. 2 ) § 22 n. 3 ) §§ 17 and 202. *) =T€TpaK6<nou 

*) =2yyeX<n, c/. § 17. 



TEXTS 297 

TTavTepa ricrouX 6 ) 'XriviTtfd jue to araupo orfiju jueori} 

Tcrai rixaad ex' fj |udvva aou, Kopr|v Tr)$ ttXio &<; 6 ) cr' eaei 7 ). 

Tou oupavoO xd veqpaXa Tcrai ttctoc; 8 ) id imoliaTilei 9 ) ! 

"P aYctTrrijueva dvTpo(x)uva, dx ! Trcr6<g id 'rcoxtupEei ! 

c O TGdvaTo^ 10 ) crou juoO 5 Kaipe id criuTGiKd 11 ) juou, Koprj, 

Tcr' 6 voug juou jue (5)€pvoxTuira vd koutouXXw Td oprj. 

XpicTio^ pa(TT€i Td orecpava, to"' dvvdEeXoi m TcrepZxe 8 ) crou, 

Zearaupujcre Td aepla 12 ) crou, Tiva£e Td XouXXouc?£a 8 ), 

Nd cpepoum t' depcpcia 8 ) crou tou yawou Td iraixvidEa. 

I~id Xuae Td iradp£a 13 ) crou, Td x a POTevTwjueva, 

Taai 'voiHe Td creiXaTcia u ) crou t' diroTGavaTiujueva. 

7. Karpathos 1 ). 

(Southern Sporades) 
„rTfjTe juou, Trf]Te juou, dpK0VTe<g 2 ), TrfJTe juou ti vd ycvuj; 
'OV dairw juidX 3 ) Xuepri, tt7tws 4 ) vd ty\\ Xrjcrjuovrjcriu ;" 
„Nd cr' dpjur|veipuj, viwrrepe 5 ), ki SB GeXr)£ aKoucre juou* 
*Au.jue, navvn, nd' 6 ) ctto ouvo 7 ), vd KouaXfj^ 8 ) XiGdpia, 
Nd KOuaXf]^ Td judpjuapa 'no to juapjuapoouvr 
Nd KouaXfJs vd KoupaaTf]c;, Tr)K 3 ) Kopn vd £exdcrris." 
„K' iuj 9 ) ki av £(3yw ctto ouvo, ki Sk KouaXw XiGdpia, 
Ki Sk KouaXuj Td juapM a pa 'ttou to juapjuapoouvi, 
Ki Sk kouccXuj ki 3k Koupaorw, T\\q KoprjS &e Hexavvw. 
Eijur) ki 3(3 3 ) pdXuu oiepa 10 ) Kai beaouju jue ot6|3 pdTo, 
Nd jue dpoOT 11 ) Td criepa, vd jue KevTa to paTo^, 
ToTe k' iuj Tfjs Xuepfjs Gd Tfjs 'iroXiicrjuovricruj." 

8. Cyprus. 
Auo TrepicTTepKa 1 ) KaTacnrpa ord auKa 2 ) Toug KaGicrjueva 
KdGouvTav Kai juoipoXoouv, KXaimv, irapaTrovoOvTai, 
V dpaeviKov toO Gt]XukoO YupKei Kai XaXei tou* 

6 ) § 34, n. 4. § 21. ») § 10, n. 5. <>) ^fiTroyiar^i, on 

which cf. § 10, n. 5. 10 ) = davaros y cf § 35, n. 3. «) = -(o(9 iK a > 

see preceding n. 12 ) = x*P la ) v - notes 7 and 8. 13 ) — irobapia. 

14 ) =^€t\aKm. 

x ) The dialect of Karpathos is, like that of Cyprus (No. 8), closely 
akin to that of Calymnos. 2 ) v. § 18, n. 3. s ) From piav X., cf 

§ 34, n. 4. 4 ) =7raiy. 6 ) = v£a>repe, c/. § 36 n. 6 ) § andv\(o). 

7 ) =/Wd, c/. § 22 n, 8 ) § 22 n. 9 ) = ey^. 10 ) = Mcpa. u ) papovv 
(see notes 7 and 3). 

*) § 10, n. 5. 2 ) § 26. 



298 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

v 

„"lvTa KXwacTa^, Yevauca jaou, KaTacmprj Trepicriepa; 

Nd Kdjur]^ QeXexq ojuopcpa KaTacmpa 7T€picn:epKa ; 

Kpljua xdvvei^ 3 ) tou$ kottou^ aou Kai XuTieg evvd 4 ) cpepris* 

*Ev 5 ) dOGujudcrai ti 'naGes <rrfiv d'XXrjv irjv KXwtfcndv cou; 

Tpmd Kai juova ^Kajues, id \aae<; Kai rd xpia* 

"ApKOV T^pdKiv TTnpev to to eva Treivaajuevov, 

Kat t' d'XXa Td 'ppav Kuvr|Ot 5 ) cftov TTOTajaov vd 7rivvouv 3 ) 

Kai jue Td bixTua Td 'macrav, ti Eepeig dv Td 9dav; 

ZrjKou, anKou Kai jiev 6 ) KXuucrcrag, vd jae juoO cpepris ttovou^, 

Tiaxi ttoios £epei vGTepxq Kai tout' I'vTa 9d yivouv." 

9. Chios. 
lolds, o frenimos ts o drakos 1 ). 

Nal 2 ) lotto 2 ) ts%) ena 2 ) frenimos iyjam pplla*) Hldga' ), tse 
mia mera inniksen 6 ) o frenimos tas pdrtes, ndmbum misa ta v udga, 
is inniksen dz o lollds tint bortan du, ndmbi ts etsinu kaenav 1 ) 
vil^im 7 ) mesa, irriben 8 ) dz etsinu enav vii^im mesa, efonazzen da : 
„enav vx'i&in imbem % ) mestin avlim mu. u Ui\ „4%e to", tupen o 
frenimos. ipiasen dztnos 1 ): „inda to Mo 9 ) to udi 10 )?" ipiasen dz 
isfaksin do, ts epien okso ts i$en enad 1 ) dendron dz ekunene 11 ), 
ts ilein die. „f*i 12 ) ts est krids?" tidee. ekunem bga lz ) tsino ts 
i&otsin 1 *) da krids. ileen du: „en 6)(is tora na me plerois 1 ' ), e?" 
ikamnem bga tsino 16 ), ekunene, paenni paratsi, panda 11 ) tu na 
skodraUui 18 ). „pi ts esi krids?" ekunen dz etsino ts i^otsin du. 
paenni paratsi, panda tu enal lalds 19 ). „pi ts esi krids?" ekunem 
bga ts etsinos, pu to kunen o aUras, i^otsin du ts etsinu. 

Ts apei pien ts ipen ta^erfu tu: „p a 6 20 ), lli 21 ), na mazzdkso 
ta parddga 22 ) mu. u painni tse IS Us el'ds: „plerose me &a. u 

3 ) Double consonants, cf. § 36 n. 4 ) § 20, n. 2. *) § 22 n. 

*) v. § 6, n. 3. 

T ) The phonetic transcription of the editor, Per not, is partly- 
altered to correspond with the system of transcription adopted in this 
book. 2 ) =eWff, § 29 n. 3 ) § 17. 4 ) The double consonants 

are pronounced, v. § 36 n. 5 ) § 10, n. 5. 6 ) =avoL&v. 7 ) § 34, 

n. 4. 8 ) § 208. 9 ) v. § 33, n. 4. 10 ) § 22 n. n ) § 245, n. 3. 

12) = 0£ s (tfAets), cf. also n. 2. 13 ) =7rtd, v. notes 5 and 7. 14 ) =tba>K€v. 
15 ) § 29 n. 16 ) " Ici, la conteuse remue la tete de bas en haut, 

pour marquer la reponse negative" (Pernot's note). 17 ) =airavTa. 

18 ) Really = Kopvda\diu "lark" (Pernot). 19 ) A bird, but which 

bird is not known. *) 7ra(y)o>. 21 ) =Xe'ei (unaccented). 

22 ) § 70, n, 2. 



TEXTS 299 

ekunen etsini, ifien dzinos. epien is tol laid, It 21 ): ,,plerosi me &a." 
ekunem bga ts etsinos, fevgi 2 ^), a pdnta tu ena skodrallui tse W tu: 
„ela me plerois 21 )." triponni tsino meston dixo, vgdlli 2 ^) tsinos tis 
petres na tdvri tse vrlssi 2b ) enax 7 ) ydrkpma, ts Hot 7 ) iemdto vosa. 
tse painni, le* ta^erfu tu: ,,qnde, lei, na pa 26 ) pdromen da yrosa." 
pira dgo fa^drus ts epian dz efortdsan dus. ts ipen da lollu o 
frenimos: „sam baSnil 21 ), Ui, a 28 ) su Uun 2 *) i appropi 'inda n zo ) 
rftia 81 )*, tse na tol W* *ka v allines i* )'." opu id di 32 ) dppropon, 
o lollds tuleen : „mba, parite pos w 30 ) gavallines, yrdsa i" 

Ipp.asen 5 ) o frSnimos ts i v alen dom misa s ena sendui u ) 
tsilein du: „6mba misa, tse avreksi, a kdP), lei, yjaldzzi" ipp^sen 
o frinimos ts iriksen ao pano* z ) sto sendui klipdri ts i v alen tas 
ornipes ao pdno ts ettrdane u ). kdmam b g .a i drnipes trdka frdka 
trdka ao pdno, epdrem 11 ) bos ipefte jaldzzi. ipp^asen o frenimos 
ts irixten du lukdnika mesto senduine* 6 ) ts avkd 25 ). san epien o 
vasilen 2 ) na ton erotisi: „p6te tdvrete ta yrdsa?" ipen o lottos: 
\,san tvrex'en o peds avkd tse lukdnika" ts ipem b?a o vasiUs* 6 ): 
„etuol zl ), lei, el™) lolUse^f. ifiem b?a tsinose™). " 

Istilen o frSnimos tol lolld. ,,dme, Ui, napis tu v asile* G ), na 
tu pit* ), Ui, a pdro tiw gorin du". lein du p { a o lollds tu 
frenimu, Ui: ,,mme^) pi se, Ui, na se pari?" — 1$ : „peli me." 
ipen du o v asiles tu lollu: ,,an &x% l#h pattern sto vasil'o mu, 
torn pero 11 )." iy^em b g .6ttera sto v asil f 6n du, epirem din dm gorin 
du. ipen i kdri tu: ,,an in e\o i2 ), Ui, tu drdku talodi 3 *)." — Wi 
i,tina pa sttlome 2 )? to?d gostandim mas" sUllun don tow gostandi, 
tse paenni na to pp.dsi talodi, ts efonaksen talodi: »$ drdko, perum 
me I" trfy'i kdto o drdkos, en epdreid 11 ) gam 4 * 3 ), ikamen o lollds 
mian dripam mestiid gopridn ts ex6nnutom mesa ts en don epdren. 
paenni pdli na kgdrisi talodi, ts efonaksem bdli talodi: ,,$ drdko, 
perum me." piem gdto o drdkos oxoniis, en ieid gani, exdnnuton 
g kostandis mestin dripa, ts en don eporen o drdkos. paenni pdli 

23 ) = § 26. 2 *) = ?Xa, vh fie TrXepcJxr^. 2 «) § 17 n. 26 ) = 7r£ 

(vh), cf. p. 197, footnote. 2 ?) nayaipeis. 28 ) = 6a. 29 ) § 9 n. 

30 ) =€tvai. 31 ) § 145 n. 32 ) =ottov €^(ai) '8jj " wherever he sees." 

33 ) § 16, n. 1. 3 *) § 36 n. 35 ) § 34, n. 4. * 36 ) § 71, n. 3. 

57) = e VoiW (cf. note 31). 33 ) =?„ ( € J VCU ). 3 ») § 146, n. 1. 40 ) vh 

rov y 7rfjs. 41 ) —naipva). 42 ) =av €iv(m) e^o), as well as av cixa. 

4Z ) § 153, n. 4. 



300 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

na to kodrisi, dti pu pien o drdkos apdno, ts efdnaksem bdli talodin : 
„e drdko, perum me ! iC o drdkos en irkntom b^a kdto makdri, en 
do pistevgen^) pos to kodriisa. epiren do o kostandis ts ifie. isteri, 
san epien etsi, pdli tit Uune: „dme, W, na tu pari 2 ) tse to paplo- 
man du" — „ma inda loi^'°), lei, a tu to pdro to paplomdn du, pit 
4\'i ku^undi Z5 )? u paenni tsinos. ipp.asen ts emdzzoksen o kostandis 
enas 2 ) sakidldin r °) gorgus**) ts enas sakidldi psillus (margollos 23 ) y 
more: lolld 2 ) tse margollos) ts enas sakulldi psires, tria mdzzokse. 
ts apt* ri%ti ta olla apdno sto drdko, tse kduton^ 1 ) na vgdli 2Z } 
ta 2 ) psires aopdno tu, ts epiren du to pdploma tse fev i 2S ). 

Tse san epien etsi, tu Hum bali: „as iyamen tse to drdkon 
ton idio a (vre kako \ron nd\u A % tord gamm&no tow gostandinom 
mas pu ton etimoriisal). — „m inda lloi*' ), W, a tof fero? u l&i 
„kald kald". painni o kostandis pdli ts ipen du drdku: ,,ela, W, 
na peksomen na ieldsome." i v allen don dol lolld mesto senduin 
o drdkos, i v 'alien dz o lollds to drdkom mesa, tse p^dnni tse 
karfdnni to o lollds to drdko tse sikonni to senduin tse peri ts& 
to drdko. lollds more o dtimos, ma itom margdllos. 

tfia ts £0 49 ) apetsi 

m enaw gossino" 00 ) fatsi. 

10. From Northern Lesbos. 

The dialect of Lesbos, like that of Velvendos (No. 11), shows in 
a characteristic fashion the peculiarities of the Northern Greek dialects, 
on which cf. § 7, n. 1, also § 37 n. Because of these peculiarities along 
with the palatalising of the k (§ 17) the dialect presents a rather strange 
complexion *). 

V) ?aaU^) ?x' TcnpocTeW 

Mv'd cpoupd r\dav eva<; pacrXeq tct' e?xi cttou TtficpdX' eva 
TcnpaieX' 4 ) Tcri tou efyt TtouXu dKpuqpd. "Oirotouv 6ip6ep &rnpvt. 

") §§ 23 n. and 26. 4fi ) = Xvra \oyfc " how ? " 46 ) = Kopiovs, cf. 

note 5. 47 ) =(£)Ka6ovvTav. 48 ) =kok6 xpovo vd \ovv 9 a curse, "to the- 
devil with." 49 ) =eya>. 60 ) =K6(TKivo t cf. note 25. 

*) The beginning in phonetic transcription runs : i vaslte e% 
Uiratdl'. Mha furd idan tfnaz vasle's ts i%i stu tsifdV 4na tsirat4l\ tsi 
tu ix'i puli ahrifd. 6pjtm hirb4r tfpimi na tu gurtfps, tun JJcani tibix 
na mi tu lej 6xu. Tora uV i birterdis den iburfisan na tu vastdxin 
alrifd; jaftOts&faxi. 2 ) § 55, n. 3. 3 )§71, n. 3. 4 ) § 95, A. 

3n. 



TEXTS 301 

vet tou </oupeip 5 ), touv eVavi Ti&tx, vd juf] xou Xy o£ou. Tdbpa 
ouX' oi bipbepbxq bev iioupoudav 5 ) vd tou paardEiv 6 ) aKpuqpd' 
f dcpTo T(J £o~cpaEi. 

TTicrou nicTou Tcflpt eva iipiep, Toi ad tfou aTroKoupiipt, t enn, 
vd }ir] tou Trrj oi Kavevav, ttoO^ ex' Tcrepaiou, jaii 9d Trap tou 
TCTicpdX' t. e l bipbipq bev ibopGx vd pacrrdS, tttiyu earcruipi pia' 
eva TTTdb Toi cpujva£i ju'ouX' t gapbia 5 ) t: „i paaXeq ex' TaipaTeX'." 
Tdbpa tou TTYab EipdGxcri, cpuTpoucrt jnecra juv'd KaXauVd. MrfdX'vt 
i] KaXajavid. TTepva juv'd uipa evas dlovfiaVq 7 ), 2koui|;i d ^aXauVd 
to - ' eKavt juv'd TGabovva Toi tv Imlu l H TCTa&ouva ¥\k\y\: „pi! 
i paaXec; e'x' TCFipaTeX'." Tou r|K0"av, tou enrav x pacrXe. 1 pacrXes 
qpouvd£ tou dlov$av\ Xe/: „ttou tv nupis;" — „MecF' crrou TCYab," 
Xy i tf£oupdv'g. "EorXi i pacrXeg, qpubvaEi Toi tou JipJep, Xy: 
,,ttoO touv eiTng auTO tou Xoyou;" — „*Aju bev ipdcrraEa," Xy i 
bipbipq, „Toi nf|Ta Toi tou enra u.ea"' tou Trrdb ." — ToTig i PacrXe^ 
rq acpy)TGi tgi ird/Kav. 

11. From Velvendos in Macedonia. 

Cf. the preliminary note to No. 10. — t sometimes stands for yt, (m—yia), 

j for t *). 

Of TpeTg oupjLirivig. 

Mvm cpoupd k' evav Kipo rjTav evag rraTepag crdv KaXrj 
uipa . . . Autos ov THXTepas eixiv u.ouyki e'va mbi. Ti riXiytv ki 
autog; „Auto tou mbi, ou 0io£ vd u.1 tou x a pi°" l 5 °a 2 ) t° u Ka * 
pou vd lr\Gi dpxouvTag, vd tou y^tt' f\ 3 ) koc^ou^ ki vd tou x<*i- 
piTt, Kaveva^ vd juriv tou Xen 'rrapeK 1 crrdsV Axipcrtv airou toti 
ki bwGi vd bXep 1 u.1 tou Tcaparrdv. AXid t 1 uipa, bXux tou ppdb 1 , 
oXou b\m. TTipvdei juvid xP 0lJ vtd, fy° Xpouves, Tpets Kt aKOjua 
TrapaTrdv, ki aKOjua bev eixiv aTrouXdip 1 dm-TiTcouTas. MtpoubouX 1 
juipoucpdei, oXou era 1 Trdiviv f] bXia t. Ti vd Kdju 1 , ti vd cruba -1 
Tubp' auTO^! Tou vfjjua 4 ) t, octouju Trdivtv, KOVTipiv, ki Trapdbtg 
aKojua bev eixiv. „0e ju, TTavae ju!" YOuvaTcriv k' eimv „M« K P^ 

5 ) § 15, n. 2. «) § 7, H. 2. 7 ) =r<ro7rdvi;p. 

2 ) The beginning in phonetic transcription runs : Mna fur a 
ti dhai9 giro itan e'nas paUras sard gall 6ra. Aftos u pateras ix'in mimgi 
e'na pidi. Ti ilijin ti aftds? aft6 tu pidi, u ]>jos na mi tu xaris*, da tu 
Jcdmu na zis% drxundas, na tu Qlep i kosmus tii na tu x'driti, Jcantfnas 
na min du lei "pmeJP stdsP 2 ) § 20, n. 2. 3 ) § 56, n. 3. 

4 ) =pvwa- 
20 



302 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

V tou x^P cr, kocjui 'tou Gdjua a", ki rrdXi bouXifrv, bouXipiv, ad 
Xt(T l Tris 5 ). "E! vd juf]V id juaKpaivoujui, arjjuipa Livid mvxdpa, 
eva beKap 1 Taxeid, £va 'Koucrdp 1 v dXX 1 , eqpKeuxaiv KajuTiocTtq napd- 
b\<;. Ajud octou vd t$ cpKeidcr 1 , eibiv k' erraGiv. Twpa GeXis cm' 
Td pdcrava, GeXxg arc' v Tupdvvia, 0eXrg air' rd YnP«M aT ^ (bev 
rirav ki juiKpo^ jua0e, r|iav i£r|VTdps) dppdjcr l Tcrija |3apeia. K 1 rjp- 
0iv rj wpa vd rriGdv 1 . nojaoumv tou aWi anou yvcukis, dVrp lG ), 
jLiKpd mbja .... dXX' eKXiyav, dXX 1 Traprproupouaav ! TToO airros; 
dXXou ki en d'XXouv koctjuouv. Ma* kei iroO kovti|3iv f\ uupa, 
Eavab/avuj0Kiv Ka-ipixa 7 ), dyBv 8 ) juvid cpoupd rd juaT l x l a ki lx\- 

TCTlV TOU TTlbl. TOUV TO 'boUKaV ' TOU TtaipV 1 KOUVTd KI tou Xeei 

aTou 'qpTi 9 ) • „mbi ju, Tpocr l Kia 10 ) TrouXXd be 0d en dqpr|Kou, excr 1 
0eX l Tcriv ou Giog- k' rfw k' rj a l xoupiu.ev' f] judvva a bouXiipdjui, 
bouXiipdjui, toctou rjTav r\ fioipa juag. AuTd ttou bd al tcuj Twpa 
vd Td cpXdE, ki oXou Kipbiuivou^ bd f^pfe* M l t °uv TpavuTipo a 
KouKKid vd jurj a l Trep£ 11 ), Tr) yvaka cr Kpuqpo vd u.rj V 'rrr,^ 
7T0UTeg, Kajiivid cpoupd, ipuxourraib 1 vd u.r)ju rfdpc;." Td 'mv auid, 
pdcTTativ aKO|Lia Ka-ipi'xa ki cr l xoupe0Kiv. Tou rnbi TravTpeuiav, 
f] bXid t Trdiviv KaXd ki cpuXayiv Td Xoia d l babd t. Nd iboujui 
Tdbpa ti Xeei k^ ou Kcnf)q ts vuxTa<; (TTxiog 12 ); — 'H YvaiKa. X Y\ 
qji ipi tou ppdb 1 cttou (TTpOujua Z>pe 6Y vd cri 'rcfj, Trxidcr' 12 ) touv 
aiiTov, pdX' touv vd ttXuct 1 craTrouvi 13 ), Koip' touv, Kpeu.acr' touv 
ad bev tou cpKeidig 14 ), iyuj ti vd eijui). C H YvaiKa t rjTav drrou Tpavo 
cr l TTiT l . Mea' 'c; iraTpiKo tc; crepiviv k' ePYiviv ou paa l Xid<; Trdaa 
aipa, cttou 0k6 t<;, din. "E! oi YvaiKi<; t' dcAaivouvTi n ) KaT 1 
TeGKia 12 ). BdcrraEiv juvid, pdcrxaEiv b/6, bev touv eKajuiv touv 
dvxpa t$ Trapdirouvou, djmd crdv irepacriv Ka|LiTf6aou<; Kipog, „?, 
Karjjuevi dvTpa, a touv Xeei, „Td)pa KdGicri ki auXXomecri ki ctu ti 
a' eimv ou babac, a. *tK\d\ vd rrxidcroujui k' ijaeig qpiXhq jui tou 
Pacr l Xid. a "E, ti eimv ki cxutoc;; „be y^€7tou ti l\i\ pYn^iv wc; 
Tubpa arc 5 Td Xoia t rraTepa jlx!" 

Mvidv ki b/6, juiupe fii juou, TrxidcrVav 15 ) cpiX 1 ki tou 'x av 
kouXoukuG 1 jlxi tou pacT l Xid * qpKeidv 1 id tou boOXou t lyuxouTiaib 1 . 
„"Airfi vd iboOjui," eimv Tdbpa, , 7 dKOua eva bd cpKmcrou, vd iboujui 
ttou bd Py^)-" 3 Ik€i ttou rjTav cttou TcaXaT 1 uvm juepa, eibiv tou 

5 ) =\rj<Trr}s ; cf. also § 7, n. 2. 6 ) =uvrpoi (for avrpts), cf. § 66. 

7 ) =k art ^t^a "a little." 8 ) tivot^v. 9 ) =civtL 10 ) =ypo<ria, 

v. § 10, n. 5. n ) § 7, n. 2- 12 ) § 10, n. 5. 13 ) =/3JX > 

roi/ <j)vXaKrj "lock him up!" 14 ) =(f}K€tdcrrjs J v. § 29 n. 
,A ) 7ridcrrrjKav. 



TEXTS 303 

ttXi, ttou ou pacr l Xtdg x® VOUVTav l aT l ctuxo. KaXuTipa vd touv 

€TTlpVl<; TOU KICpdX 1 , 7T€pi TOU 7TXl. T dpTTaXV 1 , TOU KpUJS 1 (7TOUV 

KOpqpou t ki „qpipYdcr l Ti 1G ), 7ToubapdK.ia |u." TTipvdet arc' tou ttcx- 
£dp l , aYOupd£' £va dXXou ttXi crcpctYiuevou, tou |uabdei cri javj.d 
Kpuipdva ki tou iraaiv 1 ty\ yvoukcc t. „Nd, u.oupr) YvaiKa, cxuto 
eivi tou irXi d Pacr'Xid, (pKeidc' dTOU orrouc; Hep<s vd tou qpdjui tou 
ppdb 1 . Ajud . • . vd \xr\ beiS irouGivd, x«0Kajiu. u TTou auTog ! tou 
ttXi d paa l Xid, ttoO tou 'x iv cftouv Kopcpou, -rraatv 1 ki tou Kpu(3 l 
at juvid juiptd Kpuqpd V tx\ yvcukcx t. „'A! vd iboOjui," Xe, „Twpa, 
bd tou fJaatdH 1 f] yvaiKa ju tou Kpuqpo;" 

N 17 ) Tb/a t 1 juepa qpouve^, kcxko, TiXidX l bi£ TrapaTiXidX l biq * 
t(; „€KXiipav d (3acr l Xid tou ttXi* ottxiouc; juapTuprja 1 touv xXeqrr 1 , 
bd Trap 1 jutYaXou emvous." . . . N dXX 1 t 1 uipa KctGouvTcxv f\ YvaiKa 

T JUl TOU K6V l jUCX 18 ) OTOU KaTCqpXlOU dTT' V OUSOTTOUpTCt 19 ) |ui d'XXic; 

YeiTovTCcTK; ki KivToucrtv . . . Nd k' evac; TiXtdXTg ki TiXiaXoucriv TrdXt 
td d paa l Xtd tou ttXi. *E !" Xeei auTr), „bd tou ppoOv ki KaXd ! 
bev to '(porfdjut ki KaXd ijuei<^ ityec;;!" Autoc; ou Xoyouc; anb x^tX 
a\ x€iX l ki Id pacr l Xid tou 'qpTi 20 ). Touv TcraKdbv touv kcxXo tou 
voiKOKUp 1 ki „apouv dpouv" 21 ) touv irdv id Kpejuacru-cc. TTfvnv 
auToq. TToO vd 'yXittic; ucei ttouttouXou ! jufjXou vd 'pxvig, KaTafjs 
bev ^mcpTtv! Zdv touv dve^acrav ip l Xd vd touv Kpijadcrv, Yupcrv 
javid qpoupd ki .Xeei tou pacr l Xid (htcxv ki auibc; iku)* „(3aa l Xid |u, 
vd jui a l xoupei^ 22 ), to ? Ka]ua, bev HiYevrn. *Aq em." "Ya l Tipa eKOt- 
jiuv ki d l 6ia0r|K 1, ,,Acprjvou TpeTg xM&iS YPoaVia, xiXia bd Trap' 
f] Yvaka ju, x^I°t ou Trap(XYi6£ouju ki xiXia iKeivouc; ttou bd Tpa- 
P^H 1 tou a l Kvi vd jui Kpijuda 1 ." Att' octouv Kocrjanuv r|Tav iKei, 
Kavevav bev touv dcpviv f] Kapb/d vd Tpa^H 1 tou a l Kvi. 3 'HTav 
KaXog ki touv dX l 7TOuvTav. Ou TiapaYiog, ti eimv jui tou vou t; 
,,XiXia u.i dcprivei auToq," Xe, „ki x^l^ V tou a l Kvi y^vouvti bfo 
xXidbi^' if\h ba tou Tpa(3r)£ou." — „Apd bev touv dXVctat;" touv 
Xeti ou paa l Xid^. „TiTTouTag!" "Ag eivi, TcraKOuaiv tou <j 1 kvi. 
ToTiq ou TrapaTraTepa^ t EavctYupcriv dKO|Lia u-vid cpoupd i<d tou 
paa l Xid ki touv Xeer „paa l Xid |u, tou ttXi a £r), to 'xou Kpuju- 
ji,evou." Ki touv eimv 6Xa Td Tpixoujaiva. Nd jarjv Td |uaKpai- 
voujui, Kpe,uacrav dvTiq auTOV touv rrapaYio t, auTov touv ebouKav 
d'XX 1 juv^d YvaiKa ki ou paa l Xidc; touv dYdrrcriv dtKojja irXeTi- 

J6 ) =<p€vyZ<TT€, v. § 218, n. 2. 17 ) =rrjv. 18 ) =K€vrr ii ia. 19 ) otto 

in place of gen., cf. § 161, 6, n. 1. 20 ) =crrov (3a<ri\ia to clvti. 2l ) =apov 

apav from the ecclesiastical language, lit. "crucify him," and then by an 
erroneous conception " as quickly as possible, without delay." 22 ) v. n. 14. 



304 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

pou 23 ), Md crdv ttukj xou Xe' f] s ) Xoyou^; „o"dv xou Trd9' f\ ypid, 
juavxaXubvixt," excr 1 ki auxoq dirou xoxig ki bubGi jui xou [Sacr l Xid bev 
TrapaKouvoucF l x£iv, xr) YvaiKa x Trouxe^ Kaiuvid qpoupd Kpucpo be 
v 24 ) nXiyiv ki TiapaTiov Havd bev -nfjpiv. "Excri xou ppfjKiv KaXu- 
xipa ottou<; xouv eiTriv ou raxepaq x. Ki Eoumv ki auxoq xaXd 
k' ijLteiq KaXuxepa. 

12. From Saranda Klisi^s in Thrace. 

This dialect only faintly reflects the Northern Greek characteristics 
(see Nos. 10 and 11). 

TTapajuiuei xfiq xrpOYOviVs. 
"Hdav evaq adpaq l ) Kai juvid Yuvaka x^PTioi Kai oi byvb 
Kai 7idpKav 2 ). Kai 6 ddpac; e?xe eva Kopixcr Kai f) Yuvaka eixe 
xo biKO dr\<; s ) xo KopiTcr. E?xav ki dxeXdba Kt oXo xi ddpoO dr\<; 
xo Kopixcr £crxeXve vd toy' xiqv aYeXdba crxriv dyeX. Mvid jaepa 
xo ppidKei Kei eva$ TraTurous Kai xo T^iTre 4 )' „?Xa, Kopixcr juou, 
vd jue ipeipicr's"- Auxo Kaxai 5 ) Kai xo baeipil 1 ). Kai xo piuxa 6 
iraTTTToOg* „xi u.e Ynupeq 4 ), Kopixa jnou; u — „MapYaptTapevia 
Kovtba, xov XeY', ere Ynupa 4 ) Kai juaXajuaxevia vpeipa." Eixe Kei 
-rrepa Korfd 1 ) buo ^toXeg, Kai xo Xey' xo kopxctottXo 6 TraTurouV 
„7Tav Kei Kai SfJKa 1 ) ere Keiv xr] gio\a" K' er've.xo Kopixa 6X6- 
Xpuao, fiiix; bf\Ke. Kai xo (pKrjcFKe 6 ) KioXa, ode YeXa, vd Tiecpva 7 ) 
xpiaddqpXXa djadpavxa ire xo crxou.a x, ki ode KXaiY, vd xpexva 7 ) 
ire xd |udxm x baKpya juapYapixapux. TTfJYC auxo (7x6 cmix, xo 
XacTKei f] jLnyrpiMYid aiixo oXoxpucro, xo XeY'' „juujpr|, ttun; yiVkcs, 
XeY', excr;" — „Me YHupe, ^y'> £va$ Tra-mrou^ OTfjv aYeX Kai jae 
Yeme Kai xo icreipcra k' ucrxepa jue "(erne vd br\KU) 8 ) jaecr crxn ^i6Xa 
juecra k' eYva xoucro 9 ). a — Trjv otXX xr) juepa crxeXvei Kai xo btKo 
dr\q oty\v ayek r\ u.r)xpurfid. To ppitfKei xrdX 6 TraTnrous k' €*K€ivo 
Kai xo XeY * „£Xa, Kopixcr juou, Kai vpeipcre u.." To ftcreipcre k' IkcTvo. 
To puuxa* „xouXyh vj^eipa jae TrjOpe^; u — „raboupicria Kovba, 
poupaXiata i|ieipa". To XeY Kai Keivo* „7rdv XouGxcre 10 ) ere Keivva 11 ) 
Til #i6Xa." TTriYaiv, XouYexat auxo, Yiv'xat 12 ) era JouxeK juaupo. 
TTXujv Kai crxf)v dXX xri ^oXa xo x^P do\) Kai Yiv'xai |uov xo baxxu- 
XottXo x xpucro. T\x\ia\v crxo enrix do\)c, Kai £u7rdrxat 12 ) f] judvva x 

23 ) § 118, n. 1. 24 ) =i>. 

!) § 15, n. 2. 2 ) =7ra P 6 n Kap. 3 ) § 142 n. 4 ) § 23. 

fi ) =Ka(9frat. 6 ) =€!>Kr)(rrvK€. 7 ) § 213, n. 5. 8 ) § 221, n. 3. 

9 ) § 31, n. 1. w) § 222, n. 4. «) § 144, n. 1. 12 ) § 219 n. 



TEXTS 305 

ire Tii juaupi'Xa t Kai to purrcr „Tiaxi, |tiwpr|, eYve^ juaupn, era 
6out€k; u K' e^eivo id t^ittc omjug 'ifvav. KoutfKe 13 ) ttou eYve f] 
TTpoYovr) xoucrn 9 ), to 5 jLi° t ^ av ° KOtfjuos. TTepacre tt' SEuj Kai xi u ) 
(BatfiXe 15 ) 6 Tio? ? to yeibe Kai Keivos, ttoO yeXacre k' Zneoe eva 
TpiaddqpXXo Tee to (TTOjia t. To aYdTrcre Kai to fvpeye vd to Trap. 
5 Appapujvid£dai 16 ) Kai qpKetdv Tis eToi|uacries Yid Trj x<*pa. T6t€£ 
f] jar)TpuiYid ZouXeiye, Y iaT i ^ Trpoyovr| dr\c> vd Trap Ti pacftXe to 
Tto Kai ox' to biKO dx\<; to KopiTO". TTidv Kai pYd£ Td judTia tx\<; 
7TpoTovfj<g Kai ty] areXvei a' eva dGpuurro ctto pouvo vd tti xd<?. 
KeT to ppio*K€i to xpucro to KopiTa ira a' eva bidpo evaq TraTnrous 
Kai to Tiaipvei ctttit dou air) babw t. e H babiu ire Trj x«pd dx\c, 
be JpojudZAJuve Td xeiKia dr\<;. *A<; r\dav Kai TuqpXo, r\dav djujad 
Xpuao Kai ojuopqpo. C H juryrpuiYtd Tie t' dXX 17 ) to juepoc; vepd£ Trj 
6£YaT€pa dr\<; juecr t' dudH Kai youX ire to ijuk buxp'Kav ori (SacnXe 
Trj &oXrreia. Id br\fav KeT, puuTa Ti ftacriXe 6 Yioc;' „Yicxti ev |uaupr| 
fj vuqp;" AeY n iwdvva dr\^ „Keivo 18 ), ir\v epaXaju juecra or' djudE 
to KXeiCTjuevo Kai luaupicre Tie to KXeimjuo, Kai juov to baxTuXorcXo 
dx\^ ttou x\dav tt eEuu, tt6|lw£ 19 ) xpucro." Tiv'Tai rj \apa. OuXdY 
Ti pacriXe 6 y\b<; vd Y^Xdcr f\ YuvaiKa t Kai vd Trap to djudpavTO 
to TpiacJdqpXXo * auTr) KaTtfouqpa 20 ), juf) dv% Kai 21 ) TnacTri} f\ ipeurtd 
cfrjq, Kajavtd qpopd be fekovae Spoard t. — e O TrarnToOg rrdX Kai 
r\ babw Gaud£c?ava 22 ) Tie ttj Gekri Trj x«P, ttoO t\<; KaTTip'Ke. 
"EKXarre, eVXarre to KopiTO* tt\ dux dov Kai 6 TraTnroOg \xdlwve Td 
papYapiTdpia Kai Td TiouXtoOcre 23 ) Kai TrXoirraive. Tie Td TroXXd Td 
KaXd, ttou to eixav to Koprrcr, Yupcre \iv\a )uepa f) Kapbid t Kai 
YeXacre. Tojlxti Y^otcre to kopitct, Tcecp 24 ) to TpiarfdqpXXo rce to 
crrojua t. Tov biv to TraTnroO to TptacJdcpXXo Kai tov Xef'* „vd 
nac; o£w Tie to rraXaT Kai vd TrouXfj^ e'va Tpia^dqpXXo eva jaaT." 
T J aKouY' n )ar|TpuiYid Tee juecr lie to TraXaT, to pujTa* ^oao to 
TTOuXeiq aiiTO to TpiaafdqpXXo ;" Auto<; Xcy'' „Yid eva jadT." — 
„ZTeKa, XeY', eYtij exuj eva juaT." 

TTriYaiv Kai to cpepvei to ev 25 ) to juaT tx\<; TrpoYOvfjg. c O 
TraTnroO^ Tie juvid x a P« to TrrjYaiv ctto arciT to jadT, Kai you). 
|uaEi, f] JdJiu, 6 TraTcrcoOg, to KopiTO Tie Td KXdjiiaTa irecpva Kai 
TrapaKaXoOva 7 ) to 0eYO, vd KoXXr|0" to juaT. Kai ttou KUTTaZ:, 
KoXXcre to juaT ctto c?6tto t. Tie KeTGe TrdX r\ jurjTpuiYid, ajua 6 

13 ) ^dKoxxrrrjKe. 34 ) § 55, n. 3. 15 ) § 71, n. 3. 16 ) =dp- 

papvvidCovpTcii. 17 ) § 156, n. 3. 18 ) § 146, n. 3. 19 ) =a7rd/x«i^. 

ao ) ="slie remained grave." 21 ) § 280, n. 2. 22 ) § 220, n. 1. 
23 ) § 245, n. 3. 24 ) iricjiru. 25 ) § 128, ii. 1. 



•306 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

YaJpog dr]^ it pacriXe 6 yioc;, tttit€ oto TraXdr, to SpocnraTeT Kai 
tov \£Y' „ei5eg aruuepa, irujq y i 'v'k€ Kai yeXacre to KopiTO* juou 
Kai errecFe airrova to TptaddqpXXo ire to orojua t;" Kai tx\$ to 
gbuwe. TTapTOpri0Ke TTYid ki auioq* „ad fidY*, X^, to xouawjud 9 ) 
dr[<z, TTOjuvav Mpeju Td TpiaddqpXXa u . 

FT£ KeTGe tI TramroO to KopiTO" tc£ xr] xapd t, ttou dpxiveipe 
TcdX vd KUTTd£, Y^Xacre k' errecre Kai dXXo TpiadicpXXo. ArjYopa 6 
rraTTTToO^ to TrrjYotiv tt' oEuu ire to rraXaT Kai to TrouXei TrdX Yld 
eva juaT 6 TraTnroOq. TTdX irapeKaXectav to Ggyo Kai KoXXae Kai 
t' d'XX to |uaT Ti KoptTaiou. Xapou|uevo Tdupa iTYid to KopiTO" Ti 
TraTTTToO youX juepa YeXoutfe Kai d'XXa Tocra TpiarfdcpXXa erreqpTdva. 
'0 TrarnTOus b£ br\ymve rcYid vd Ta TrouXf] oto TraXaT, juov Ta 
juo'pa^e axovq qpiX dov. TTepvci oV airri ti {kxtfiXe, ttou l)( ^va<g 
tjetoio KopiTO", XoYupi^ XoYKaiXoYepa to OTrtT rre (TrpaTejua Kai 
bziv Kai to Traipvei Tre jueaa to KopiTtf. "Itfa to TrrjYaiv 0"t6 iraXdT, 
Kai K€i Y°uXa TTYid Td eme to KopiTO", on ?Tra0e ire tv) jurjTpuiYid. 
ToTe Ti paaiXe 6 ^ibc; Traipvei Teoxxapa dXoYa, atd 5yu6 br|V 26 ) 
Ti 5 ) judvva t Kai ord 5yuo tx) OeY«T€pa, to 'v 25 ) to Trobdp otto 'v 
t' d'XoYO Kai t' dXX to Trobdp ar dXX t' dXoYO Kai Ta 'bujKe tre 
JLxvid KajuTTTaiKux t' dXoYOt, k' eqpeuYCtv ad ganvbq t' d'XoYa CTTd 
Xajpdqpia Kai ty) goiOKxaav ty) cxpigXa. Kai Yuorepa qpKeidv paoi- 
Xicraa to xpucro to KOpiTcr k' ?£r]0"av KaXoKapboi TroXXd xpowa- 

13. From Pontus (on the Black Sea), 
a) To XeovTdpiv Kai apGwrrov 1 ). 
"Evag Trdpboi; eHepev 2 ) cro 3 ) KuvriYiv. Airecr' a' 6po$ errev- 
Tecrev 4 ) evaX XeovTap. "Ajuov vt' eibev aTev 5 ) to Xeovrdp, Xij aTog 
aTOV 5 )* „dpouTog 6 ) tiA&q 6juoui£ Kai aq queTepov 7 ) Trip. qpuXrjv 
£v, Kai vto juiKpoq 2v!" AXXojuiav £KoO£ev Kai opwTa tov „ecru 
YiaTi eiaai aToaov |uiKpos;" Eiirev aTOV Kai 6 Trdpbov 8 )* „€yw 
cr' apBuuTfiiuv Td x^Pia eTpdvnva, Kai Td |uu)pd touv eT<; air' aba 
IvToOweju |m€, dXXog IcTKUJweiu jue d^ umv, yi^o t' eKeivo eTceXuaTa 9 ) 
juiKpoq." Eiirev Kai to XeovTap* „juajpe, aTeiv' toCoioi 10 ) dpOajTr' 
elv' k' ^y^ 'k* €pYUJviZ: , aT£ ; Eia aiTe, &<; ^vTpavoOju' o[t<;." 'Ect- 
KuuGav, TraYve, 6 trapbov air' ^juirp Kai to XeovTap aTr' OTria'. Z' 

26 ) =*£vei(T). 

x ) Here also § 7, n. 1 is to be compared. 2 ) v. § 208. 3 ) § 55, 

n. 2. 4 )§6, n. 2. 6 ) § 136, n. 3. 6 ) § 145 n. 7 )H43,n.3. 

8 ) § 62, n. 1. 9 ) From anoUo) = d^vco \ c/., further, § 208. 10 ) § 151, 

n. 2. 



TEXTS 307 

evav opiuctv artea' kcx|utt6<Joi Aa£oi ^(TKiZivav £0Xa. AieTv' otcxv 
to mpov dXXo Yi oouXep', cro crKicrjuav x™tto0v TraaadX kou 
dvoifve irjv dpaYjudoav. 'Ajuov vto eKtfav 11 ) ti XeovTapi 12 ) tvjv 
KioupTiiriv, eKeiv' £qpLYav jue Ta Kovraia crov kujXov. f O irdpoov 
Xe/ ab Xeovidp dc; t' eaijuoucrav „eXeTrc;; dxeiv' oi dpOwrc' juex' 
evav 13 ) d£ivapeav ttoctov Kaxrjpd^ve to £uXov;" Elrrev Kai to 
XeovTdp* „dTO rrdX vto 14 ) ev; era* jue Ta x^pia jn crupw kI dTfo- 
TO\xa\iV dTO." At6t€£ e£e$ev dirdv' go TiZxtdx, £(JeYKev 15 ) Td 
X^pia t ao cTKiCiuav Kai ei'ana ecrupvev v' drroTCJixaXi^rj dro* to 
TracrcrdX eXaYKeiyev, Kai m x^9l a t ^KXeioduGav drcecr'. 'EKXujarav 
oi Aa£oi, ^Trepav 16 ) Kd0a eig air' £va £uuYpiv, epGav drcdv' aT' 
Kai orpwvv aTov to £0Xov. ^AfceqpXe," emev to XeovTdp tov Trdp- 
oov, „df}ouTeiv', ajuov vt' ojaoidr, dc; ecrev |uiKpov 0d icpTeidfve 
]ue. u Emev Kai 6 TcdpooV „I6 x^P v «touv ev, ajaov vto GeXve, 
£cpTeurfve. a Atocj eireXeKev 17 ) k' eoepev rrXdv, Kai to XeovTdp oi 
dpGum' ^VTiiuKav, evTWKav k' ecFKOTuucxav. 

b) From the vicinity of Samsun ( 5 A/i,icro$). 

f H KdTa Kai 6 TrevTtKOV. 
"Evav rjjuepav eic; x ) y oTaajudveva KdTa mdv eivav *) ttcvtikov 
Kai Xe aTov* „6yw dpTouK eyepacra, ad aoujud xd 2 ) tcujyuj 3 ) tfov 
ctv 4 ) Tacpov, dGeppuj, oXa 5 ) Ta rrevTiKapa 5 ) Tra air' evav ouo qpo- 
pdg ecpoopT^' 6 ) dra. 'Qyd) dpTOUK juct' .oXa Ta xaiPotvd 5 ) x a Xa- 
aeuur bd[3a 5 ), Tte oXd Ta TrevTiKapd, ac; SpxouvTav Kai jnex' eeiva 
Tra xaXaaeuuj. 1 ' c O TrevTiKov rrdei Kai Xe aTa a' dXXa Ta TrevTi- 
Kapd. T' dXXa Td TrevTiKapd ajuov t' ^Kaav aTa, exdpav Kai 
exa£oupXaeqpTav vd Trdve. Atotc evav Tpavov TrevTiKap ?pTai 7 ) 
Kai Xe aTa* „£\ctT€, |uif| TraTe, Tavfki dbd evav Tovlah ev." Ka- 
veic; V eKaev a 8 ) Kai oXd 'TrfjYCxv. £ H YOTaajudveva rj KaTa |udx- 
Od<; 9 ) evoiHev evav Tpurriv k' eKaT^ev ar\v OTav aTiecr. "EpGav oXd 
Ta TrevTiKapd k' ecreipaXaecpTav a' evav creipdv. At6t€ do"Ku;0ev f\ 
KdTa, opOKXu/i'aTev dXiyov Kai juer' evav ouo XoYia ajixov pameTd 
?p9ev cro Tpurriv Kencd Kai Xeer „Tid, eXdre, a<; TepoOjue, ttoio? 

") =f}'icov(rav. 12 ) v. § 95, n. 3. 1S ) § 128, 1 n. 14 ) § 152, 

n. 2. 16 ) § 203, 5. 36 ) =iirrjpap. 17 ) Aorist of diroXvco, cf. 
§202. 

3 )§128n. a )§20, n. 2. s ) =<rrdy<D. 4 ) § 11, n. 3. 

*) § 6, n. 6 ; oXa, § 156 n. 6 ) ^tyofSiptva. 7 ) Ipxerat. 8 ) § 136, n. 3. 

9 ) 9 is a sort of e-vowel representing an indeterminate sound (cf. Germ, 
unstressed £ in leblf, etc.). 



308 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

ctTTOTrecy' £(Xouv 10 ), citS ?(Tt€K€V ti cram 11 ) to criojuav, eTpuirecrev 
tov kujXov dxT€ 12 ) Kai ?Kaev 13 ) to TipivT^;" Kai eva buo d'XXa deka 
ajaov to eiTrev, k' utfTepa ecn<dXujcrev vd cpoupKK' Kai ipihei aTa. 

The above in Phonetic Transcription : 
jtfnan imSran iz $ocamdnena kdta pidn inan bendikon ke 
U aton : „o^6 drtuk ejirasa, sa sumd ya pd#> son an ddfon, apero, 
old ta pendikdra pa ap inan dio fords efoordz ata. 0$6 drtuk 
met old ta yjaivana xalasivo ; ddva, pe old ta pendikdra, as eryjundan 
k'e met etna pa xalasevo." Opendikom bat ke U ata sdla ta pendikdra. 
Tdla ta pendikdra dmon d eksan ata, e\dran ke exazurlaeftan 
na pane. Atote inan dranom bendikdr Srte ke U ata : „eldte, mi 
pate, cwki 1 ^) add inan duzdh lb ) en. u Kanis k eksen a ke old pi^an. 
I ^ocamdnena i kdta mdxsds eniksen man dripin k ekddzen sin 
otdn apte. Ulrpan did ta pendikdra k' esiralaeftan senan sirdn. 
Atote eskdpen i kdta, oroklotsten oli^on ke met enan dio loja dmon 
vasjetd irpen so tripin kikd ke lei: ,Ja elate, as terume, pios apopes 
esun y sitd Ssteken ti saki to stoman, etripesen totd golon ayte k'e 
eksen to prints?" Ke ena dio dla aika dmon do ipen, k' istera 
eskdlosen na furkiz k'e troi ata. 

c) From the vicinity of Tir^boli. 

The fable was related to me by an aged priest from the village of 
Ezreil (in the neighbourhood of Tireboli). The narrator spoke very 
indistinctly, hence the phonetic reproduction is imperfect 

'AXettov Kai apKov. 
'AXeTiov 1 ) Kai apKov l ) evTav 2 ) cruvTpoqp Kai irriTOtve v'dpd- 
pouv Kai vd Tpdbve. "Eppev apKov cro 3 ) TOucraK aTrdv evav 
KO|U|udT Kpea$, eirfjev to Kpea^ vd Tpwr] &to* Z\vj(Jev to crrojua 
t vd TpiJurj to Kpea$* to Kpeag Ta 4 ) ?Tpwiev aTO, dmdatev 
dao 5 ) aeiXo^ 6 )' eXaYKeu/ev dbd, eXaYKeiyev dKei, V diropecrev vd 
Y Xutuuvev dtfo touoxxk. "Ycmpis dXenov €Ka|uev dXeireaa 7 ) * e0€K€v 
to KiqpdXv dT arjv fr\v djrdv ££epev 8 ) f] iprj 9 ) aTOu ip€|uaTiKa. 

10 ) § 135, n. 1. ") § 95, n. 3. 12 ) § 142 n. 13 ) § 37 n. 

I4 ) Not Hi9gi ! l5 ) h is strongly aspirated. 

J ) § 62, n. 1. 2 ) = eyivovvrav ; for the vocalism of the piece, 

v. § 7, n. 1. 3 ) § 55, n. 2. 4 ) =ttov (conjunction), cf. § 150, n. 1. 

6 ) =d s (i.e. airo) with art. 6 ) § 21. 7 ) i.e. "he laid him dead." 

8 ) § 208. 9 ) § 37 n. 



TEXTS 309 

"Ycrrepic; epOev 6 crams roucra/a, evipdvricrev, dXerrov eiyocpricrev. 
s E£eYKev 10 ) do~6 xoucrotK tov dXeirov Kai eGcKev dTTXwjuevov €K6Kd- 
eqpuye dXerrov. e O a v 9pumog eKeivos efouXeipev to ToucrdK diou 
k' ebeftev 8 ) rrXdv o~6 (jmiiv aT. c O dXerrov fe'ppev tov dpKov 
Kai emev tov dpKov „vto XdcTKeaai ;" — e O dpKov Xeer „vto 
vd qpxduj ; Tibev V ?f$pa." — „ s Ekci KaT cro jnepo^ eivai evav xoucrdK 
k' ecrei 6 ) eva Koujajudx Kpea$." — 'ETrffrev Kai apKov vd efiprpc 11 ) 
to Kpea<g Kai vd Tpwei dTO. 'EmdcrTev apKov cro TOuadK. e O dXe- 
rrov ep9ev, eKpuqrrev vd Tepfj t' dpKOVo^ 12 ) to crei'p* apKov V 
epXeir drov. AaTKeu apKov ckci, XayKeu dbd vd t^vjtujv, V erro- 
peaev. c AXeTrov Kpucpd Xeer ,*A e T? tux rcoTKa 13 ) k' eYXuTuucra, £av- 
eTroiKa k' eYXuTuuca." y Ep0ev TOucra/uoO 6 odamq, vd Tepf) Kavevav 
Tdavapdp, dv evTukev 13 ) cro ToucrdK, vd Traip dm Eibev tov 
dpKov, KeiTai 14 ) dTTXujjuevos £Kedv. Aeei 6 aadm^ crov dpKov 
„ecru TfdX Sjuav 15 ) tov dXeirov 6d qrrds vd ipoqpqtg." AeKev 16 ) to 
£tvdp ab KicpdXv aT Kai ffKOTuucrev drove. 



14. Cappadocia. 
a) From Fertek. 

I copied down the piece in Samsun from the lips of a petty officer 
of Fertek origin. The tenues were mostly pronounced with aspiration 
(k for k, etc.). 

"Eva K'aXo 1 ) K'upio 2 ) aTpwrros 3 ) £vve 4 ) papu darevdp, tg> 
poiipTicre 5 ) to vaka t — Kai vaka 6 ) t 5 dK'oju F|t c ov TeXiYaYve 7 ) — 
Kai emev to • „<se$giki juou, Tpava^ to, flXTe to o~axaT c i ju, eaeTai 8 ) 
Xuupi^ Kai x^pis vd a' d<pr)0"w Kai vd rr c dYUJ • dK € 6|ti TeXiraYX' 7 ) 
eicrai, Kai av Kpepris vd \arvJ 3 ) paxdx, vd ju£ TTKfJs 9 ) eva K c aX6* 
Xwpic; d'XXo vd TravTpeirrfJs, £eupuu to* ttoXu o"e fiaXpapTuu, to 
Koiadou jli \ir] to Tf c dpri^ 'Oyuj juct c eKeivo YauYdX eljuai 10 )' d'vTov 
jue KavTiri^, tote vd t c 6 Ti c dpr)£ <T £vai u ),' vd \xf\ xonXb juepaYX^. 

Kai to vaiKa erfeKe 12 ) KacfoX^K Kai erne* ,Mtg t' do~6v 13 ) to 
Xaxdnjao a dffh juavi ji' ivw 14 )- paxaT paxdr x aTl5 )> «g ae 'ttuj to 

10 ) § 203, 5. ") § 214, n. 5. 12 ) § 62, n. 1. 13 ) § 202, n. 2. 

") P. 130, footnote 1. 15 ) ^fyov (o-dv). 16 ) § 182, n. 2. 

2 ) koXos. 2 ) Kvpios. 3 ) § 20, n. 1. 4 ) Pronounced with 

double v, — eyiv€. 6 ) " Addressed " (?). G ) =kcu fj voiica. 7 ) "young." 
8 ) =cpx €TaL - 9 ) § 214 » n - 5 * 10 ) Pronounced with one stress yauyaXet/xat 
u I contend," from an adj. yavydX (Turk.) and elfxai. ll ) =d£v clvai. 

i2) =?&»**. 13) § 143j n# 3 i4) « v ^ ^ y > v(0t is) u dieSj) , c j m 

% 222, n. 4. 



310 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

opTdxaT 16 ), lard ejc'eivo oyw vd to ir'apu) d' evai, TaouY&t oyd) duo 
Tpia jurjveg Ojuirpo a' eva Tr'aaKd dipumo e^uuKa 11 ) TaodTT 17 ) tov. 

b) From Pharasa. 

Account of travelling Adventures. 

Oovt€S iraYaieYKaiuev 1 ), frxXcraju 2 ) ir\v arpdia, EiXcraju crtd 
poucria t£ou 3 ) t£oi 4 ) k&tIo\ t£cu aid 7T(rfdvia netfui, ppdbuve* crxr] 
CKOteivia t£6 TTOpKaja 1 ) vd 'Ppuuju xou xwpiov tt]v crpdra. Oovie^ 
veTKiuYKaju x ) e5d) rV drM, epyctv 5 ) YvevTa juaq TievTe KXecpTOi 6 ) 
t£' enrav .ua^* 7 ,jLxrj aaXeutrre, vd 7 ) ad^ bwKUJjuev 8 ) t£gu vd ad<j 
Kpouauj|Lxev. a TE ejueic; eiTrajLin 9 ) Tim OreKOjuaate, orepo juapYauj- 
crajue, bdjKCijue 10 ) Trevevrdo n ) rlai xdaa.ue t£oi KXecprot. Zdjuo ecpirfav, 
KOuXOaaju 12 ) ty\v orpdia, HiXcraja a' dv 13 ) ttcxXo opevi, TrvujaajLi ailei. 
<t>ovTe$ TTViiuYKajLiev 1 ) cfKOTeivd crubg ty\v efinla lib TropKaja vd 
TTVujauj|Li€V t£oi 4 ) kpotoi tM crrd arpiYY€|uaTa, TiXeYeari 14 ) rlai 
KidEei 15 ), vd 'pxouviai t£oi 4 ) Tiecroi TEai aid TrrjYabia ttott€(J 1c ), 
ctt' d'XXa to! jaepn 17 ) otoO cpibiou 18 ) ilm cttou diroO 19 ) TZai cttou 
XutEoi 20 ) id TEupiYjucrra cpo{3ri9aju 21 ) ttoXu Kmcd. OovTec; rjjuaare 
(JTd TZeab dnea 22 ), akoev 23 ) to XaxTopi tto juaicpd, adjn' dXcrev to 
XaxTOpi, ££y' 24 ) t£' o cpeYYoOaKog* tIXji |udc; 25 ) cTKOuOaju dcpopd 26 ) 
Tdpva 26 ), efifa\i or' eTEeivo oro KaYiv to x^viv Timecr 27 ), euHuj- 
Oaju 28 ) to 06YO, toO 29 ) jiidtg Z$ja\ dpoi 30 )* crctju' l^a\xev erf] 
(TTpdTa, xaTEecpKa|u 31 ) Trevevrdo tV riXeYaju ,/rdpva Tdpva, x i '* T «T€ 
aYKOuTi 32 )", TEai Trjv epiT/Ea IcpTdcrajue orb xwpiov. 

16 ) =dp8&rr)Ta "truth." u )i.e. "I gave answer " = " I con- 

sented." 

J ) Imperf. of 7raymVo>, cf. § 214, n. 6. 2 ) =faXiVafif, cf. § 38, n. 1. 

3) § 17. *) =(7 ro-ot (i.e. crrovs). b ) =f/3y^oi/. 6 ) § 69. 7 ) As 

a sign of the future. 8 ) More correctly i/rcoKca/xev, from the aorist cited 

in § 202, n. 2. 9 ) =ei7rajue. 10 ) =vra>icafi€, v. note 8. n ) § 141 n. 

12 ) § 38, n. 1. 13 ) § 56 n. 14 ) = eAeyar<r. 15 ) = 0mWcu (?). 

14 " 1G (6 Qopvfios) il €(j>aLV€TO OOS VO. 7Tpor}pX€TO CK TCOV TOL)(<OV TOV €p€l7TlOV Ka\ 

t5>v (j)p€dTo)v " (translation of the editor). 17 ) " On the other side." 

is) =(f)i8ia>(v). 19 ) Gen. pi. of airos "fox" (in Pontic d\€7r6s, more 

commonly aXo^ou, etc., cf. § 32 n.). 20 ) § 62, n. 1. 21 ) § 208. 

22 ) " iv TOLavrr) dywvig." 23 ) Aor. of dAw. 24 ) =ej3y€, i.e. efiyrjice. 

25 ) " 7rap€v6i>s Be" (editor). 26 ) "ocrov to 8vvqt6v TaxvTepov" 

) " €£r)\6ofjL€v tov diraio-iov ckclvov KTipiovP 28 ) "we praised " (aor.). 

29 ) § 150, n. 1. 30 ) § 108, n. 4. 31 ) § 214, n. 6. 32 ) I am 

not acquaint with this word; something like "however, neverthe- 
less." 



TEXTS 311 

15. Zaconian. 

The Zaconians live on the east slope of Parnon, between St. Andreas 
and Lenidi. Lenidi, Prasto, Sitena, and Castanitza are the chief places of 
the country inhabited by them. The Zaconian dialect is noteworthy as the 
descendant of the ancient Laconian patois. 

Pulddzj ema^exa 2 ) tho z ) kuibi*) 
Dze merute' ) nj 6 ) emajx® 1 ), 
Tajixct s ) nj ema za\ar% 
Pqi'kixa d ) nj ema mosko. 
Dzejipo to mosko torn bersu 10 ) 
Dzejxpd ta n ) niroidia 12 ) 
Eskandaliste 13 ) to kuidi 
Dz' ef incize u ) mi 1 ' ) f aiUnu 
Dz* afengi 16 ) nj eki 11 ) dzinifu 1 *) 
Me to kuidi thu xire 1 *): 
»Ea% puli, thon 3 ) dopo ndi 2 % 
Ea tho kaikidzie 21 ), 
Na dtsu 22 ) ta kudimja ndi, 
Na vdhi^dva 23 ) dzinurdza 2 %^ 

Cf. with this another version from Lada in Taygetos *) : 

TTouXcki e?xa cxto kXouoi, 
Ma ir)v &yi& TTapaa'Keuri, 
Kai to ^x a |uepaj|uevo, 
TTouXi £u/fpacptijuevo. 

'AtTO TO JUOdKO TOV TtoXu 

MoO #KavTaXidrr| to kXouoi 
Kai jlxoO 'qpuye t' dnbovu 

x ) = rjpow. 2 ) =a. Gk. (participle), and so ema &x a ) a circum- 

locution for elxa. 3 ) v. § 35, n. 3. *) § 32. 5 ) = /zepa)ro(i/), 

particip. from yptpcova) " tame." 6 ) ni = avr6(v) " him, it." 7 ) Cf. n. 2, 

and on the construction, § 227, n. 2. 8 ) From tayixu=rayi£<D. 9 ) From 
poHcixu—TroTlCco, cf. § 16, n. 2 ; on the constr. v. n. 2. I0 ) 7r€pi<r(r6(v). 

11) =TT}(v). 12 ) =flVp(0bla (fJLVpovdld). 1S ) €<TKaVTakl<TTr)K€ (cf. § 208). 

14) = ty vy€ . 15 ) pod. 16 ) § 16, n. 2. 17 ) fjrav. 18 ) =a. Gk. 

Kvvrjycov, cf n. 2. The n is to be pronounced cerebral, i.e* with the tongue 
tip bent upwards. 19 ) =oto x*>. 20 ) °" oiJ - 21 ) v - § 16 > n - 2 - 

22 ) =vd dX\a^(Oy cf § 32; £ from ts, similarly as in Bova from dz, cf. 
§ 35, n. 2. 23 ) =&K\a. 24 ) ^Katvovpyia. 

2 ) For- the pronunciation of o- and f, cf. § 28. 



312 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

TToio| to etbe, tuoio£ to duuvei; 
Ki 6 KuvriTO^ TTou t' dKOucre, 
TToXu kciko toO qpdvri * 
NeXa, TTOuXi, 6tt\v kXivy] dou, 
NeXa &t\)V K&\xapf\ #ou* 
TTou va KOTrfi rj Zu)y\ #ou; 



SUBSTANTIVES AND VERBS. 

Substantives.— -Where the gender is easily deducible from the 
termination according to the rules of grammar it is not given ; only in 
the less common usages in which the ending (-or, -t [-u], a) cannot in itself 
decide it, the gender is given, i.e. in the case of feminines (f.) in -t (-u), 
neuters (neut.) in -os y -a, -a?. — Verbs with irregularities of stem-formation 
or conjugation are marked by spaced type and an asterisk * To these 
verbs the irregular forms that occur are cited, usually the active and 
passive aorist or the perfect participle passive. Contracted vei'bs which 
follow the second class are clearly distinguished by the addition of (-coo). 
Compare also what is said about the Glossary in Foreword, p. xix. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



ace. 


~ accusative. 


m. 


= masculine. 


adj. 


= adjective. 


metaph. 


= metaphorical. 


adv. 


= adverb. 


mid. 


= middle. 


a. Gk. 


= ancient Greek. 


n. 


= note. 


aor. 


= aorist. 


neg. 


= negative, negation 


Cap. 


= Cappadocia. 


neut. 


= neuter. 


<■/■ 


= confer, compare. 


nam. 


= nominative. 


compar. 


= comparative. 


part. 


= participle. 


conj. 


= conjunction. 


pass. 


— passive. 


Gyp. 


= Cyprus. 


pf- 


= perfect. 


dim. 


= diminutive. 


P i. 


= plural. 


eccL 


= ecclesiastical (language). 


prep. 


= preposition. 


f. 


= feminine. 


pres. 


— present. 


gen. 


= genitive. 


Sar. K. 


= Saranda Klisids. 


id. 


= same as preceding word. 


subst. 


= substantive. 


imper. 


= imperative. 


Ter.cVO 


.= Terra d' Otranto. 


indecl. 


= indeclinable. 


tr. 


= transitive. 


indie. 


= indicative. 


v. 


=vide, see. 


interj. 


= interjection. 


Velv. 


= Velvendos. 


intr. 


= intransitive. 


voc. 


= vocative. 


lit 


= literary language. 


w. 


= with. 



GLOSSARY. 



"A (1) = av. (2) = 3d, § 20, ft. 2. (3) = dyicaXid arm 



avro, § 136, ft. 2. 
aha (Velv.\ interj. now then! come 

on ! 
<t3ycn-aiVa>, a^yaWf co, aj3yaT» increase, 

multiply. 
«,35€'AXa (/38AXa) leech. 
«/:*<>* aroff advocate. 
(i^oCToff this, v. § 145 ft. 
«,3^or/rao) thunder, hurl down with 

great noise. 
a,Svo-(To abyss,/. (§ 87). 
dyaBos good, kind. 
dydXia dydXia, adv. little by little, 

slowly. 
ay aXfia, neut. monument. 
dydiTT] love, beloved, sweetheart. 
dymrrjriKos beloved, lover ; in love ; 

/. v. § 111. 
dymra (aWco, § 22) love. 
ay as aga. 
dyyap€fi€Pos put to compulsory 

labour. 
dyyeXtico? angelic. 
dyycXoKafMQfjLtvas like an angel (of 

angelic form). 
uyyeXo? («i>rfeXos, § 17) angel ; 

dyyeXdfa, dim. 
dyytfco ("yy*£a) touch. 

uyyXoo-a£oi/iKos Anglo-Saxon. 

uyeXiiSa COW. 

dyAao-TOff without laughter. 

dye\r) herd. 

dyevifo a( ij- l° wl y ^OHl. 

oy^pa?, dy€pi = depas. 

ay ws holy (ay i, indecl. § 63) ; rot aym 

the holy vessels in the church. 
dyicddi thorn ; ay/ca^aKi, cfora. 
dyKaXd although. 
dyKu\r] arm, 



ayKaXitifa), dyKaXid^onai embrace. 
dyKLO-rpi (dvT^lcTTpi, § 17) hook. 
dyvdvTia, adv. against, face to face ; 

d. '?, prep, opposite to, compared 

with. 
dyvos venerable, chaste, pure. 
dyvwpKTTos unknown. 
uyovos unfruitful. 
dyopd market. 
dyopdfa buy. 

dypadvptd (Naxos) evening. 
tcypios fierce, strong. 
dypoiKco (ypoiKw) hear. 
dypvirvcd (-eo>) be awake. 
dyvpiKos, adj. unre turning. 
dy&vas the war of freedom (of the 

Greeks). 
dyavlCofiai struggle, fight. 
dya>/n, neut. boy, son ; dycopaKt, dim. 
add (Pontos) = ebu>. 
abcia perjnission. 
dfteiavos empty, empty-handed. 
ubaos empty. 
d§i\(fii = d8€p(j)i. 
aSeX</>iKOff l)rotherly. 
dbepcpfj sister ; pi. § 90. 
dtepQi (dbp4q>i, § 37, ft. 1) brother ; 

dbeptfiaKL, dim. 
dbepcpo* (deploy, § 22 n.) = id. (voc. 

tfde<£A*, V. § 62). 
abrjs Hades, underworld. 
d$iuvTpo7ros insolent. 
d$ia(f>opia indifference. 
aSiKos unjust. 
d§iK<0 injure, vex. 
dbiKas, adv. to abiKos (lit.). 
ddi6pdo>Tos incorrigible, uncorrected. 
a8o\os pure. 

tSxvto seize, grasp. 



315 



316 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



ddpvs raw, rude. 

dbwapia weakness, impotence. 

O.€7k0S (§ 148, 71. 1)=T€T010S. 

at pas (dye pas) air, wind ; dtpum, 

dim. breath of air. 
depoKOTTaviarrjs swaggerer. 
a€po\6yos tattler, idle talker. 
dcros eagle. 

u € ts (Pontus), adv. thus, so. 
drjdovt nightingale ; di/dcvaiu, dim. 
dOavavia immortality. 
dOdvaros immortal. 
dBeppoa (Pontus) = dappS). 
d8dvp.ovp.ai (Cyp.) remember. 
d86s~uv8os. 

(WpcOTTOS = (ivdpCDTTOS. 

at, V. €. 

alBipas ether. 
aWcpios etherial. 
aWcpoTrXao-Tos made of ether. 
aipa (yaipa), neat, blood. 
ul(v)t€, inter] . come now ! away ! 
aio-O^pa, neut. feeling, sense. 
alarrdvopai (ala-rdvdrjKa) perceive, 

feel. 
alaxvkeios of Aeschylus, Aeschylean. 
airos = dcros. 
aloavios eternal. 
aKa^aTrjs (§ 114) lazy. 
liKapnos unfruitful. 
dicapTepa) = KapT€pa>. 

uKfl (Pontus) there. 

d<€ptos unhurt, intact, pure. 

di<\ovQei> follow. 

aKofj hearing. 

aKokaa-ros luxurious, wanton. 

dKo\ovOci)y V. aKkovOca. 

d<6pa, d<6pr] (in dialect aK.6p.av, d«oju, 

Kop) still, more ; in formation of 

compar. v. § 119, n. 3. 
dKovfj = dKofj. 
aKOvpirai (aKou/x7rifct), aKOvpiria-pivos) 

rely upon, lean against. 
aKovpos unshorn (of sheep). 
aKovoa (v. § 251, 1 ; a/couya), § 23 ; 

aKov(TTrjKa) hear. 
iUpa extremity, end, highest point. 
aKpavoiy<o open a little. 

UKprj = <lKpa; ff tlKpT) rrjs €prjpids 



extreme solitariness ; an lUpr) a 

uKprj from one end to the other. 
dupifieia clearness ; arr^v d. at the 

highest price. 
dicpiftrjs exact, accurate. 
aKptftos dear (expensive), dear 

(favourite), niggardly. 
d<poyia\id beach, shore. 
aKpoOaKaa-cnd seashore. 
dicpvcfyd, adv. secretly ; 6^6) d. I keep 

secret. 
darf) (lit.) bank, shore. 
aKTiva = dxTiva. 
d\d = French a la . . . 
aXas-, neut. (§ 105) salt. 
aXdn = id. 
d\a(f)p6s = €\a(j)pos. 
dXc'^co grind. 
aX ei(^)a), aXf//3a) anoint. 
dX€7T€o-a (Pontus) female fox. 
aXfTTos- (Pontus) fox. 

dXf 7T0V = dXcOTTOV. 

dXei'/n flour, meal. 

aXr'jOeia (dX^/cia, § 10, n. 5) truth ; 
. also adv. truly, really. 
dikrfQtvco to become true. 
d\r)6iv6s true ; <tt dXrjdtvd in truth, 

really. 
d\rjap6vriTos never to be forgotten. 
dXrjapovay (elimonizo Ter. d } 0.) 

forget. 
aXiKos scarlet red. 
d\<v<i)v (lit.) kingfisher. 
aXXd but. 
dWayq change. 
dXXdfco (dXXaga) alter, change ; mid. 

change one's clothes (put on a 

better suit). 
dXkitos, dWtdiTLKa, adv. otherwise, 

else. 
dXXot, dXXoid, inter], alas ! 
dWolpovo = id. 
dXKopiav once more, then, again 

(Pontus). 
dX\o7TiaTa> change one's faith. 
ak\os (dddo, dros, § 31, n. 2) another ; 

v. § 156, further sub. roaos. 
oK\ot€, adv. once, formerly. 
dXkov. adv. elsewhere. 



GLOSSARY 



317 



aXoyo (aoyo, § 32) horse ; dim* dXoat 
(Chios). 

akoL(j)r} ointment. 

a\ov7rov, V. dXoyrrov. 

d\6xT€pas cock. 

dXva-ida chain. 

aXva-o,/. (§ 87) chain. 

dXS> (Cap.) to cry (of animals), crow. 

oKcavi threshing-floor. 

oXcottov (dXerrov, dXovirov) fox (cf. 
§88). 

dXaxri, /. capture, conquest. 

ap t dpd = dpi. 

dpa, w. aor. indie, or subj. as soon as 
(§ 273). 

dpdBeia ignorance. 

dpa6r)s, apaOos (§ 115) ignorant. 

dfiaXaytd fresh grass. 

afiav (Pontus), w. ace. as, like. 

apa^a, dpd^t waggon. 

dpdpavros imperishable. 

dpaprdva (dfidprrja-^ dp.apTrjp.4vos) 
to sin. 

dpapnd sin. 

apapraXos sinful. 

ape (dpd, also dppi, dppd) but, still, 
yet. 

ape (appe, Karpathos), V. Trrjyaivoj. 

d/iepyo) (§ 31, n. 1) to milk. 

dpeacas, adv. immediately. 

dperprjros innumerable, immeasur- 
able. 

dpiXrjTos speechless, silent. 

dpipds general, Amir. 

dppdn = part. 

appo(s) y f (§ 87) sand. 

apoipos unfortunate, unhappy. 

dpoXvvcj defile, profane. 

dpov (Pontus) = a-dv (1) as, like; (2) 
since, than (dpov [v]t6, r'). 

dpireki vineyard. 

a/z7reXo^o)pa<^a, pi. vineyards and 
fields (§ 41, a). 

dprr o)6(t> push. 

dpvpio-Tos without smell, odourless. 

dp(t>tf$6\ia doubt. 

av y conj. if, whether ; av <al al- 
though, t?. § 277 f. 

* dvaftciLvco (dvifirjKa, #' dve^(o i CLOT, 
21 



imper. dvefia dveftdre dve^rjre) 

ascend, go up ; (of dough) to rise. 
dvafipv(a> bubble up. 
dvayaXXidfa shout. 
dvayepvca (dvdyetpa) search for. 
dvdyKr] necessity ; e^ca d. I need, 

must. 
dvayvaBco read. 

dvayvapio-pevos acknowledged. 
dvayvcao-pardpiov (lit.). reader, 

reading-book. 
dva8e£tpid godchild. 
dvdbios = dvdvrio s, 
dvd$epa } neut. curse ; irdyet or' d. he 

is going to the devil. 
dvaOepartfa to curse. 
dvaLa-Brja-ia insensibility. 
dvaicaTava) mingle. 
dvaK\adl{opai shrug the shoulders. 
dvaKovoros unheard (of). 
dvdXoyos similar, corresponding. 
dvapiva expect. 
dvdp€0-a } adv.\n the in idst ; dvdpeaa 

V in the midst (middle) of ; cf. 

also § 141. 
dvdpeo-o, cf. id. ; dvdpea-6 rovs among 

one another. 
dvaperagv, adv. between, among ; cf. 

also § 141. 
dvdvTia = dyvdvTta. 
dvdvTios (dvdbtosy § 16, tt. 3) opposite, 

opposed to. 
dvarrvor) breath. 

dvarrobid perverseness, contradic- 
tion, caprice. 
dvapxla anarchy. 
dvapxwds anarchical. 
dvda'a the breath. 
dvao-alvcj (dvdo-ava) breathe. 
dvao-epvco drag up, draw upwards. 
avda-KcXa (t d.), adv. on one's back, 

supine. 
dvao-K&vai lift up, raise. 
dvaoT€vd£<o sigh, groan. 
dvao-rr)vco set up again, revive. 
dvaoTvXwvco place upon a column, 

raise high. 
dvariXXa) rise (of the sun). 
dvanvdfa shake up, toss. 



318 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



avaroXr) rising (of the sun). 
avarpix&a horror, shuddering. 
dva(j)cp(v)a) quote, cite, 
di/d^rco, light, kindle. 
(d)vaxoprayos insatiable, 
ai/a^co/ao) depart. 
dvBpelos (§ 10) brave. 
dvtfiafa cause to ascend, lead up. 
* dv €{3aiv<o = avaf$aiv(o, 
dveftoKarefiaivoi) go up and down (cf. 

§ 175, n. 2). 
dve£r]T£> seek, long earnestly for. 
dvfkirioTos hopeless. 
dvefiofivXos windmill. 
ap€fios wind. 
dv€7rap.4vos tranquil. 
dvc7TT]p4aoTos (lit,) uninfluenced. 
dviqbaXo cloud. 
dvr)6iKos immoral. 
dvrjfiepos wild. 

avrjijoropos unable, weak, sick. 
dv6r)<j>6pos flowering, bearing 

flowers. 
dvBifa bloom. 
dvOio-fievos blooming. 
dp067r\€KTos woven of flowers. 
avBos (ados), neut. flower ; pi. § 84. 
dv0oTO7ros flower-garden. 
dv6pG>7ri£<o make like men, civilise. 
<i(v)dpa>7ros (apOairos, § 31, n, 1 ; 

(WOpamos, % 36 n. ; gen. pi. § 62) 

man (homo). 
dvdpcoTTorrj humanity. 
dv35} = dvdi£a). 

dvlbeos without an idea of, ignorant. 
dvL<r<os perhaps. 
dvojjros unreasonable. 
dvoiyoicXeicd open and shut, wink. 
dvoiyoo-(j)a\i^a> open and close. 
dvotya) (dwoiya) open, tr. and intr. 
dvoL^ariKos of the spring-time, 

spring-like. 
avoii-i,/. spring. 
dvoixros (dpoLKTos) open. 
dvrdfia, adv. together ; d. /ie together 

with. 
dvTap.G>voa come upon, meet, mid. 

happen. 
dvrapovXa, dim. of dvrdpa storm. 



avrepa, neut. (pi.) intestines. 

dvriKpv(s), dvtiKpvs, adv. opposite, 
over against. 

dvTiKpvfa meet, face. 

dvTikakid echo. 

dvrikaXos echo, counterpart. 

dvrika\a> (fie) to echo, resound. 

dvTio adieu. 

dvTLTroirjTiKos unpoetic, prosaic. 

dvTi7rp6<r<Q7ros deputy, repre- 
sentative. 

dvrls, w. ace. (v. § 165) instead of, in 
place of. 

dvTi(j>iyy<D reflect rays of light. 

avrov if, when. 

avrpas man (vir\ cf. § 67. 

dvTpetos manly, brave. 

dvTpoywo man and wife, married 
couple. 

aVcoKoYo), adv. up and down, topsy- 
turvy. 

dvaxfieXevTos useless. 

dgddepobos cousin. 

*a^a('j/Q), V. av^aivcD. 

a^a(j)va (e|a(/>va), adv. suddenly. 

dgia worth, honour, fame. 

a£ifo> to cost, be worth. 

dt-ivapea (Pontus) stroke of an 
axe. 

dijivr) axe. 

a^ios worthy ; elfiai a. am capable. 

df-ioo-TrovbaoTos worthy of effort. 

noyo = a\oyo. 

dovros, v. dfiovros. 

dir* = dir6. 

dTrdv = d7rdva. 

dirdvov = dndvoi. 

dnavrco answer ; also meet with, 
face. 

dirdvco (dirdvov) over, above ; d '? 
(also 's — d.), dndv^ diro upon, on 
(cf. § 171) ; do7rdvot) = d7r6 Vdvo) 
above, from above, away from ; 
d. Karon, about, almost. 

dirdvaiOcv above, from above. 

dn apart) pijr os unobserved. 

dwapvovfLai deny. 

dirdri) deceit. 

dirdrr^ros untrodden. 



GLOSSARY 



319 



uitcltos self (§ 157) ; employed also 

to form the reflexive, § 140, 

n. 1. 
a7rc= a™ ; also used independently, 

hereof. 
* direOalva, V. rfeQalvG). 
oWi (Chios) hereupon. 
dweipos innumerable. 
u7T€K€i (anace?) beyond, v. § 172. 
u7rUfiva 9 adv. from there, from that 

point. 
aneKcio, thereupon, then. 
aire\7ri£ofiai to despair of. 
a7T€X7no-fi6s despair. 
anepva) pass, pass by. 
«7rfV (Pontus) within ; d. V in. 

a7T€T<r€L = a7T€K€t. 

aTnyXoyov/iat speak. 

a iri6a>vG> put down, place. 

aTr\d(y)'i side. 

dn-Xoff (Ki. d7rXovs) simple, single. 

«7rXa>i/a> spread, extend. 

U7T0 (oTr', d<£', d7T6, OTTOl/, alsO TTf), 

j?rep. from, of ; cf. § 161. 
*d7ro0 at i/o) (d7ro#j>iJo"*ca)), v. ttc- 

Qalvm. 
a7ro6avaTa)fievos dead. 
d7ro0r}KT] barn, store, magazine. 
diroOvfico desire. 

d7ro*:dra) a7rd underneath, under. 
d7roKoifii£(o lull to sleep. 
'itto koi fiov fiat fall asleep. 
diroKovpeva) shear, clip. 
diroKpivoiiai (a7roKpldrjKa) to answer. 
dnoWviiai (lit.) perish. 
a7roXv(v)(o, d7roXa>(-da)), d7r6\vS>(a7r6- 

\va-a ; €7r€\vora 9 p. 139) release. 
dTro/iti/a), aTrop,v7}(rK(o to remain, be 

left, V. /ie'vo). 

a7rofiovr} patience. 
d7ro/jtov&)fteVoff left alone, isolated. 
diroj-evos strange, gone astray. 
diroiravco = dirav<&. 
diroTriv (Pontus) in, among. 
d7ro7r\avTjfievos misled, seduced. 
anou-ToKos apostle. 
d-rrovrvrc (Naxos), adv. then, there- 
upon. 
a7ro(rTpo(j)rj abhorrence. 



diroraxcid (r a.), adv. in the after- 
noon. 

d7roTO-t^aXtf&) (Pontus) split. 

d7roTvxaivG) (v. rvxctivca) to be un- 
fortunate. 

a7rou = a7ro, Velv. 

[d7ro(v)\av<a, defective], aor. a7roXa^a 
(Velv.) enjoy. 

a7r6(f)a(rij f. resolution. 

d7ro(f>a(rl£<o conclude, decide ; give 
up (a patient). 

d7roxaip€TL(rfi6s farewell, bidding 
adieu. 

dnoxra) acquire, attain. 

d7rox«/>ifo) separate. 

dnoy^Cf adv. this evening. 

an pe7ro$ unfitting, unbecoming. 

y A7rpiki$ April. 

dirpoo-e^ia inattention, inadvertence. 

d7Tp6a-€xros (an poo-euros) careless, 
unmindful. 

dpd div (Velv.), interrog. 'particle — 
Lat. nonne. 

dpayixafta (Pontus) opening, fissure. 

dpayjiivos, V. apd£<o. 

dpdba row, position ; p,e ttjv d. in 
turns, in succession. 

dpabidfa arrange (in succession). 

dpdfo) (apa^a) to land. 

dpaid, adv. scantily, thinly. 

'ApdTTT/ff negro, Moor. 

dpaxviaa-fxivos full of cobwebs. 

'Kpfiavirris Albanian. 

dpyd, adv. late. 

apyavo musical instrument. 

dpyoo-akcvG) move slowly. 

dpycb (-eco) delay, tarry long. 

dpdividfaiiai set about a thing, pre- 
pare to. 

dpe'fca, dpi(r<D (dpea-Kd), djpiyco, apeo'a, 
apc^a, dpca-fievos) please. 

dp€TT) virtue. 

ap6(07TO$ (Pontus) = av6pa)7r os. 
apis (dpvs, v. § 110 n.) thin. 
dpioTOKpariKos aristocratic. 
dpiorovpyrjixa masterpiece. 
dpi(pvT]Tos innumerable. 
dpKTj^dpxrj. 
apK\a trunk, chest. 



320 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



apKOS (Cyp.) = aypio$. 

upKos (Pontus) bear. 

dpKovda female bear. 

apfxafiedo fleet. 

dpfxara, pi. weapons. 

'A/j/xarwXoff Armatolian. 

dppiyco, dpepyco (§ 31, 72. 1) to milk. 

dp/x€j/ifa> fluctuate, hover ; sail. 

&pnr)v€va) to counsel. 

cippovia harmony. 

dpvovfxm deny. 

dpos (Cap.) sound, alive. 

apTrdfa, cip7rd)(V(0 (dprrio, aprra^a) 

seize, rob. 
appaftodvidfriiaL to betroth, be be- 
trothed. 
dpp^caviacTTiKos betrothed, fiance ; 

/. § 111. 
itpprjTos unspeakable. 
dppt{36p<0 (dppiftdpio-a) arrive. 
dppa>(rrr]p.€vos sick. 
dppoavTia sickness. 
appaxTTCD to be sick. 
dpaeviKos male. 

aprovK (Pontus), adv. now, already. 
dprvo-id food, repast. 
dp(f>av6s orphan. 
dpxa'lKos archaic, ancient. 
dpxaios old, ancient. 
dpxcvto begin. 

dpxn (dpicrj, § 18, n. 3), beginning. 
dpxqyo* leader, chief. 
dpxi>{to, dpxivftxo, dpxtvi(a>, apx^**, 

dpxipto (dx l P&i V&lv») to begin. 
dpxodid as dpxovTid. 
upxovras (apxos, § 65, 72. 1) governor ; 

pi. princes, gentry, aristocracy. 
dpxovrid (dpxo&id, § 16, n. 3) nobility, 

the noblemen. 
dpxovToor7riTo house of a nobleman. 
apxos = apxovras. 
apa)Tai, (J)p<dT5> ask. 
&, (1) v. § 194 ; (2) ds=d7r6 (Pontus, 
v. § 168, 3), as to after, afterwards. 
dafieoTrjs chalk. 
«o-f, V. d(j)r}v<t). 
do-r)p.€vios of silver. 

uarrjpos — ao~Kr)pos. 

ao-K€7Tos unprotected, uncovered. 



do-Kepi army, retinue. 

a&Krjfios (ucrxyp-os, adrrjfJLOSj § 28 71.)- 

da-Ki (akh6 Zac, § 35, n. 3) bag. 

da-Qv thine, v. § 143, n. 3. 

do"7raXi£o> = o~(j)aXpci>. 

ao"rr\a(y)xvos unmerciful. 

ao-7rpo small coin. 

a<T7rpos white. 

do-npovXts (§ 113, n. 2) a little 
white, whitish. 

d(r l Taivovfii ( Velv.) = alardvopim. 

dordxv = ardxv. 

dorc'ios witty. 

doTfvdp (Pontus) sick. 

doreviKos weakly, feeble. 

darepaSf star. 

d ore/3 i = id. 

do-Tr}6i breast, v. § 100. 

dstos (Bova) — avros. 

daTpd(f)T€t it lightens. 

darpo star ; pi. § 100, n. 1. 

doTpoiriktKi (flash of) lightning. 

do-vyKpiTos incomparable. 

do-i/XXdyioroff thoughtless. 

dcrvararos unsubstantial, groundless. 

do-(f>dKa oleander. 

a(Tx r }l*o$> V* aarKTjpos. 

driXeKOTos endless, unceasing; un- 
finished. 

drfeT (Cap.), adv. there. 

ar6i)(n (§ 35,n. 3),/. flowering, bloom. 

an, neut. stallion, horse. 

dri/x^ros invaluable. 

artfjcos infamous fellow, scoundrel. 

dr/xo7rAoio steamer. 

dropna-fjios individualism. 

dros^avros ; cf. § 136, n. 3. 

drouov (Pontus) =t6o~ov. 

aVoTf (?) (PontUs) = TOT€S. 

aTpo>7ros — avOpcoiros. 

aTTLKOS Attic. 

aTV7r<oTos imprinted. 

druxrjpa misfortune. 

avyaraivco, avyara>, v. d(3ya.Taiv<o. 

avyepivos morning star. 

avyf) dawn. 

avyo (avKOVy § 26) egg. 

avyovXa, dim. of avyrj. 



GLOSSARY 



321 



<iv6fvTT]s (lit.) master, lord. 

avKo=^avy6. . 

av\r) court. 

~*av£atvco, a£aiv<o (a^rja-a, d^r]6r}Ka) 
increase. 

avpto, adv. in the morning. 

avTt ear. 

avTos he, this ; self ; for the differ- 
ent forms, v. §§ 136, 144. 

avrov (avrovvov), adv. there, in that 
place ; v. also § 139, n. 1. 

avToxQw (lit,) autochthon, native. 

d^ — drro. 

dtfidyavos insatiable. 

d<f)avifa cause to disappear, anni- 
hilate. 

<lcj)avTos invisible ; yivopai a. dis- 
appear. 

afayyos without light, dark. 

d(j)€VTTjs (pi. § 76) Mr., lord j Monsieur, 
father ; dim. dfavrdicis. 

dfcvTiKos master, lordship. 

dtyvrpa mistress, lady. 

d(f>TjKpovpuiL hear. 

*d(f)r)V<x>(d(f)iv<d, d(f>T]Ka a<$r)Ka[i<$)€Ka, 
Pontus] a<j}Tja-a t imper. cty[ij]a* acre, 
d<fri6r)K.a dcfrrjdrjKa, dcf)T}p4vos) let, 
allow. 

dcfriXrjTos unkissed. 

a<t>ofios fearless. 

dtfioppr) occasion, cause. 

d(j>ov since, then, after, v. § 273. 

dtypdros fresh. 

d<j)pL£<o to foam, d<f)pi(rp4vos foaming. 

dtypovTivid carelessness, indifference. 

dcj)p6s foam. 

a(JHT€ y V. d(f)f]va>. 

dxdfivia weakness. 

dxafivoKwrjydpLs effeminate hunts- 
man. 
dxafivomdva) seize lightly. 
dxap-vo7ria(rp.a gentle seizure. 
dxapvos weak. } 

dxctAi (§ 100) lip. 
uxiovpa, pi. straw. 
dxipto, v. dpxiC<*>* 
dxvdpi footprint. 
dxvos pale, wan. 
dxopraoros insatiable, greedy. 



dxpuos common, bad ; ra e^co dxpua 

fie Kaviva I fare ill with one. 
dxTcnroSi polypus. 
d X T€ (Pontus), v. §§ 136, n. 3, 142 n. 
dxrtva beam, ray. 
dxvpd, pi. (Pontus) v. § 6, n. 6. 
dx<*>pivTos inseparable. 
dfrjXds (Ter. d> 0.) high, lofty. 
a\jfoyoQ blameless. 
ayjsvxos lifeless. 

BayyiXio gospel. 
fiayivi cask. 
ftdyia wet-nurse. 

ftaOtid, adv. deeply. 

fiaSeid, ra the depths. 

pa0p.7]b6v, adv. (lit.) gradually, by 



fiaSpos degree, step. 

pdOos, neut. depth. 

(3a0ov\aLva> (ifiaQovkava) hollow, 

scoop out. 
fiaBvs deep. 

fiaivo* (Aegina)=fSd\\to. 
fiaKide mother of Sultan. 
*0aXXa> (/3af&>, /3aVa>, (34\v<o, c/3aXa, 

€f3d\8r)Ka) put, place, lay. 
ftapaivto be heavy, weigh. 
pdpfiapos barbarian. 
(3ap€iaicova> to be hard of hearing. 
Papeiopoipos ill-fated, unfortunate. 
(Sapeiovpai, J3ap€t4pat (if$ap46t}K.a) to 

be weary of. 
fiapiXa cask. 
(3apioTL£a> grow tired of. 
fiapicdpis boatman. 
fiapKovXa small bark. 
ftapp,4vos=(3a\p,4vos (from /3aXXet)). 
(3apovos baron. 

(3apvavaoT€vdfa sigh heavily. 
fiapvs (vario, var4o^ § 110 n.) heavy, 

oppressive ; fiapv, adv. 
f$ap5> (-€«>), fiapi<TK<ti 9 ftapicrKco, 0a- 

pevo* (iftdpeo-a iftdpi&a, fiapiv pivots) 

strike, hit ; £. Kaviva a-aylres to 

hit one with arrows ; v. also 

fSapciovpai. 
fid(ravo(s) agony, grief (cf. § 100, n. 1). 



322 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



j3ao-ter(i), neut. (Pontus) last counsel, 
deliberation. 

Pao-iXeta kingdom. 

/3ao-iX«o,/3ao-iXeto kingdom; palace (?). 

/3a<n\evo> sink (of the sun). 

pa<riXids, pao-iXeas (pacriXis) king; 
cf. § 55 (voc. Paa-tXev in Ii%as is 
a. Gfc.). 

fiao-iXiKo basilicum (favourite orna- 
mental plant). 

fiao-iXiKo? kingly, royal. 

(3ao-t\i<rora queen. 

ftao-iXoTratdo king's, royal, child. 

Pao-iko7rov\a king's daughter, prin- 
cess. 

/3acrtXd7roi/Xo king's son, prince. 

jSao-zca/xa, neut. the evil eye. 

Pa&Xes = 0acrtXe(a)s. 

/3aorafa>, {3a<rra> (ipdara^a) endure, 
bear, wait. 

/3dro(j), weit£. prickly bush, bramble. 

j3a0rtfo> baptize. 

Pd<j)Tt(r(jia baptism. 

PacfrTLOTiKos baptismal, of baptism ; 
p. ovofjia Christian name. 

8d<f)G> to dye ; p. fiavpa wear black. 

Pyayyekio (§ 23 ?l.) = j3ayyeXio. 

*/3 y d C & = PydXXco. 

*Pyalv<o (aor. iPyrjKa \i£ipa, § 208], 
e/3ya, imper. ?/3ya) go out. 

*j3ydXXa> (v. /SdXXo)) take out, bring 
out, send forth ; /3y. Trtp'nraTo take 
for a walk ; (of flowers) intr. shoot 
forth ; /3y. to i/z-cd/ii pov to earn my 
bread ; j3y. t^i> voreprj dvairvot] 
draw the last breath. 

^ydXa-Lfxo (§ 104) dislocation. 

/3yd vo> = j3ydXXo>. 

P84XXa = dp8cXXa. 

Pepaios sure, certain ; piPaia, adv. 
surely. 

Pe&pTjs vizier. 

jSeXdfa) bleat, low. 

0eXai/tStd oak. 

/3eXi/o) = /3dXXo). 

pcXovi needle. 

PeXovid stitch. 

foXovbevtos of velvet, velvety. 

/3eXo{)$o velvet. 



Bci/erfdiroff Venetian. 

Pcpya twig, applied also to a slender 

girl, 
ftepyi twig, rod ; bird's perch. 
(BepyoXvyepos slender as a twig. 
PepyovXa, dim. of Pepya. 
perovXi kid. 
jS^/za, 7ieu£. step, pace. 

P*ix( v ) a C0U S n * 

pi, interj. (Lesbos). 

pid : h€tcl pias with difficulty ; cf. 
§ 162, 4, n. 2. 

piPXlo book. 

PipXtodrjKi] library. 

Piyklfa keep watch, wait for. 

pios (Ptos), neut. fortune, property,, 
means. 

pXdfjirjs, Vlamis, brother in a feud. 

pXaa-Taivco (epXdcrTrja-a) sprout, shoot. 

pXaxo7rovXa shepherdess. 

pXaxoTrovXo young shepherd. 

pXdxos shepherd. 

* pXeTTco (e?8a [eSia Syra, tda Ios], 
da [t]8a> dta>, imper. \l\bis 8e[°"] re > 
l8a>$T)Ka or dtoydrjKa) see, look. 

jSXoyid small-pox. 

jSoyyifa) sigh, groan, roar. 

poyya> = id. 

P6di=Pov$t. 

PoT)0€ia help. 

por]$S> to help. 

poi8i=poi8i. 

Potfa howl, growl. 

poXd blow, stroke ; time (enumera- 
tion, etc., Fr.fois). 

PoXel (ePoXeo-e) it is possible. 

PoXeros possible. 

jSdXt bullet, a throw, stroke. 

PoXltci, Fr.fois, time. 

Popids north wind. 

popra= poXira, v. § 31. 

poa-KoirovXa shepherdess. 

*/36(TKa>, Po<tki£q>, PocrKdco (iPocr- 
Kicra, epocrKrjdijKa, Po(rKi<rp.€vos) 
feed, graze. 

PordvL medicinal herb, remedy. 

povPaXia-ios of a buffalo. 

povyyi(co (ipovyyi^a) = /3oyyif o>. 

Povbi (p68i, Pofit) OX. 



GLOSSAKY 



32- 



fiovKcvTpL (cf)K€VTp, § 37 n.) ox-goad. 
fiovXa signet-ring, signet. 
fiovXcvTTjs deputy ; pi. § 76. 
/3ouAiaffi> (e'j3ovXia|a, j3ov\tao-p4vos) 

dip in, sink, collapse. 
j3ovXo>i>g> to seal ; 8e (3ov\a)va> pari I 

don't close an eye. 
powl mountain, hill. 
Povvlo-tos mountainous. 
(Sow 6— (Sow L 
povpKoXaKas vampire, werewolf (a 

ghost). 
$ovpK<hva> to soil, spatter ; ftovpuca- 

fiivos also clouded. 
fiovrvpo butter. 
fiovTa to dive, dip. 
fipabetd evening. 
fipadv, neut. evening ; to j3. (Thera 

fipafiv) in the evening. 
fipahv^iiftpadvvet evening is coming 

on. 
(Zpabvs, adv. in the evening. 
j3pafo) to boil. 
(Spend trousers, breeches. 
fipdxos rock. 

j3pe, bp4=ficop4 t 

f3p€fJi4vOg, V. €Vpt<TK(O t 
jSpeCTKO) = €Vpi<TKQ3. 

* j3 p 4 x <*> ( € 'fip dxrjKa e/3p 4xtyj k a) we t, 

dip ; (cause to) rain. 
Ppl£a> (cetera e)3pt£a) scold. 
*/3p ia-KOi (j3piora), fipixym) = 

€Vp't<TKG>. 

@povT(i> to thunder. 

fipoxepos rainy. 

fipoxh rain. 

fipaxi {usually pi.) snare. 

jQpvo-t,/. fountain. 

Ppcupa, neut. rubbish, stench, dirt. 

* (Sv£aiv(o, fiv£dv<o (efiv^a^a or -a m a i 

ej3uf axTrjKct, fiv£a.(rp4vo$ and (3v£ay- 

p4vos) suckle, suck. 
J3v06s depth, abyss. 
ficopos altar. 

b, see pn and also it, when not found 

under b. 
bdpep, adv. at least. 
&ovt€k(i) small buffalo. 



TadovpLo-ios belonging to an ass, 

asinine. 
ydtybapos ass. 
ycupa, neut. = aipa. 
yairdvi ribbon, tape. 
ydXa, neut. (§ 103, n. 2) milk. 
yaXavopdrrji (f. -a) blue-eyed. 
yaXavos blue. 
ydpos wedding. 
yapnds kind of cloak, 
yapirpoc son-in-law, bridegroom. 
yaTTO) — dya7rS>. 
yapov(fia\id carnation stalk. 
yapov<j)a\o carnation pink. 
ydorpa stem of a flower, flower-pot. 
ydra cat. 

yavpiaa-pevos haughty, proud. 
yyovt = iyy ovi. 
*y84pva> (yr4pvco i § 26, tfyfctpa or 

eybapa, iybdpdrjica, ySappivos) 

flay. 

ybt = yovbt. 

ydvvco put off ; pillage, denude. 

ybva-ipo (§ 104) undressing, putting 

off (clothes). 
yetd health ; yetd crov good-day 

(morning) to you, or good-bye; 

a dcf)r}vco y. I take my leave of 

you. 
yelrovas neighbour. 
yeirovtd (yeiTOvla) neighbourhood. 
yciTovKTva female neighbour. 
yeXoia (eXota, § 22), pi. laughter. 
"^ycXca (e'ycXacra, eytXdarrjKa) to 

laugh. 
y4 pa, neut. eating, meal. 
ycpaTi^co, ytopari((o to dine. 
yepdros, yiopdros (w. ace.) filled, full. 
yepiCda, yiopi(c* (w. double ace.) to 

fill ; also to be filled, be full. 
yevcLiKa = yvvcuKa. 
yeveict, pi. beard. 
yevtd race, lineage. 
yeviKos common, general. 
yevvaios noble. 
Tevvdpis January. 
yevvS) beget, give birth to; (of 

birds) lay (eggs). 
yevopat = ytvopai. 



324 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



y€pd<i(v) hawk. 

ycpdfiara, pi. old age, age. 

ydprjfxos — eprjpos. 

* yipvw (eytipa, y€[i\pjx4vos) to bend. 

"*yepi>G> (iylpaaa) grow old. 

yipovras old man, old age. 

ycpovTOKopvra-o old maid. 

yipos (cf. § 63) = y4povTa9. 

yepos sound, strong. 

yevop.ai taste, eat. 

y€(j)vpi, yw<pvpt bridge. 

yy(?)i /• earth, v. § 85 n. 

yid(yiard, yiao) : (1) w. ace. onacconnt 
of, for, v. § 163 ; yia vd in order 
that; (2) = yiari; why? (3) w. 
imper. now ! come ! 

yiaytd grandmother. 

ytaivco (eyiava, yiafiivos) heal, cure. 

ytaXj3a/)ro) (Ca#.) request. 

ytaXds (sea) shore. 

yidira (yidda), V. Ivra. 

yiaovpn whey-cheese. 

ytapas = wound. 

y card = ytct. 

yta7t (always w. acute) : (1) why % 
(2) for, because ; (3) tart (Velv.) 
on account of. 

yiaTpevo to heal. 

yiarpiKos medical ; neut. medicine. 

yiarpos physician. 

yiSios = ?dios. 

*yivofiai 9 ytvofiai (pres. part, 
yevdfievos, tyiva eyeva iyivqKa 
iyivrjKOj 6a y4va> yiva> y€v£> y yiv<o- 
p.4vos or yewrjfiivos) become, take 
place, be ; ylvcrai va it is possible 
that ; ri va. yivjj ; what can be 
done 1 

yio'/xa (ye/*a), neut. meal, dinner; 
dinner-time, afternoon. 

yiOfiaTi£a> =ye/zari£a>. 

yiojiaTos — yefidros. l 

yiofjiifa — ye/xt'f a>» 

yiopoavdi be full. 

yiopTT) feast. 

yios (vios, lit.) son. 

yiovbi little son. 

yio(j)vpL = ytfyvpi. 



yLvpyos peasant. 

yttos (Sar. K.) when (temporal conj.). 

yKakcpia gallery. 

yicapStaKos cordial, hearty. 

yKiaovpts unbeliever, giaour. 

yKp(p€i4fiai collapse. 

yKptfxtfa cast down, destroy ; mid. 

to sink (intr.), collapse. 
yXedifa to have a drinking-bout, 

celebrate, amuse oneself. 
ykevTOKOTrrjixa, neut. gluttony, 

debauch. 
yXe 7r to = j3Xc7T6). 

ykrjyopa (yprjyopa), adv. quickly. 
yXrjyopoo-vvrj speed, swiftness. 
yXtorpto slide. 
yXvxa sweetness. 
y\vKOKe\a'ibG> warble sweetly. 
y\vKo\a\S> speak sweetly. 
y\vKopovppovpi£<ii murmur lovingly* 

sweetly. 
yKvKonaiyvMKi sweet sport, cares- 
sing. 
ykvKoirvoos sweetly blowing. 
yXvKos (yKvKvs) sweet, v. § 110 n. ; 

to. y\vKa sweets. 
yXuKoc/>iXo> kiss sweetly, lovingly. 
y\vKvs=yXvKos. 
y\vT<av<Q rescue, release ; escape, 

become free. 
yXeoo-o-a tongue, language. 
yXoxro-iKos relating to the tongue, 

linguistic. 
yXoxnrov gossip (/.). 
y video spin. 

yvivra (Gap.\ prep, against, opposite. 
yj><o/*77 meaning, opinion. 
yvtopifa recognise, know ; mid. be 

acquainted, know each other. 
yvaxrt, /. understanding. 
ywoTiKos clever, sly. 
yj/G>crros known. 
yopdpi ass. 
yova (yovaro, V. § 103, n. 2), neut. 

knee. 
yovarlfr kneel down, fall at one's 

feet. 
yoviol, pi. parents, v. § 72 (yovfis lit.). 
yopyd, adv. quickly. 



GLOSSARY 



325 



yoTo-afidpos (Pontus) old. 

yovbl (ybi) a mortar. 

yovXevca set (a trap). 

yovfxcvos (f)yov[i€vos) abbot. 

yovpovvi pig. 

ypdfjLjxa, neut. letter. 

ypdfifiaTiKr) grammar. 

ypafjLfjLaricriJLivos learned. 

ypafifiTj line, row. 

ypacj)r) writing, a letter. 

ypa(f>6fx€ vo written work. 

ypdcjxa (ypd<prco, iypd(f>TrjKa iypd- 

<pT]Ka) write. 
ypd\jftfio (verbal noun) (hand) writing. 
yprjyopa = yXrjyopa. 
ypid old woman. 
ypotK S> = dypoi<S>. 
ypocrt piastre. 
ypovcrdpos corsair, pirate. 
yvaXi glass, mirror. 
yva\i{<o to shine ; mid. be reflected. 
yvakioTcpos shining, fresh. 
yvfivdfa to practise. 
yvfivos naked. 
yvfjLvwva strip, uncover. 
yvvaiKa (yevaiKa Cyp.) wife, woman. 
yvvaLKokdrpr^s honouring women, 

gallant. 
yvpefxaTa,pl. searching (verbal noun). 
yvpeva) search ; seek ; request, 

demand. 
yvplfa turn about, turn round ; tr. 

and intr. twist, turn. 
yvpvS) (iyvpicra) turn round ; y. 

TTtoroj turn back. 
yvpos circuit, a walk round. 
yvpca, adv. round about ; y. V, prep. 

around (§ 171). 
*ya> = iya>. 
yavid corner, angle. 

g, see y< or k. 
gi6\a pond, lake. 

Ad (strengthening particle with 
demonstrative pronouns and 
verbs, cf. § 147 n.) exactly, 
forsooth. 

dafiatvco (Pontus) = bid/3aivc0. 



ddyicafxa, neut. a bite. 

*bayKdv(d (ibdyKdcrdy bayKacrrrjKa, 

dayKao-fievos, also day<afi4vos) to 

bite. 
ddKva>z=id. 
daKpv(op) tear 
8aKpv£co weep. 

dcucpvcrpevos red with weeping. 
dafjLao-Trjs tamer, subduer. 
ftdvelfo lend. 
dda-KdXevco censure, teach one his 

lesson. 
SdCTKaXiKos of a schoolmaster. 
ddcrKdXos teacher, schoolmaster. 
ddcros (ddcro) y neut. forest. 
bav\l torch. 
bavTOS=atros. 
SdXTvXifa finger-ring. 
SdxTvXifiofxccros of a slender figure. 
ddxrvXo finger. 
daxTv\o7rovXo small finger. 
be-b*v. 

SeftaipG), V. biaf$aiv<&. 
buy fid proof. 

beikivo afternoon, evening. 
beCKos timid, shy. 
delvas, 6 such and such a one, Mr. 

So-and-so, v. § 157 ; 6 b. *ai 6 

rdbes this one and that one. 
belrrvo repast, dinner. 
deurvib to lunch, dine. 
beixva, belxra show. 
Seicdgi sixteen. 
d€Kd7r4vT€ fifteen. 
dcKapdy dcKdpi a 10 lepta piece. 
dcKapid ten in number, half a 

score. 
deKdpiKo containing ten (e.g. lepta), 

v. § 133. 
be/cox™ eighteen. 
fieXrapto(v) postcard. 
depart bundle. 
bev (be) not. 

bevrpi tree, dim. bevrpaKi. 
bivrpo = id 4 
biva> bind. 
be£ls (cf. § 110 n.) on the right 

(hand) ; begi right hand. 
bepvoxrvirS) to whip. 



32G HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



*8ipv(o (eBeipa e'Bapa, eBdpOrjKa) to 

whip, beat. 
Bes> v. jSAeVo. 

Bicmoiva blessed Virgin (eccl.). 
d€(T7nhi]s bishop, pi. § 76 ; Bio-nora, 

voc. in addressing a priest (eccl.) 

Reverend. 
Btvrepa Monday. 
Bevrepos the second. 
$€<f)T€pi account-book. 
Bixopai receive, accept. 
BrjXovort, adv. that is to say, viz. 
BrjpiovpyS> create. 
drjp.oKpa.TTjs democrat. 
drjpoKpaTiKos democratic. 
brjpoa-ioypafyiKos journalistic. 
drjpoTiKos relating to the populace, 

popular ; B. Bdo-naXos national 

school-teacher ; fj BrjporiKtj the 

vernacular. 
Bid — yid. 
Biaftdfa read. 
*8iapaiva> (Bafialvco, § 6, n. 6 ; 

8idft[rj]Ka, eBeftev ediai^Kja, etc., 

§ 208) pass through, traverse, cf. 

ava(3aiv(o. 
Biaftdrrjs traveller. 
BidfioXos (BidoXos, § 22) devil. 
SiaQrjKTj testament, will, 
Bid<os deacon. 
foaKo<ra/>macompanyof two hundred. 
biaKocrioi two hundred. 
BiaXaX<o announce. 
BiaXiyc* select, choose ; pluck 

(flowers). 
diaXexTos selected, distinguished. 
BidoXos = BidftoXos. 

diaovTp€v(y)(o (Syra) tease, poke fun at. 
diacTKcbdfo entertain, converse. 
biaTpiprj dissertation. 
Bidqyavos transparent. 
8id<f>opo(s), neut. (v. § 100, n. 1) 

interest, gain. 
8iyv<opos fickle. 
*8 1 $a), Bipod, Bodvco (sBaxa eScacra, 6a 

Baxrca or Scoko), imper. 86[s] Baxre 

Bdxrre, cBotirjica, 8o[<r]p€vos) give. 
dirjyrjpa, neut. narrative ; dim. Birjyrj- 

param. 



Birjyrjparoypa^ia story- writing. 

bi(rj)yovpai relate, narrate. 

Bacaiapa, neut. justice. 

diKaarrjs judge ; pi. § 76. 

BIklos (BUrjos) right, just; e^ca BUto 

I am right. 
diKorros double-edged. 
8ik6s (J8ik6s) : (1) own, one's own, v. 

§ 143 ; (2) a relative, friend. 

8tV<D=z 818(0. 

8top6a>vG) (BiopBavcD, Maina) correct, 

improve. 
Biopla boundary. 
Bion because, v. § 276, n. 1. 
B'nrXa (ano StVXa), adv. close by, 

next ; B. *s, prep, beside (§ 171). 
6WAd? double. ' 
8io-€icaTop,p.vpiov billion. 
8lo-€(f)Tos unsanitary. 
Blro-epa (Ios), neut. right, justice. 
Btya thirst. 
Biyjfio, Biyjsdfa (iBl^aara, Bctyaarptvos) 

to thirst. 
Bixrvy neut. net. 
Bix&s (pe 8lx<os), w* ace. without 

(§ 167); Blx<os vd without (with 

verbs). 
8ia>, BiftS ( = i8a>), V. /3Xe7T6). 
8io)x va) i 8ta>x T(0 hunt. 
BoKipdfa put to the test, try. 
BoXios unfortunate, perfidious. 
BoXos guile, craft. 

BoptoriKos courtier, servant at court. 
Bovti tooth. 
86£a glory. 

Bo£d£(o make celebrated, praise. 
Bo^ao-pivos celebrated, praised. 
Boa-ipo giving (verbal noun). 
BovXa maid, servant-girl. 
BovXeid work, task. 
BovXcvttjs workman, day-labourer; 

pi. § 76. 
BovXeiKo to work, serve. 
BovXos servant, slave. 
Bpayo(v)pdvos dragoman, interpreter. 
BpaKos a figure very common in 
fable; a violent, powerful monster. 
Bpapa, 7ieut. drama. 
BpapariKos dramatic. 



GLOSSARY 



327 



dpdfxi a unit of weight, v. p. 84 

footnote. 
Spaxpf) drachme (coin— dr. 1 franc), 
bptiravi sickle. 
bpofxos way, street-; nalpvco dp6fj.o 

to take a road. 
dpoadros fresh. 
dpoo-epos fresh. 
dpoo-(i)d (dpoa-os, neut.) dew. 
Spao-ifa refresh. 
bpoo-oirvQos fresh smelling. 
bpocros, neut. = 8 poo- id. 
dpooovXa, dim. of bpoaos. 
8pds, m. (§ 86, n. 2) oak. 
ovdpa, 8vdpL a 2 lepta piece. 
8vvap.ai (lit.) = bvvojxai . 
8vvafii,f. might, strength. 
dwafjLwvco to strengthen. 
Swards able, possible, strong, loud. 
8vvop.aL can, am able, 
dvo two ; k 61 uvo both ; ol dvo pas 

both of us. 
dvoo-fios jasmine. 
dvo-i, f. sunset, west. 
dva-KoXevco render difficult. 
dvo-KoXia difficulty. 
ovarvxia misfortune. 
dvo-ru^icr/i€i/off unfortunate. 
bvarvxos — id, 

dtodcKa twelve. 

dcodcKada a company of twelve, 

retinue. 
dwdcKcipid dozen. 
d&de ( Velv. ba>6C) hence, from there ; 

aVd totis k\ 8. (Velv.), since then, 

from then. 
d<bpa, neut. room. 



0<ovg> — olO 



d, see also vt or r. 
dapartfs friend. 

*E (at) inter}, good ! well ! 
iavro(v) sign of reflexive, v. § 140. 
cftya, V. ftyaiva). 

ipdofxdda ({profidda, § 26) week. 
ejSirfa (Cap.) morning. 



e/3pa, V. evpio-Kco. 

cyyifa (dyyt{co) touch. 

eyyovos (eyyovas, § 66 n.) iyyovt 
(yyovi) grandchild. 

iyyvrqs surety, bail. 

eyia>(vrj) = iym. 

eyicdpSios hearty. 

eyvoia — evvoia. 

iym (oym) I, v. § 134. 

eoia (Syra), V. /3XeVa>. 

idiKos — diKos. 

com, dm (add, Pontus) here, iSm Trepa 
here ; air' 1 idm oVo on this side 
(§ 172); ibm Ka\ diica xp ov *> a ten 
years ago. 

ielvos (Pontus) — eicelims. 

cQvikos national. 

eBvos nation, people. 

clda, v. (SkiiMt. 

elders) else, otherwise. 

eldos, neut. species, sort. 

eldaXokaTprjs idolater. 

eiKova image. 

*lKovooTd(Tio(v) place where the 
saints' images stand in a church 
or house, sanctuary. 

clKoo-dpa, eUoo-dpi a 20 lepta piece. 

HKoa-apid a number of twenty, score. 

eiKoo-t twenty. 

dKoo-iirevTapid a company of twenty- 
five. 

elKoo-nrevrdpiKo consisting of twenty- 
five pieces. 

elfiat I am, v. § 224, 2. 

elpappcvr) (lit.) fate, destiny, fatum. 

elfxfi unless, except. 

etna, v. X4ym. 

els (Pontus) = evas. 

els, *s, etVe, o-i, prep, in, into, to ; v. 
§160. 

elo-efSrjKev, V. aeftaivm. 

etoria (Pontus), adv. hereupon, then, 
next. 

e?X a > V. e^o). 

€KavG> (§ 182, n. 2) = icdvm. 

€Kar6(v) hundred. 

iKaroardpt that which consists of a 
hundred. 

eicaTooTu, f. (about) a hundred. 



328 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



€kB6ttjs editor, publisher. 

*K€av (Pontus) above there. 

<\cet (ero-et, § 17), adv. there ; exe? kot 
(Pontus\ id. ; ocei nipa beyond, 
on that side. 

«Kei0e(j/), adv. whence, yonder, 
beyond. 

tKtivos (etztios) that, v. § 146. 

€K€Ka (Pontus), adv. there. 

€KK\r)<r(i)d church. 

eicXafnrpoTTjs, pi. -Trjres (lit.) Excel- 
lence (title). 

fXa (cXajVjre) come (sing, and pi. 
imper.) 

€\aiaz=i\id. 

*\a(j)p6s (eXacfrpvs) light. 

tkcrjfiocrvvT} alms. 

€\€ov<ra y v. § 234, n. 2. 

€\€7TCO = j3Xe7TO). 

€\€v0€pla liberty. 
ikevrepos (eXevBepos) free. 
ikevrepcdvo) liberate. 
i\(£> (w, ace.) give alms to. 
c'Xta (eXata, § 10, n. 1) olive-tree. 
"EXX^as a Greek; also a giant of 

former days. 
IWrjvlda Greek woman. 
*X\t)vik6s Greek (adj.). 
^knlfta (€p7rtda) hope. 
eXn-iffi) (ipirifa) to hope. 

epacra, aor. of pa(cava). 

fjiavro used to form reflexive prom, 

§140. 
epels, ipi(va), V. iyo>. 
*IM€T€pos (Pontus), v. § 143, n. 3. 
e pernios emetic (adj.). 
e'fifxcrpos metrical. 
€fxop<ptd beauty. 
epopefros beautiful. 
€fx6s (t ipov) my, mine, v. § 143, 

n. 3. 
€fnra($), V. finaLva). 
ipirdfa (/iTrafo) put, place, bring in. 
(fX7T7jKa, V. piraiv<o. 
c/x7rtoT6ftfVoff entrusted, trusted. 
ipirobifa hinder. 

€p,7ropos (efirropas, § 66 n.) merchant. 
ipnopai, V. pnopay. 



cfnrpos forward ; epnpos '?, prep. 
(§ 171) before, against ; epirpos 
ipirpbs *s quite forward, in front ; 
Pontus epL7rp\ 

?i» = (l) dvai, v. § 224, n. 2 ; (2) 84v 
(Gyp.). 

evat = elvcu. 

Zvas, pud, eva a, one (numeral and 
indef. art. v. § 128); 6 has rbv 
aKko one another, each other, v. 
§141. 

evdvfia (lit.) garment. 

€V€vr)vTaevv4a ninety-nine. 

ivipytut energy, activity. 

iv6ov<nd£opai (lit.) to be enthu- 
siastic. 

€vt = €tvai. 

ivvd (Cyp.) — 6€vd, 6d. 

iwtd nine. 

evvoia (eyvota) care, worry. 

evdero) in so far as, so long as. 

ivravTcp at the same time, like- 
wise. 

€vt€kcl eleven. 

ivrpava (Pontus) regard, see. 

ivrpiiropai (ivTpdirrjKa) be ashamed 
of. 

IvTpoTtr] shame. 

ivTVTTCbo-i, f. impression. 

CVTQDKCt, V. VTOVVVd). 

61/q) during, while. 
e£aio-i6$ distinguished. 
e^a<f)va — a^a<j)va. 

£££fia, v. fiyaivco. 

i£iy<a (Pontus), v. fapva. 

egeWrfvifa Hellenise ; render into 

ancient Greek style. 
e|frafco (^crdfa, £ijt&) prove, try. 
i£rryG> explain. 
i£f)vTa sixty ; e^vra dvo to denote 

an indefinitely larger number. 
e^rjvrdpis man sixty years of age. 
c£rjs : orb i£rj$ for the future 

(Aegina). 
e^oda, pi. expenses, cost. 
c£o8(it(o spend (money). 
i£opo\6yr)(rtyf. confession. 
e^opKTTos exiled. 



GLOSSARY 



329 



c£a), adv. out, outside ; also except, 

with exception of. 
egcdrepLKoi externally. 
€^<dtlk6s exotic. 
eiraivos praise. 

eVa^doracrt insurrection, revolution. 
€7raj/a), adv. above ; eirdva *s upon. 
€ir€i8f]($) because, since. 
eireiTa, adv. then, afterwards. 
€7TLKpiv<o judge, criticise. 
€7tl7t6vov in the phrase naipvco 

€iri7r6vov to take (lay) to heart 

(Aegina). 
€7riorr}fjLos official. 
€7rt(TTrjfjLr) knowledge, science. 
c nitron = on Itrto* 
irnrpoTTT] committee. 
€7riTV)(aipQ> (v. ru^atVo)) succeed, 

attain. 
€7ro^J7 epoch, age. 

€irpoxT€s> adv. day before yesterday. 
cpaa-irexvrjs dilettante, amateur. 
ipyatrla activity. 
ipyaTTjs workman. 
epyo work. 

€py<Dvi£co (Pontics) = yv<api£t>). 
eprjfxid loneliness, solitude. 
eprjfjiiKos lonely. 
epTffios lonely, forsaken. 
eprjfKoa-ij f. isolation. 
€pprjv€va> explain, comment upon. 
€ppos = epr]pos. 
epTriBa = iXiriBa. 

* € px opai (Pontus eprai = €pxcrai y 
epKovpat, § 18, n. 3 ; rfkBa rjp6a rjpra 
rjpX a t Pontus ep6a ^Ara, 6a epOco, 
6a. 'p6a) J 66. 'px^y iftvper* e'Xa e'Aa- 
[o-]r€, ipx<opivos, pres. part. cpx<*~ 
p€vos) come ; p epx^rai vd it 
occurs to me (to do something). 

epcoras (epos, lit.) love ; god of love, 
Amor. 

€p(DT€pevos in love. 

€p(OT€vopai fall in love with. 

epwrqcri, /. question. 

epcoTLKos pertaining to love. 

€pcoTcl> (-aoj, -aya)) ask, question. 

eo-dyKa, V. tpipvco. 



€(7€tS, €<T€VU, V. €(TV. 

earerai (Pontus) = epx(Tai. 
€ (Type pa = arfjpepa. 
itrovv (Pontus), v. itrv. 

€(TOVVTJ = i(TV. 

etrravptopevos (lit.) crucified. 

etrrtotravj v. § 224, 2, n. 4. 

itrv thou, v. % 135. 

iacQTepiKos esoteric. 

cVot/xafa) prepare, 

iroipacria preparation, equipment. 

eroipos ready. 

€tos, neut. year. 

€TOT€S = TOT€S. 
CTOVTOS = TOVTOS. 
€T(T€lVOS — €K€tVOS. 

€T(n t adv. thus, so. 

ett&no, v. cards. 

evyeveta nobility ; jj ebyeveia crov, v. 
§ 139. 

€vy€vr)s (lit., cf. § 115) noble, noble- 
man. 

evyeviKos noble, gallant. 

€V€py€TtKo$ benevolent. 

ev6vs ~ €VTVS. 

evKatpefa to have time, leisure. 
evKaipla opportunity. 
euKap/orj; cri, /.contentment, pleasure; 
e^o) €vk, I am pleased to, like to. 
evKapiorco thank, satisfy. 
cvkoXos easy. 

(VKOvpai (evxovpai) bless, wish Well. 
evXdfaia piety. 

evXafirjs pious. 

eiXoyS) praise, bless. 
evvovxos eunuch. 

* €Vpt(TK(0 ((3pl(TKQ)y ftptOTOO, etprjKCOy 

rjvpa, Pontus tvpa, €vprj<a [f]ppTJKa 9 
6a €vp<t> 6a fipS), imper. [ejSp^y], 
€vpe6r]Ka) find. 

evairXaxviKos merciful. 

€vtus = avros. 

€i/Tov t cf. § 139, n. 1. 

€vtvs, adv. immediately. 

€vTvxLo-p€vos happy, fortunate. 

€vxapiorr)pevos satisfied, contented! 

etr^aplOTQJ, V. €VKaplOT<i). 

evxv blessing, prayer. 
evxopat = cvKOvpai. 



330 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



*<t)€ro($)y adv. of this year. 

tyrjpcpida newspaper. 

icfyrd seven. 

«X T &» a & v * yesterday. 

*\Tp6s enemy. 

<?X<o (§ 224,1) have; rpe7sxpovovs e"xa-pe 

va yiKaa-cofxe we have not laughed 

for three years, v. p. 101 footnote ; 

€X«, w. ace. there is (are), ily a; 

€ix€ Sep e?x e whether or not, at 

any rate. 
fyes (^is) yesterday (evening). 

€oo = iya. 

ZakLfa perplex, confuse ; f. ttjv 

a-Tpdra miss the way. 
CaKiKt burden (especially of wood). 
{a\i(riJL€v6s gone astray, perplexed. 
£clt9, adv. of course, really. 
<"X a Phf- sugar. 
f id, f. heat, 
feoraii/o) (i£4orava } i^ardOrjKa) to 

make warm, heat. 
{e<mj heat, warmth ; etvai f. it is 

warm. 
fco-Tos warm, hot. 
£V vydpi pair, couple. 
<e%)Aa yoke. 
feu(y)a> (eff^a) to yoke. 
(€i>Ki,neut. (Naxcs) pleasure banquet. 
^Xevrdff enviable. 
(r]X€vo) (fovXcvw) to envy, be jealous 

of. 
£rj\idpis (favkidpis) envious, jealous. 
tfXos, neut. envy, jealousy, 
f tj\6tv7tos jealous. 
£r)Tr)fxa controversy. 
(rjTijo-iSyf. (lit.) search, seeking. 
£r)Tiav€V(0 to beg. 

ftridvos beggar ; begging (/. § 111). 
{t}t£> (-to), -aco) request, ask. 
{icxpiri feast, banquet. 
(lcjho press, squeeze. 
£ov\€va> = £rj\€i><d. 
CovXia jealousy. 
■(ovKidpis = £rj\idpi$. 
(ovfii broth, sauce, soup. 
Cowapid girdle. 
£6<t>os (lit.) darkness. 



£vy6$ yoke. 

C& (£tco) live, v. § 250; (tro-i) va 

fta-fls have the goodness to, I beg 

of you. 
C<oypa(f)id image, painting. 
£a)ypa(f)i(a) paint, draw. 
C<oyplv (Pontus), neut. stick, cudgel. 
far) life. 

£(*>Tjp6s living, alive. 
{cavraveiHo become alive. 
(avTavos living, alive. 
fcoi>ot> {ifaarrjKa) gird, 
fwo animal, beast. 

I see C (cf. § 28) or y (§ 27). 

*H (yi)) or ; q — rj either — or. 

r)y€fjLovLKos princely. 

rjyovfxevos abbot. 

fjdovr) pleasure. 

r)6oypa(f)ia history of morals. 

rjXios (vi)Xtos, § 34, n. 3) sun. 

ijfiapro excuse ! pardon I v. § 204. 

fjixipa day. 

rJuKrv (§ 131) half. 

rjp.ovv(a\ etc. v. cifxai. 

fjyLira, V. § 161. 

rjfiiropa, V. fX7ropa). 

rjpes, pi. weeds. 

rjpQa (rjpra), V. epxofJLdi. 

fjpoaas hero. 

7Jo~vxos calm. 



rjvpa, V. €vpto-KO>. 
r)xoXoy<o (-d<o) echo, 
rjxos sound, echo. 



resound. 



0a, v. § 224, 3, n. 2. 

0df3a), 0d(j)rio (aor. pass. eOd^TrjKa 

€Td(f)r)Ka) bury. 
6d\a<r(ra sea. 

dctfia, neut. wonder, miracle. 
6ap.d{(o (6avp.dCco), 6ap,d£o{xai wonder, 

admire. 
Octfiarovpya) (-eco)to perform wonders. 
&afjL7rcovG> to blind, dazzle. 
6dv, 6avd = 6d. 
OavartKo disease, plague. 
ddvaros death. 
Bavr) death ; burial. 



GLOSSARY 



331 



tiappcrd, adv. courageously, boldly. 

0app€v<o to be courageous, confident. 

Bdpposy neut. courage ; pi. § 85, 

dappio (-e'a>) believe, think. 

ticKpTo grave. 

Odcjyrco, V. 0d/3<D. 

^d^t/io, neut. (§ 104) burying, burial. 

0iarpo{y) theatre ; dvejSafo) orb 0. 
put upon the stage, give a per- 
formance of. 

ticyarcpa, V. 0vyaripa. 

•Beyos, V. 0c6s. 

ScXkos godly. 

titlos godly, divine (x^P tTL ^ €L< ifi °" 
Gk. by the grace of God). 

Setoff (Thera) uncle. 

BcXrjo-i, f. the will. 

^cXo) (teld, § 20, n. 1) to will, wish, 
v. §224, 3; deXrs— 04\ts (Velv.) 
whether — or ; for its use in 
forming the future, v. § 226. 

<6efxa, neut. task. 

^e/xeXtcova) lay foundation, found, 
build ; to have a firm foundation. 

•0€v(v)d = 0avd, 6d. 

0€os, 0i6s (Beyos, ted, § 29 n.) God ; 
0€& $6£a God be praised, thank 
God (eccl). 

'BepLa-TTjs reaper. 

0€pp6s warm (rnetaph.). 

dipos, neut. summer. 

0€pi (0epi6) animal. 

tfeo-o-aAiKo? Thessalian. 

<0€T(o {BiyroHy 0f)KG>, T€kvg> ; Z0€(ra 
e0r]Ka, Pontus e0eica, irrvper. 04s 
0ioT€ f €Ti0r)Ka, 0eo-phos) to place, 
put. 

Seaparos gigantic. 

0€topia theory. 

0f)KG) = 0€TG>. 

£t]\vk6s (silikd, § 20, n. 1) female, 

feminine. 
0/}pio(v) == 0cpL 
0rjcravp6s treasure. 
Siapdfa = 0ap.d£<D. 

0LOS = 0€OS. 

0k6s = 8ikos. 

tiXtfopos (x^tftepos, § 20) sad, per- 
plexed. 



0\tfxp€vos (xXt/i/ieVoff), afflicted. 
0Xi\ln (x^tyO*/* affliction. 
0o\a>va> afflict, torment. 
0p€<f)G> (€0pdcj)r}Ka €Tpd<f>7)Ka) nourish, 
0prjvos, neut. (§ 99, n. 1) dirge. 
0vyaripa i 0cyarcpa (Ios rvaripa) 

daughter. 
0vp.dpi thyme. 
0{>iir](Ti i f. remembrance. 
0vtud{a> perfume with incense. 
0vfj.iaT6 incense. 
0vfxi£ci> remember. 
0vfMos wrath ; pc Bvp.6 wrath- 

fully. 
0vpovpm remember (w. ace). 
0vfid)VG> enrage; to be enraged (pi 

with a person). 
0vpa door. 
0a>pid look, glance. 
0cap<o (-€&>) see, look. 

'lyd), Velv. — iyd). 
ISavuco ideal. • 

ld£a thought, idea. 

IblKOS, V. dlKQS. 

tStoff, 6 same, self, cf. § 157 ; i&oc 6 

exactly like. 
Idiorrjra identity. 
18pos perspiration. 
ldpd>v(D to sweat. 
l8pa>Tas (idpois, lit.) sweat. 

tSfc), i§0), V. jSX€7TQ). 

Upos holy. 

Ikclvos ready, able. 

IkapoTpaytKos tragi-comic. 

tvra (Ivrd) what ? v. § 152, n. 2. 

n>6), V. yivopai. 

Xtria (tcr ia icria, lor a tea), adv. just, 
precisely ; immediately, at the 
same moment ; "ur(i)a pc, prep, to, 
as far as (§ 173). 

"(no? equal, live, straight. 

"(tkios shade, shadow. 

lo-ofiapos of equal weight. 

loTopia history, narrative. 

loropiKos historical. 

IVcoff, adv. perhaps. 

t<l)Tadyva> (Pontus) = (f)K€idv<i). 

tyes ( Velv.) = €ifres. ' 



332 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



K' — Km, Ponius and Cap. also =\a. 

k6. (Velv.)~v. Kara. 

KcifiaWdpis (KafeXkdpis) rider, horse- 
man ; pi. § 75, n. 2. 

KapaX\iK€v<o ride (upon : w. ace). 

KaftaXXlva horse-dung. 

Kabava^=- KCLjnrava, 

Kafiovpas (K(iovpa9 9 § 22 71.) crab, 
crayfish ; pi. § 66 n. 

Ka.j3<i) = K at 63. 

KCtyKavivas— Kavevas. 

Kadi, neut. tub, cask. 

Ka(vas = Kavivas. 

Ka^avrifa gain, earn money. 

KClT)fJL€VO$j V. KCIO). 

Karros longing, desire, pain. 
Kii&a €is (Pontus) = KaOeis. 
Kadapcvovaa literary (pure) language. 
K.a6api(ca purify ; become pure. 
KaOdpios, KdBapos pure. 
KaOavTo, adv. properly, in particular. 
KctOe (Kdda) each . (adj.) ; Kadeisy 

KaBivds, Kadens (Kdda eh) every 

one (subst.), v. § 155. 
KdBrjficpvos daily. 
Kd6l£<0 (jEKdraa eKdrcra beside e/cd- 

dida) sit, sit down ; Ka6l(<o 7rio~a> 

remain behind. 
KddoXovj adv. generally, by all means 

(10. neg. by no means, not at all). 
KddofjLai (pres. parte. Ka8ovp,€vos) sit, 

dwell. 
KdBp4(j)T7)s (Kd0p€7TTT]s) looking-glass. 
Ka0pe<£rtfo) to reflect, mirror. 
Ka6cas (also £>s KdOa>$) like, just as, 

as ; as soon as, when, v. § 273. 
Kdl (k% ki, Tcral, tvi) and, v. § 261. 
Kaivos (lit.) new. 
Kdivovpyios new, newly made. 
Kdipos (rcraipo'ff, § 17) time, weather ; 

ano k. o~e k. from time to time ; 

/te Kdipovs with time, in course of 

time. 
* Kdt (o (KdlycOy §23, eKayfra, cKdrjKd 

iKdvrrjKdy Kdfievos, KarjfjLtvos poor, 

unfortunate, v. § 210, I, 1) burn, 

burn down (Kaiopai, intr.). 
KUKtoand, neut. sickness, pain, 

suffering. 



KdKoypdfifitvos ill-fated, destined to 
disaster. 

KUKOfjLoiprjs unfortunate. 

KdKOfjLoipui misfortune. 

KdKOfjboipos unfortunate. 

KdKos bad, ill, compar. § 117 f. ; to 
KdKo (to) fidTi the evil eye ; tov 
kclkov in vain ; t6 <d<6 evil* 
harm. 

KdKoo-fjfxddos foreboding evil. 

KdKovdrjs ugly,/. § 114 n. 

KdKovp-d scald-head, scurf. 

KaKO(paiv€Tdi (<dKO(j)dvrjK€) to be 
sorry, vexed. 

KdKocjxavos discordant, out of tune. 

KdXdOt basket. 

KdXdfiid (icdXdfAv'd) reed. 

Kd\r]o"7T€pd good evening. 

Ka\idKov8a petrel (water-bird). 

KaAXta, KaXXids, KdXKio better, v. 
§ 118, n. 2. 

Kd\\iT€xvr]p.d, neut. work of art. 

ko\\lt€xvik6s artistic, of art. 

KaXkovr) beauty. 

KaXKosy neut. (or to. KdXXrj 9 pi.} 
beauty. 

* Kd\vS> (cKdKea-dy eKdXio-TrjKa) call. 

KaXoyepos monk ; KaXoycpaKi (koAo- 
epdra'i) dim. 

Kd\oyva>pi£<o to be well acquainted 
with, know well. 

Kcikoypia nun. 

KdXoKdipt summer. 

KoXoKdipwos of summer. 

KdXoKapdos happy, fortunate. 

KdkoTrepvS) live well, lead a comfort- 
able life. 

Kd\o7rpoaip€To$ favourably disposed. 

KaXopi£iKos fortunate. 

Kd\6s good, comp. v.§ 117 f. j KaXe p* 
my dear ; rr^yatVo) ot6 koXo I am 
going to peace, depart this life ; 

7TddtV€ O-TO KdKo OV Simply OTO K* 

farewell ; KaX5>s tov he is welcome, 
Kd\5ss (opicraT* you are welcome. 

Kd\oorpaT(b have a good voyage. 

KdXoo-vvr) goodness, kindness. 

KaXoTvxifa congratulate. 

KdXorvxps happy, fortunate. 



GLOSSARY 



33^ 



Kakv(3a y Ka\v(3t cottage ; KaXvfSaKi, 

KaXvjSotJAa, dim. 
KakvT€p€vco become better. 
Ka\S> = Ka\vSi, 
Ka\S)S) v. KaXos ; KaXararos, v, 

§116,?i.3. 
Kapa, neut. heat, glow. 
Kafxapa arch, arcade. 
Kdfxapa (Kapaprj) room, chamber, 

dwelling. 
Kapapi joy, pride ; darling. 
KdfjLapLtpa stewardess (on ship). 
KafjLapo(f>pv8i eyebrow. 
Kafxapcdvoa take pride in, praise ; 

mid. put on airs, be haughty. 
Ka(p,)pevos 9 V. Kaico. 
*Kdp,va>, fcdjuo), Kavoa (e/ca/xa [subj. 

Kaco t Chios], e(j)T€ia<TTr)Ka, Kapcope- 

vos) do, make ; Kap(v)o> KaXd I am 

(doing) well. 
Kap.Tta.va bell. 
Kapiros field. 
KapTToa-os (/ca/i7roVoff) a good many, 

pi. several, some, v. § 156. 
K.ap.TTT<TiKia stroke with a whip. 
Kdpco = Kapvco. 

Kap.wvop.ai pretend as if (rras). 
kclv (kuv) even, at least ; ovre kclv 

not even. 
KavaKapis darling. 
Kavas = Kav€vas. 
Kavtisy Kavivas any body ; nobody ; 

v. § 153. 
Kavla-rpi basket. 
Kavovid shot of a cannon. 
Kavrr)\a 9 Kavrrjki candlestick. 
KavTi(ct> (Gap.) put to rest. 
Kavca = Kapv(o. 
Kaovpas — Kafiovpas. 
Kan a cloak. 
KaireXXo hat. 
KaTT€Tdv(i)os captain, chief, leader of 

Klefts ; indecl. § 63. 
Ka7rrjk€i6 retail shop. 
Kanvos smoke ; (£eirya> crav Kairvos 

disappear like the wind. 
Kairoios any one, pi. some ; v. 

§154. 
Kairora cloak, overcoat. 
22 



Ka7roT€(s) i adv. sometimes, occasion- 
ally. 

Karrou, adv. anywhere, somewhere. 

Kamrapij/. (§ 86) caper-bush. 

kcittcos, adv. somehow. 

Kapdfii ship, boat. 

KapapoKvpis owner of a ship, captain. 

Kapbid heart, dno Kaphas from the 
heart ; KapbovXa, dim. 

KapuTcra equipage, carriage. 

Kapiros fruit. 

Kap7ro(j)opS> (-dco) bear fruit. 

KaprepS), aKaprepS) expect, wait for. 

KapTo a quarter, v. § 131. 

Kapvdi nut, walnut. 

Kapvo(f)vXkt clove. 

Kap<fioiVG) to nail. 

Kaoravo chestnut. 

KaaravopaTTjs chestnut-eyed, brown- 
eyed. 

Kao-reXdvos court officer, attendant. 

Kaa-Tpo fortress ; pi. § 100, n. 1. 

Kaadk^K (Cap.) answer. 



Kar = Karov. Kara. 



/cara,/. cat. 

Kara (*d, Velv.), prep. w. ace. (§ 164) 
to, toward (of direction); about, 
at (of time) ; Kara ncos according 
as ; Kara evevrjvraevvea rots iKaro- 
= 99 per cent. (lit.). 

Karaftaiva) = KareftatvcD. 

KaTapdvco throw down, subdue. 

KaraydXavos deep blue. 

Karayfjs (Kararjs), adv. on the ground. 

Karayivopai to be busy, occupied 
(with something tre). 

Kara$€xop,ai receive, deign, con- 
descend. 

KaraScxTiKos condescending. 

KarabiKa^co condemn. 

KaraSpoprj persecution, pursuit. 

KarafaXifo/xat to be agitated. 

Kararjs = Karayrjs. 

KaraKalo) burn down. 

KaraK\v(rp6s inundation, flood. 

KaraiXaftalvG) (v. XajSaivco, KaraXap- 
/3di/oo, lit.) comprehend, under- 
stand. 

Kardpavpos deep black. 



334 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Karajjiovaxos all alone. 

KaravTco become, reduce to a state, 

be reduced to. 
KaravvcrarofiaL (KaravvxrrjKa) to be 

seized with compunction, become 

contrite. 
KararraTO) tread down. 
KaTaTridvofxcu begin afresh, under- 
take. 
Kardpa curse, imprecation, 
Karapciovp.ai (Karaprjo-rrjKa) to curse. 
Karaprlfa arrange, equip. 
KaTacrirapayfxivos torn, rent. 
Karacnrpos quite white. 
KaTa(rrakd{(o drop down, filter. 
KardaTLxo index, account-book. 
KaraaTpicfxo (KaraoTpdffirjKa) destroy. 
KaraoTpofyr) catastrophe. 
Karaarcpd^co to slaughter. 
Karaarxevo) (Kar£crx*o-a, Kareax^OrjKa) 

seize, distrain, 
xararpe^co pursue. 
Kara(j)€pv(o attain, accomplish, 

settle ; deal a blow. 
icaTa(j)pova> despise. 
KoraxOovios subterraneous, infernal. 
Koraxvid mist, fog. 
KaTaxwidfa devour, engulf. 
Kard^/rjXos very high. 
Korefidfa (Karrjftdfa) let down, sink ; 

reduce. 
Kareftatva (spelling Karaifiaivco, § 3, 

n. 2 ; [e]«are/3/;Ka, etc. V. dvejBaiva)) 

come down, descend. 
Karepacrtd catarrh. 
Kore^acrfiivos reduced, lowered. 
KaT€$\oio threshold. 
kcit€x<6 (Crete, Ios) know. 
KaT&vco (Cap.) speak, converse 

upon. 
kqtCos (Cap.) gorge, cleft 
k arrj jSafeo = Kare/3afa>. 
KarrfS tom-cat. 
Kar^s Cadi, judge ; in Texts III. 

11 metaph. one who wearies with 

questioning, tormentor. 
KciTrjifipovia contempt. 
Kan (fcarm, k art vri) anything, some- 
thing, a little, v. § 153. 



KarKpis velvet. 

KarotKia dwelling. 

KaroiKos inhabitant. 

KaroiK(o dwell. 

Karom, adv. behind, afterwards. 

KaTop8<av<0 attain, accomplish. 

KaTOV=KdT(0. 

Kara-iKL kid, goat. 

KaToroiHpa sullen, peevish person. 

Karcra), V. KaOl^oa. 

Korea under, below ; adv. Karen '$- 

underneath, down : Karco dno 

below (§ 172) ; r) Karov yr) the 

lower world (of dead). 
KardxpXi threshold. 
Kavyas quarrel. 
KavKovjxai = Kavxovp,at. 
Kavrco (Ka<fir<*i)= Kai(o. 
Kavxrjcridpis boastful. 
Kavxovfxai (KavKovjiai, KavKeLovfxat) 

to boast. 
Kacj)€V€s coffee-house. 
Ka(f)€s coffee. 

Ka<f>€r{rjs keeper of a coffee-house. 
Ka(pr€p6s burning, hot. 
Ka<£ro>, V. Kavrco. 
Kaxra nut. 
Kayj/tyf. heat. 
Kayjro- prefixed to substantives to 

give the idea of poor, unhappy ; 

thus Kayjrovixpi] ill TEXTS I. a. 23 

= 77 Kaqfiivrf r) vixfirj. 

K€l=^€K€l. 

KtWt : 7T€ KeWe thence, from there. 
K€iKa (Pontus) there. 
K€iv4r€pos (Pontus) theirs (possess, v. 
§ 143, n. 3). 

K€lVOS = €K€7vOS. 

Kctos that, yon. 

Kelrofiai (r<reiTOfiai 9 § 17, pres. par. 

K€irovfi€vo9 Ketrd/xevos, en-ecra) to 

lie. 
/ceXaftoJ, KeXat£<5, KiXabcj sing, warble 

(of birds). 
Kcvrrjfiay neut. prick, sting. 
K€prpa>va> to prick, goad. 
K€vrS> to prick, incite, 
Kepd (ro-epd) woman, wife ; mother 

(Thera) ; pi § 90. 



GLOSSARY 



335 



K€pd(TL cherry. 

KipaTo (§ 105, n. 1, ro-iparov Lesbos) 

horn ; ra-LpareX^ dim. (Lesbos). 
**e epdaiv o> (€K€p$€0~a €Kep$io-a> encp- 

dcdrjKCL, K€p$€fl€VOS K€pdrjp€VOS K€p- 

bio-jihos) gain, win. 
KfpSevo), K€pBi£(o~id. 
K€pbo$, neut. gain ; pi. § 101. 
Kfpi (raepi, § 17) candle. 
*K€pp£> (jKipava, eicepdo-TrjKa) pour 

in ; treat, regale. 
K€po§o<rd wax-gift. 
K€(fxi\a large head. 
K€<pd\aio chapter (in booh). 
K€<pa\as blockhead. 
K€(f)a\r), K€<fid\L (KL<f>d\i, rcret^aXi, 

raricfrdX') head. 
ktjttos garden. 
KrjpvTTco proclaim, publish. 

KL = Kdl. 

kl, \i (Pontus) — h(v. 

Ktfiovpi grave. 

Kikabto = /ceXa8a>. 

KiXdibiarfLos singing of birds. 

klvtvvos (nlbwos, § 32, n. 3) danger. 

Kivd move ; set out, depart. 

Ki6\a(s\ adv. on the w T hole, abso- 
lutely ; now, already. 

KLovpTLTr) (Pontus) roaring. 

<\ad€VTr)pi pruning-knife. 

k\ci$€vg) prune, cut off flowers. 

K\a8l (Kkapi) twig, branch. 

^icXai(y)o) (v. § 251, 2, exXo^a, 
€K\avTT]K.a t nXapevus) weep. 

/cXd/xara, pi. (§ 103) weeping. 

KXapi = icXadi. 

KXao-<riKds classical, a classic. 

KXa\fra weeping, lamentation. 

k\4^(o = kX^tco. 

kX«&' key. 

KXeidopavraXoapevos locked and 

bolted. 
*:XetSa)i/a) lock in, confine. 
k\€i8g>t6s locked, closed. 
icXei(v)a> ((EicXeioTTjKa) shut in. 
fcXft'o-i/xo (§ 104) locking in. 
kXckttos locked. 
K\€pov6p.os heir. 
kX^ttjs bandit, Kleft ; $1. § 76. 



K\e(f)T07ro\€iios bandit (Kleft)-war, 

war with bandits. 
KXe(£rd7rouXo child of a Kleft, young 

Kleft. 

kX4(J)to) (kX/jSoj, kXcCJxo, €K\e(f)TT}Ka 

€K\dTT7)Ka) steal, carry off. 
KXrjfiaTorlSa clematis. 
KXrjrripas policeman. 
nXiddpi = KpiOdpt. 
KXlpa, neut. climate. 
kXlvt) bed, couch. 
/cXtVta to bend. 
kXovjSi (kXouSi) cage. 
fcXco^fi) to spin. 
/cXtt)o-Kov/xai, aor. ejeXoora (Pontus) 

approach. 
/cXtoo-o-ta hatching (eggs). 
/cXtoo-o-fti to lay eggs. 
kXojotiJ thread. 

KOj8("y)o> — KO^)TQ). 

Ko8pi(a> depart. 

/coiXtci (rcrovXta, § 17) belly. 

Koifii£a> put to sleep. 

Koip.ovp.ai (rcoLpovpaty T&ovpovpai) 

§ 17) to sleep. 
Koi*>os common, general. 
koivcovikos sociable. 
kokkoXo bone. 
KOKKivifa to blush. 
KOKKivopvTrjs (§ 114) red-nosed. 

KOKKIVOS (kOTO~IVOs) Ted. 

KOKova woman, lady. 

KOKopos cock. 

koXXo) glue ; fasten to,, adhere (also 

mid.). 
koXokvOi gourd ; to e^G) koXoki/Bi pe 

Kavcva to be on very friendly 

terms with a person. 
KoXvpna (icoXvppa)) swim, dive. 
Kopavrapiciy V. Kovpavrapla. 
Koppdri (Koppdr, Kovppdr) a piece ; 

a little, tin peu ; kuvco Koppdria 

to smash to pieces. 
Koppa.Tid£co smash to pieces, tear 

up. 
KoppaTiao-Tos dismembered, in 

pieces. 
KopirXipivTo (KobXiphro) compli- 
ment. 



336 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Ko^7ro3f/ia, neut. small parcel; 
money saved, savings. 

KOfivov (Gap.) neighbour. 

kovcikl dwelling. 

Kovevo) stop, lodge. 

Kuviba nit, small louse. 

Kovra (nodd) near ; k 's, prep. (§171) 
near, close by ; kovtcl jiov near 
me ; k. to eva jxe to aWo beside 
each other. 

k6vt€s a count. 

KovTeo'O'a countess. 

kovt€vco to approach ; used by circum- 
locution for almost, nearly, v. 
§125. 

KOVTo£vy(bv<0 = id. 

KovTo\oya> sum np, state briefly. 

KovTojxvaXos plain, simple. 

kovtos near, short ; compar. § 117. 

KovToo~T€K.ofj.ai come, stand close to. 

KovTo-ia, pi. ankles, knuckles ; favya 
fii to. k. cttov kcoXov comic expres- 
sion for "take to one's heels." 

KOirdhi flock. 

Konavifa bruise, pound ; *c. vepd 
(metaph.) lose one's labour ; also 
without vepd to twaddle, gossip. 

KOTrtka maid, girl. 

ko7tiu£co try, take pains ; Komaa-e 
(aor. imper.) may I request? 
please. 

kottos trouble, effort. 

KoiTpid manure. 

KopaKas raven. 

Kopao~id, Kopacrlba maid. . 

KopbfKa rope, cord. 

Koprf girl. 

Kopips bug. 

ko purer i girl, maid ; KopiTcrdia,, Kopi- 
r<707rov\o, dim, 

Kopfil body. 

Kop<j)f) top, summit (of a mountain) ; 
pi. § 90. 

Kopcfroftovvi, top of a mountain. 

Kop(j)os bosom. 

Kopaiva garland. 

Koa-Kivas sieve-maker. 

Koo~Kivo (Chios koo-o-ivo, cf, § 17 71.) 
sieve. 



koo-klvov female sieve-maker. 
koo-jxos world. 

KOOTlfo) tO COSt. 

KOTo-vcjiL blackbird. 

kot(t)ci hen. 

kot(t)o9 cock. 

Kovpa\a> carry a burden ; procure, 

produce. 
KovftivTa conversation, talk, gossip. 
KovfovTidfa to gossip. 
Kovbovvt bell ; dim, <ovbovvd(K)i. 
kov(g> (Pontus) to cry, shout, call. 
kovkk! (kovto-1) (kidney)-bean. 
kov\6o> (Cap.) follow. 
KovWovpt biscuit, roll. 
KovfiavTavTes commandant. 
KovfxavTapia commandaria — a brand 

of Cyprian wine. 
K.ovp.dvTo commando. 
KovjX7rdvia (Kovbdvia) company, 

society. 
Kovjnravidpco accompany ; associate 

with, suit. 
Kovvtki rabbit, metaph. (hare's foot)* 

coward. 
KowTpao-Tapa) (Syra) oppose. 
kovvS> move. 
kovttl oar. 
Kovpdfa tire (tr.). 
Kovpao-fia, neut. weariness. 
KovpeXi rag. 

KovpeXtao-fxivos ragged, tattered. 
Kovpevco clip, shear. 
Kovpvta^roi dust. 
K.ovpo~dpis corsair, pirate. 
Kovpa-fvoa (Kpovo-evco) practise piracy,, 

be a corsair. 
Kovpo~os, neut. (§ 100, n. 1) piracy. 
kovtovWo) strike, butt against. 

KOVTat = KOVKKl. 
KOVTO~OVpO log Of WOOd. 

*k6(J>t<)> (KOJ3[y]o), €K07rr)Ka, KOjifxi- 

vos) cut, cut off. 
Kpo£a> (eKpa£a y €KpdxrrjKa) to call, 

shout. 
Kpaaevios consisting of wine. 
Kpaai wine. 
KpaTo(s), neut. power, might ; king- 

dom, kingdom of Greece. 



GLOSSARY 



337 



KparS) (-too, -d<o) hold, seize. 
Kpias (Kptdro), neut. (§ 105) flesh. 
Kpefiftan bed. 
Kp€pa> (Cap.) desire, wish. 

tcpepd^G) = Kpepva). 

Kpcpao-pa, neat, hanging ; gallows.' 
* k p e p,(v) oo, Acpc/xafo> (eKpepao-Oy 

€Kp€p,d(TTr]Ka) to hang (tr.). 
Kp4fj.op,ai (intr.) hang, be suspended. 
KpeVw, V. Kpiv<a. 
xpids, KpLdro = Kpeas. 
KpiOdpi (fcXt^api, § 30, 71. I ; icddpi, 

§ 7, n. 1) barley. 
Kplpa, neut. mistake, sin; "pity 

that, (what) a pity," k. *$• pity 

about. 
Kpivo, Kpivos lily. 
^Kpivco, k pivot (cKpiva, Kptfiivos) 

to judge ; also say, speak. 
Kpi<rt,f. judgment; €pxopaiarrr) Kpicrt 

appear before court of judgment. 
Kpirrjs judge, pi. § 76. 
Kporos noise. 
Kpovcrevco = Kovpcrevto. 
Kpov<a (v. % 251, 1, Kpovcr/xivos) strike 

against, knock ; besiege. 
Kpvj3(y)<t> (iKpixfaTrjKa, [Pontus i- 

KpixfrTa], €Kpov(3r]6r]Ka) to hide. 
Kpvos cold ; to Kpvo the cold. 
KpvcrraXkevtos of crystal ; also an 

endearing address to a girl. 
Kpvcfrd, adv. secretly ; k. diro without 

the knowledge of, Lat. clam., v. 

§172. 
<pv(j)6s secret (adj.) ; to Kpv<f>6 a 

secret. 
Kpvyjsdva hiding-place. 
tcpvavo) to freeze ; catch cold. 

KTVTTCD, V. XrVTTO). 

Kvftepva guide, lead, rule. 

kv\<o (eKvXicra, €Kv\io~TrjKa) to roll. 

Kvpa (To-vpa), neut. wave, billow. 

KvvrjydpLs huntsman. 

KwrjyL the chase. 

Kvvrjyos huntsman. 

Kwrjyco chase, follow, pursue. 

KV7rapicro-i cypress. 

Kvpd woman, lady, Mrs. 



Kvpdva (Texts I. a. 11) lady, mistress. 

mother. 
Kvpla wife, Mrs. 

KvpiaKrj (To-vpaTo-rj, Maina) Sunday. 
KvpieMrjo-o the Kyrieleison (eccl.). 
Kvpios, Kvpis (Kvpj § C3) lord, Mr. 
KvpTos bent, curved, crooked. 
Kvrrafa), kvttco (eKhTTa^a and €kvt- 

Tao-a) see, consider. 
kcjXos backside (podex) ; (Pontus) 

bottom (of a bag). 
KcofMpdta comedy. 

*Aa/3alva> (eXajSa) receive, acquire. 

Xdftpa, V. Xavpa. 

\a$G>vo> to wound. 

Xayicdbi ravine, valley. 

XayK€v(o (Pontus) to jump, jump 

out. 
\ay6s hare. 

Xayvvi bottle, pitcher. 
\aycoviKo greyhound. 
\adaivco (t\ada) escape notice, be 

concealed. 
XdOos, neut. (§ 99) mistake. 
XaiKos layman. 
Xatpapyw be a glutton. 
\aip6s neck. 
XaKKOS pit. 
AaA« (-eo)) speak. 
\apTrdBa lamp, candlestick. 
Xa/i7raS«ifo> to shine, light. 
\ap7rrj86va beauty - of - the - night 

(flower). 
\ap7r1pos = \afi7rp6s. 
\apnpd (Xafiirprj) Easter. 
\ap,7rpd^a brightness. 
\ap7rp6s brilliant, shining. 
\apirpo(j)dvTaa-Tos imaginative, 

visionary. 
\ap,7rpo(f)<oTLo-p,€vos brilliantly 

lighted. 
\ap7rpvvG) radiate, shed light. 
Aa/i7ra> to light, shine. 
Aaos people, folk. 
Aaa-Ko/zat (Pontus) seek aimlessly. 
Xao-7T€pos dirty. 
\a.Tp€ia adoration, worship. 
Xavpa heat, fervour ; longing. 



338 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Xa(ppos (£Xa<f>p6s, dXacppos) light, 
easy. 

\dx (Pontus), v. § 224, 3, n. 3. 

*Xa^aiV © (eXcrj^a, Xaxep4vos) obtain 
by lot ; pr) \dxfl kol irepdarj (Folk- 
song) let him not by chance pass 
by (cf. § 280, n. 2). 

Xdxava, pi. vegetables. 

XaxTapifa languish, feel longing ; in 
Zante (Texts I. a. 20) to cause 
longing. 

\axTap<o = id. 

\axropi cock. 

XepdvTcs Levant, Orient ; east wind. 

\tp4vTrjs active young man, young 
fellow. 

*\4(y)<o (v. § 252, 3, pres. particip. 
pass. \€ydp€vos, euro. [Io$ e7ra], da 
fef]7ra> [etVo)], imper. [€1]tt€[s] 
[€l]Tre[(r]Te tttjtc, iXexrrjKa and 
elncdOrjKa.) to say, tell ; $€ da tinf) 
p avro that does not mean ; X. 
o£<o to blab; Xtyoptvos (lit.) so- 
called, aforesaid. 

Xerjpoovvrj alms. 

\elpovt lemon. 

XetVo) fail, be wanting, absent. 

XeiTovpyS) to hold divine service ; 
serve. 

Xe'Xe pov, in addressing a person — 
my good fellow, my dear. 

Xe£(?),/. word. 

Xeovrdpi = Xiovrdpi. 

X4irpa leprosy. 

XevKa white poplar. 

\cvk6s white. 

\€vT€pid liberty. 

XecffTOKapo hazel-nut. 

\exovo-a woman in confinement. 

Xr)yopa = yXrjyopa. 

\rj0r) oblivion. 

\j]<rpovco (d\r]<rpov(b) forget. 

X/a, from (6)Xiyos. 

\iavorp4povXo9 gently trembling. 

Xipdvi incense. 

Xipavid consecration through in- 
cense. 

Xiydm a little. 

Xiyvos slim. 



Xtyos = oXiyos. 

Xiddpi (lisdri, § 20, n. 1) stone. 

XiQapifa play with stones. 

XiQos stone. 

XiKoj/rw detain, prevent ; mid. (Ios) 

stay for, wait. 
Xip4pi (Xrjpepi) camp (of an army, or 

of bandits). 
Xipepidfa encamp. 
Xipvrj lake. 

Xiovrdpi (Xeovrdpi) lion. 
Xo(y)apid(a> reckon, value. 
Xoyyos forest. 
Xo(y)r) manner (Chios); Xoyrjs in 

the expressions rt Xoyrjs of what 

sort 1 Kade Xoyrjs of every kind ; 

X. X. of different kinds, of every 

description. 
Xoyidfa consider, think upon. 
XoytKo understanding, reason ; tpxo- 

pai crra Xo(y)iicd pov I become con- 
scious of, learn of. 
XoyiKos logical. 
Xoyios learned. 
XoyicaiXoycpa (Sar. K.\ adv. from all 

around. 
Xoyoypd(j)os novelist, literateur. 
Xoyos (Xoos) word, speech, literary 

account ; pi. § 96 ; tov Xoyov o-ov, 

etc., as circumlocution for the 

personal pron., v. § 139. 
XoyoT€xviKos literary. 
Xoyvpa = oXoyvpa. 
Xoyvplfa surround. 
Xoiko, V. XoyiKo. 

Xoitt6(v), to Xoitt6(v) therefore, so. 
X6os=X6yos. 
Xopdos lord. 
Xoo-rpopos chief steward (on a 

ship). 
Xovffo (Xovya), Xovvcoj Xova> bathe, 

wash (mid. intr. bathe oneself). 
XovKaviKo sausage. 
XovXXovd£i = XovXovdi. 
XovXovdi flower ; XovXovdaKi t dim. 
XovXovSlCc* to bloom. 
XovXovSo = XovXovdi. 
Xovvco, Xovco = Xov£o>. 
Xovrpo bath. 



GLOSSARY 



339 



Xvyeprj pliable, slender — designation 

of a young girl. 
Xvypos sobbing. 
Xvkos (pi. Xvt^ol, Cap.) wolf. 
Xvvco loosen, set free. 
\v7rrj grief, distress. 
Xvirrjpevos grieved. 
\v7ri]T€p6$ lamentable. 
\v7rovfiai to sorrow, be troubled. 
Xvpdia (Naxos) small lyre (a musical 

instrument with three strings). 
Xvo-o-aXeos furious, rabid. 
XvrpSvco loose, liberate. 
\va>v<o (X6va>, § 6, n, 6) dissolve, 

melt. 
XaXos foolish, stupid. 

Ma (dpd, dpr\, ape) but. 

fiayeipiaro-a female cook. 

fiayepeio cooking, kitchen. 

payepevca to cook. 

pdyepos (pdyepas, § 66) cook. 

fiayeva bewitch. 

payed spell, magic. 

pdytcro-a sorceress. 

pdyovXo cheek ; dim. payovXant. 

pa$a> pluck (e.g. poultry). 

pa£ev(o collect. 

pa&, adv. at the same time, together ; 

/x. pi (§ 173) (together) with ; pa£i 

jiov with me. 
pa^a>va> (ipd£<o£a, epaa-a [properly 

from 6pd(co] €pa£<ax T7 ] Ka ) collect, 

mid. assemble. 
* paOatvco (epatia, paOrjpevos) learn, 

teach. 
pa64(s), parenthetic word — that is 

to say, forsooth, indeed, v. § 259. 
pdSqo-iyf. education, culture. 
pa8TjTJ]s pupil ; pi. % 76. 
fiaipov monkey. 
Md'is May. 
paicdpt, particle, if only, would that, 

v. §§ 193, 195, nevertheless, in 

spite of. 
fxaKapiTTjs blessed, late (dead). 
paKeXdpts butcher. 
pcucpd = paKpeid. 
fxaKpaiPG) (cpaKprjva) be prolix. 



Pepcid, adv. wide, far ; away ! be- 
gone ! p. diro far from. 

paicpoXatprjs (§ 114) long-necked. 

paKpwos distant, far, wide. 

pa<pvs (paKposy v. § 110) far, distant. 

paXaicos soft. 

paXaKo>vco make soft, mollify. 

pdXapa y neut. gold. 

paXaparevios golden. 

pdXio-ra by all means, of course ; 
quite, very. 

paXXi hair ; dim. paXXdici. 

paXXidfa be troubled. 

paXXiapos hairy, with long hair, — 
to denote the younger writers who 
take a decided stand for a popular 
reform of the literary language. 

paX&vco to quarrel, scold. 

pappf) midwife ; pi. § 90. 

pavdfirjs fruit and vegetable dealer, 
greengrocer. 

fiavddvoj (a. Gk.)= paOatvco. 

pavia(a)p4vos raving, rabid. 

pdwa mother, pi. § 90. 

pawovXa little mother. 

pavraXavQ} to bolt, bar. 

pavrr]Xi handkerchief, cravat. 

pavToXivo mandoline. 

pavrpL fold, pen. 

papd£t care, anxiety. 

*papaiv<o (ipdpav a, e pap d6r)Ka) 
cause to wither ; mid. wither. 

papyapLTapivios consisting of pearl. 

papyapvrdpt pearl. 

papyaavco (Gap.) to fight. 

papivipos sailor. 

paptoXtKos, papioXos knavish, artful. 

pappapivios of marble. 

pdppapo marble. 

pappapofiovvt hill of marble, marble 
quarry. 

Mdpris March. 

pdprvpas witness. 

paprvpS) acknowledge, confess ; in- 
form. * 

pas, v. eyo). 

pao-<r(b chew. 

pdoropas, pda-Toprjs (§ 69) master, 
master- workman. 



340 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



(6a) pdcrcoy V. pa^cavto. 
fiaTajSyalvco come out again. 
jiaTayvpifa return again. 
naTaiobogia passion for fame, ambi- 
tion. 
pan (oppdrty pi. padta, v. § 16, n. 3) 

eye ; pdna pov endearing term of 

address — my eye, my treasure ; 

/xara/a, dim. 
jiaTLa glance, look. 
fiarayvco make bloody ; parcopivos 

bloody. 
pavpifa turn black. 
jiavpiXa blackness, black .colour, dark 

clouds. 
jiavpofiaTrjs (§ 113) black-eyed. 
jiavpos black ; unlucky. 
jiavpo<t>pvdr)s with black eyebrows. 
fiaxaipt knife, sword. 
pdxj] battle. 
paxpovnis a Turkish coin (mahmudi 

— cir. 9d.). 
pdx<r9s (Pontus\ adv. intentionally, 

with a fixed purpose, 
jue : (I) prep. w. ace. (§ 162) with ; pe 

fitas at once, with one stroke, 

suddenly; (2)=pi (Gyp.) ; (3) 

ppc ( Chios) = fid. 
peyaXaivco make great, magnify ; 

become great. 
pcyaXobvvapos of great power, 

mighty. 
tx€yu\o7rvoos long-breathed, elevated, 

lofty. 
fieyakos great; neut, also p4ya, v. 

§ 180, n. 2. 
peyaXooTopos with a loud voice, 

stentorian. 
peyaXocrcopos with a large body, huge. 
ficyaXorexvos highly artistic. 
pcyaXotyavrao-Tos very imaginative. 
fieyaXocpcovos with a loud voice. 
peyaX&vco (epeyaXcofa, p. 139) become 

great. 
peOavpto, adv. day after to-morrow. 
piQr] drunkenness. 
p€0o8o,f. (§ 87) method. , 
p*6v* (peOufay p. 138, peBva-pivos) to 

be inebriated. 



p€LPCO y V* p€V<0. 

pcXavcoTTjs (tov xapTiov) ink-boy, 

printer's devil. 
/xeXei : tl pt piXei what does it matter 

to me ? * 
ftfXerco intend ; study. 
piXt honey. 
pcXicrcra bee. 
piXl(T(TL = id. 
piXXerai vd ... be about to, on the 

point of. 
peXXovpevo the future. 
peXcopivos honey-sweet. 
p4v(Cyp.)=pT)(v). 
peveges violet. 
pevco (pelvoo, §204 ; pveorKCO, pvTj&KCQ, 

epuva) remain, dwell. 
pipa (fjpepa) day. 
pepayXds (Cap.) vexed, peevish. 
pepdSt (small) part ; ^/Aia pepdfita 

6pop<j)VT€p7) a thousand times more 

fair. 
peptd side, region, place. 
pepiKoi some, several. 
pcpobovXi — pepocjidyLy proverbial ex- 
pression — daily work, da'.ly fare, 

i.e. living from hand to mouth. 
pepoKaparo a day's work. 
pepdvvxra* adv. day and night. 
pepos, neut. part ; side ; region, 

locality. 
p€po(f)d(y)iy V. pepoftoiXi. 
pepTiico portion. 
pcpoDvco to tame. 
p4ar\ picray adv. inside, within, in ; 

pecr(aXs)y prep. (§ 171) in the 

midst of, into ; rj peora icdpapa the 

middle room. 
pccrdvvxTciy pi. midnight. 
picn] middle ; piv o-tt] p. tov x&P l °v 

in the midst of the village. 
pecrrjpepL midday, noon. 
picro means, measure ; also at, in, by 

(w. gen.) y v. § 171, n. 4. 
pco-ox&pt. village in the middle, e.g. 

of a plain or of a district. 
peoros full, exuberant. 
picrTGipa development, maturity. 
p€rd=pe with. 



GLOSSARY 



341 



fieravotava repent. 
pcra^v between, among, v. dvaperafjv. 
pcra^coros of silk. 

jjL€Taro7r[(a) transpose, disfigure, per- 
vert. # 
}i€Ta<j)i\a> (-eco) kiss a second time, 

kiss repeatedly. 
fjL€Ta(f)pd(co translate. 
jieTacfrpao-Trjs translator, 
/xera^eip/fo/uiai to use. 
jicrepifr ambush. 
fi€Toxrj participle, participation. 
pfrpo (fierpos, § 100, n. 1) measure. 
jxerpS) to measure, count. 
fierce ir o forehead. 
pefaorofaXiKos Mephistophelian. 
fir] (pfjv, § 34, n. 2, fi4[v] Gyp.) no, not 

(prohibitive) ; in order not ; v. 

§284. 
prjbi not even, neither (also in 

affirmative sentences) ; prjdt t'ltt- 

ora nothing at all, absolutely 

nothing; prfii — /i^Se neither — nor 

(cf. § 285). 
prjkid (fJirjXc, § 81, n. 2 ; /i^Xea, § 10, 

n. 1 ; pirkid, § 37 n.) apple-tree. 
prjho apple. 
firjv = firj; also as an interrogative 

particle (v. § 255). 
firjva interrogative particle, v. § 255. 
firjvas mouth. 

prjwua, neut. information, message. 
fxrjvai (eprjwcra) announce, proclaim. 
firjircos lest perhaps ; possible if — to 

introduce a question, v. § 255. 
pr)Tc not even, neither ; /& — p. 

neither — nor (even in affirmative 

sentence), v. § 285. 
pr]Tipa mother, 
firjrpiKos motherly. 
jjLijTpviyid stepmother. 
[ud (fivid, v. § 30 ; fua t § 10, n. 1), /. 

of evas. 
piaovpifa to mew. 
fiiKpoSovXeid trifle, bagatelle. 
fxtKpos small. 
fiiKpovTCTiKos quite small. 
ptXrjpa, vent, speaking, conversation ; 

proclamation, order. 



fiiXtd conversation, speech, gossip. 

IaiWlovvi million. 

fu\(o (ofxikco) speak. 

lup.ovp.ai imitate. 

pivapis minaret. 

pio-avoiycD to open half-way. 

pu<r€V(0 start off, depart, journey. 

pia-operavoiayvco to half regret. 

picro^virvca to half awake. 

p.io~6s half ; pio~v } v. % 131 ; to piaro the 

half. 
piaroTcXciaptvos half-completed. 
pio-o) to hate. 

pvicrKca =p.€VCO. 

p,vr]pa, neut. tomb. 

p,vr)crK6>~p€V(0. 

pvid (pv'd) — pid. 

poSos, neut. manner, mode. 

potdfa, 6p(v)oid£u> (epoiao-a cpoia^a) 
be like, resemble (p4). 

polpa fate ; goddess of fate, fairy. 

poipdfa divide. 

p,oipaiv<o (ipolpava) determine the 
destiny. The goddesses of fate 
(MoTpef), according to the popular 
superstition of modern Greece, 
come to newborn children in 
order to determine their life- 
destinies. 

poipioXoyS) sing dirges, lament. 

poipoXoyi dirge. 

poipo\o(y)co — potpioXoyco. 

/AoXty, adv. just now, hardly ; as soon 
as (§ 273, 2). 

p6\oyS> confess. 

pokovoTt {jp oko[v 6]7roiJ) although 
(§ 278, 2). 

povafiucos peculiar, unique. 

povdicpifios dear, only. 

povat-id loneliness. 

povao-Trjpi cloister ; -a*a, dim. 

povdxa. (povaxd), adv. alone, only. 

povaxos, povdxos alone. 

/ioi>(e), povo(v), povoVj povvc, adv. 
alone, only, but ; povo ttov (irS>s), 
v. § 282, 2. 

p.ovoirdrL path. 

pavos alone ; povos rou, etc. self, 
§ 157 ; jiovos simple, single. 



342 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



flOVOV = fXOVO. 

fJLOp(f)r] form. 

fxopcpid beauty; fxia p.. adverbial, very 

gracefully. 
fiocTKos (fioaxos) musk. 
juo(r^o/3oXw, fjLO(rxofJivpi£<0 smell sweet. 

fJLOVyKl, fXOVV€ = fl6v€. 

fj.ov\os mule, metaph. bastard. 

fx6vpr] = fxcope, 

fiovpjiovptCcd to murmur. 

fiovpfiovpio-fAa, neut. murmuring. 

fxovpo mulberry. 

fjLovpTaTr]s unbeliever, renegade. 

fiovcriKr) (fxov(rtr(rf)) music. 

fAovo-tKoXaKos speaking like music. 

P.ov(ttclki moustache. 

fiovorpi ladle. 

Una, particle used in warding off or 

refusing. 
inrafa bring in. 
* fATralvco (ifjL7rrJKa [prjica, t}ixttcl\, 6a 

fjL7rco 8a €fi7T<D [0ci bfjKWj Sar. -ST.], 

imper. ep,7ra[s] e/x7ra[o-]re) enter, 

go in. 
p,7raXcop,aTr]$ cobbler. 
inraXavGL) cobble, mend. 
fX7rafX7ras (babas, Velv.) father, papa. 
fi7rdfjL7rco (bdbco) grandmother, aged 

woman. 
piravra (Ios irdda) side ; fiia. /xtt. 

once more ; to Kapafii fxe tj) 

inravra the boat rides on the side, 

capsizes. 
[LirapKa bark, small boat. 
ixirapovos baron. 
fi7rapovTij powder. 

fiTTaros sole. 

fi7T€7js Bey. 

fJL7r€p,7TO> (§ 15, 71. 3) = 7r6fl7TCi). 

inrepdcvofxai become entangled in. 
fXTTipapia (§ 10) beer-house. 
p,7rLpfi7ripts (hpbcps) barber. 
fXTrio-TiKQS) fnrtaTos (§ 15, n. 3) true, 

faithful. 
fjL7r\eK(o implicate, meddle in (/*e). 
fA7ro£iaTi£a> (Gal.) = inroyiaTtfa to 

paint, colour. 
fjL7ro\id£cD to graft, inoculate (also 

metaph.). 



*H7TOp(0 (bopCO, boVpG)) 7TOpco), ip.~ 

TTOpco, T}fjL7ropcD (ipTropcva) can, 
be able. 

liiToa-LKos empty, of no use, in vain. 

LL7roTt\ia bottle. 

fjL7rov\ovKp,7raarjs leader of a com- 
pany, general. 

fl7rOVfJ.7TOVKi bud. 

fjLirovTaXas blockhead. 

fj.7rp6s, adv. in front, forward ; fnrpos 
V (nirpoo-ra \)prep. (§ 171) before, 
in front oli over against (§ 171). 

fXTrpoord — id. 

fj,va\6 (usually pi.) brains, under- 
standing. 

fxvySaXid almond-tree. 

livBuTTopiKos romantic, romance. 

fivlya gnat. 

fxv\6p8o$, i.e. My lord, in addressing 
an Englishman. 

fxvkos mill. 

fiv\covas miller. 

nvplfa to smell. 

p,vpfj.r)yKL ant. 

fjLvpcodaTos fragrant, sweet-smelling. 

fivpaSid fragrance. 

fxvarrjpio secret. 

pvoTiicos secret (adj.) ; neut. a secret. 

fivoTpl ladle, trowel. 

fxvrrj nose. 

ficop', fxwpi (p&pe, Pontus), fuopr) 
(ficaiprj), fiovpr], /3/3e, interj. halloa ! 
look! 

ficopo small child, suckling, baby. 

Na (1) behold ! there ! also in pL 
form vdre, v. § 170, n. 2. ; (2) 
(also vdv, § 34, n. 2) particle, in 
order that, to, v. § 262. 

vat, val(TK€ yes. 

valna (Pontus) woman. 

vavdy interj. word used in lullaby. 

vavvdpio-fia, neut. lullaby 

vao~re vd£<x> = d vaarevd^co. 

vdrc, V. vd (1). 

vavrrjs marine, sailor. 

vaxdprayos = dvaxdprayos. 

ve(Sd£a) = avej3dfo). 

veyKwo-Mo (Gap.) go, go around. 



GLOSSARY 



343 



vUpa stiffness of death, stillness of 
death. 

venpavdo-Tao-L, f. resurrection of the 
dead. 

veKpiKos pertaining to the dead. 

veKpos dead. 

veXa — cka. 

vevi mother. 

vios (§ 10) new ; also young, a youth, 
young man ; via young maiden. 

v€orv7T(oii€vos newly printed. 

Nepd'ides female creatures in the folk- 
mythology, elves, nereids. 

v€po water. 

vtvpiKos nervous. 

v€vp<ndr)s nervous ; energetic, em- 
phatic. 

vi<j>a\o cloud. 

veipTt, naphtha, turpentine, injected 
behind into draught or riding 
animals to make them go faster. 

vi) — vr] (§ 34, n. 3) either — or. 

vrjXios = rj\ios. 

vtj(tl island. 

vr]<Ti<i>TiKos belonging to the islands, 
insular. 

vrja-TLKos sober, hungry. 
vidra^ pi. youth 

v'&a (vlftya), § 23 n). wash, bathe ; 
mid. bathe oneself. 

vlkw conquer, gain victory. 

vlos (vios) young ; young man. 

vioTTj youth. 

votKtdfa (voiT<ja£(&) to hire, rent. 

voiKOKvpis owner or master of a 
house. 

voiKOKvpiTda lady of a house, mis- 
tress. 

VOli-CLTLKOS, V. OLVOL^aTLKOS. 

i/oiTcra^co, V. voiKidfa. 

vouaOco perceive, notice, feel. 

vofiifa think, believe. 

vSfios law. 

vo(TOKop.uo hospital. 

voo-TifJLuba pleasant taste ; grace, 
jest. 

votmpifa be amiable, graceful. 

voo-TLfios tasteful ; expensive, pleas- 
ant ; charming, amiable. 



vovpa = ovpa. 

vovs (§ 63, n. 2) mind, understand- 
ing ; epxerai oro vov fxov it occurs 
to me ; x^ VOi> T0 vov pov lose one's 
reason. 



VTCL= WTCL. 



vrapdvi cover, ceiling. 
vrdfxa lady (in cards). 
vTeftXiri government. 
vrikr) (v. § 74, n. 2) brave. 
vrivco get entangled in. 
vT€pfiivi narrow pass, defile. 
vT^a/ii = T^afii. 

vto (Pontus) —rt, v. § 152, n. 2. 
vrov(iva dozen. 
vrovkdin closet, cupboard. 
vtovvvq), aor. eWcoKct, § 202, n. 2 
(Pontus) beat ; fall into (a snare). 

VTOvtyiKl = TOV(f)iKl. 

vrpavco (Pontus) see. 

vrpiirofxat (ivrpdirr]Ka) be ashamed. 

vrpoiTT) shame, disgrace. 

vtvvo) put on ; mid. dress. 

vTva-ifio (§ 104) dressing. 

vvirvos = virvos. 

vvarrd^oo (ivvcrra^a) be sleepy, nod. 

vvcj>T] (vv^cfa, § 36 n.) bride, daughter- 
in-law, young wife (pi. § 90). 

vvxra (nifta, § 14, n. 2) night ; gen. 
§84. 

wxTid night (season). 

vvxroirovki night-owl. 

vvxTopeva) spend the night ; work 
through the night. 

VO)p,OS=ci)fl09. 

vcopts, adv. early. 
vwplrepa, adv. earlier. 

SdyvavTos against, opposite. 

£abepcj)07rov\a cousin (/.). 

£a66s (gaddos, § 36 n.) blond, fair. 

£alv<D (e£ava) card wool. 

gavd again, once more, v. § 159, 2. 

£-ava(3kao~Taiv<0 (v. ftXaoTaiveo) shoot 

up (again). 
£ai/a/3\€7ro) see again. 
£avayewovfiai be born again. 
£avayvpi£<o turn back again, turn 

around again. 



o44 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



^avahtavavoiiai come to conscious- 
ness again, come to oneself 
again. 

£uva£a)VTav€fjLivos resuscitated. 

^apaKOLfiovjiai fall asleep again. 

£avciKTV7T(D — £avaxrvirca. 

^avdkafSaivco (v. XajScuVa)) receive 
again. 

^avakiyai say once more, repeat. 

gavdvOicrpa, neut. blossoming. 

gavaviavw renew (again). 

£ava7r€pva) go past once more. 

^ava(f)aivofiat appear once more. 

£ava<f>ik& kiss a second time. 

gavaxTvrrc* strike another time. 

^aviTroiKa (Pontus), v. (j)Ta.co. 

^avBovka^ dim. from £a(v)96s, term 
applied to a young girl. 

£avoiy(& look at, discern. 

£avTiKpv£<o meet. 

|a7rXa, adv. outstretched, length- 
wise. 

£a7rAcoi/a> stretch out, spread. 

£a7roo-rafa> to take rest. 

£apxw5> begin. 

i-ao-Tcpia starry heaven, unclouded 
heaven. 

|a</>j/tfo frighten, surprise. 

gdcjyvco, adv. suddenly. 

£€ytv€Tcu it changes ; 8h £. it cannot 
be changed, helped. 

geyXvToivco to finish a work, be freed 
from work. 

^iyvoiaoTos heedless. 

(eyopevopat confess. 

j-cyvfivafiivos uncovered, stripped. 

g€0d(f>T<D excavate. 

J-eBvpaivoi) (i^dvpava) give vent to 
■wrath ; subside. 

^eXoymfo) seduce, dishonour. 

^€fxo\oyS> = £opo\oy£>. 

gefnrapKdpa (e^fiirapKapKra) dis- 
embark. 

(efjLTrepBcvco find a way out of a 
difficult position, extricate 
oneself. 

(evtT€id abroad, foreign land. 

££vtT€vofiai go abroad, emigrate. 

^€vobovk€v<o to work for strangers. 



£<-Vos strange, peculiar, the stranger, 
foreigner ; toe £iva foreign land. 

£€P<D=£uVCQ. 

^nayiaapivos numbed with cold. 

£€7ralpvopat (v. 7ralpv<o) fly into a 
passion, be puffed up. 

^€7T€pva> excel, surpass. 

i-eTreo-fxevos decayed, dilapidated. 

*£€paiva> (ii-ipava, egcpdOqica) to 
dry 

f epigava pluck out by the roots ; 
dev £€pi£d>vet it cannot be ex- 
terminated. 

*£epva> (egepao-a, ^pacrpivos) to 
vomit. 

gcpofiqxco to have a dry cough. 

gepofilpaxos barren rock. 

£epd? (ijrjpos) dry. 

£e/)a>, V. ijevpca. 

geo-Kifa (£eo-/c(S) split, tear asunder. 

gco-TraO&vw draw the sword. 

|eo-7raoj break forth, give vent. 

georavpavco take down from the 
cross. 

gtorofilfa speak out, divulge. 

£era£o) = € £erd£(o. 

£ereXet»a> completely finish. 

*£evpo, $€pco, fj&vpw, rjiepco (£&, 
§ 252, 3, n. 1 ; epaBa) know. 

i-€(j)€vyca (egicfavya) escape. 

£€<j)T€povyid{a> flee away from. 

%€(f>vTpa>v<D shoot up, flourish. 

£€<j)a>vi£co cry aloud. 

* £ € X ( * vco (^x^ VV(0 i V' 1^5, ?i. 2), 
&X vS > (*'£ f 'x ao " a > $€xa[(r]p4vos) 
forget. 

£€X(*>pi>C<*> separate ; differentiate, 
pick out ; separate from a person. 

gexcopiotos separated, peculiar, dis- 
tinguished. 

g€yjsvx<*> breathe one's last. 

^rjpcpapa (or pi. ra ^pepoapara) day- 
break. 

gr)p€pav€i day breaks. 

^rjpaivcO) V. ^paivco. 

1-T]p6s = i;€p6s. 

£177-0) = e£erafa). 

|tX<S (Cap., aor. £[\<ra) fall, de- 
generate to. 



GLOSSARY 



345 



£ivdp(i) axe. 

£6j3cpyo lime-twig (to catch birds). 
£o8ft-o>, £odid{<0 spend (money). 
£opoXoy£> (i-epoXoyS)) hear one's 

confession, shrive (w. ace). 
£opifa to exile. 
£ovpifa = $vpi£<D. 
guXivos of wood. 
|t)Xo wood. 
£w6s sharp, acid. 
£vva>j £eV&>, £v£a) f (•£> (egvorrjica) 

scrape, scratch. 
£v7rafopu be astonished. 
£v7rva> wake up. 
£v7t6\vtos barefooted. 
£vpi((o (govplfa) to shave. 
gvo-ifio (§ 104) scraping. 
££> — £vv<o. 
j-upas, adv. late. 
^(ortKo ghost. 

'O, Tj y to the, v. § 55. 
'Ofipios Jew. 

oyiosy rel, for composition of which, 
v. § 150, n. 2. 

6yd> = €yd>. 

otic whence. 

oivos (lit.) wine. 

oko a liquid measure (about a 

quart) ; pi. § 90. 
oXdvoixros standing wide open. 
oXTjfjLcpls, adv. the whole day long. 
oXLyos (Xiyos) few ; fie oXiya, o~e Xtyo 

soon, in a short time. 
oXoyvpa (Xoyvpa), adv. all around ; 6. 

a7ro, p*ep. round about (§ 171). 
oXdSpoo-off quite fresh. 
6AoeVa, a#y. without interruption, 

continuously. 
oXokXtjpos (oXonepos, § 31, n. 1) quite, 

whole. 
6Xo/Ltdva^off quite alone. 
6X6fxop(f>os very fair. 
6X6pTos quite erect. 
oAoff (otJXof, Sar. K. yovXos) whole, 

all ; v. § 156. 
6Xov0€ i adv. from, on all sides, every- 
where. 
6X6<t>Xoyo$ flaming brightly. 



6Xo(j)(oro5 shining bright. 

oXo^pva-os all of gold. 

oXoxvros at one cast, of one mould. 

6fj.iX<o=piXa>. 

6ppdrt = part. 

6p(v)otd£(o, v. /xotafo). 

opudprjo-icos one of same religion. 

ofxoios (ofxvoios) similar. 

dfjLop(f)id (fjLopcJHd) beauty. 

opopefro? (epopefyos) beautiful ; 

compar. § 117. 
oporexvos colleague in art. 
6p6(j>vXos of the same race. 
op,irpo (Pontus), w. diro before of time 

(§ 174). 

Op.TTp6$=ip.1Tp6s. 

opoavoa swear. 

o/ia)9 nevertheless. 

ovupevopai to dream. 

oveipo dream ; pi. § 94. 

ovopa (ovopav, § 34, n. 4), neut. name '„ 

yia ovopa rov Oeov ! for God's sake L 
dvopdfa to name. 
ovra = ovras. 

ovras (drds, Pontus) room, chamber. 
ovras , ovre(s), ovrev, orav(e) if, when,. 

as often as, § 272. 
ovre (Chios) halloa, indeed ! 
o£;ov, o£o> (e£co), air* o£o> outside, 

without ; o^o) diro outside, on the 

outside, v. § 172. 
d£oWopra outside-door, street-door. 
07t/o-q) (6irio-\ Pontus) backwards,. 

behind ; cf. also nio-a. 
o7rXo weapon. 
ottoios (onoios ki civ) who, whoever,. 

v. § 150. 
O7roto?, 6 who, which, v. § 149 n. 
o7rou, o7rov where ; rel. who, that, v. 

§ 149 ; so that (consec), v. § 279 ; 

o7rov Kt av wherever. 
o7r&)ff how, as ; ottcos ki <iv how- 
ever. 
opao-i(s),f. vision, sight. 
opyavo organ, instrument. 
opyao-pos desire, passion. 
6pyicrp.4vos angry, furious. 
opyodva put under cultivation. 
opSividfa to order. 



346 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



opivi (Cap.) a ruin, dilapidated 

house. 
dpddvoLxros wide open. 
6p66s (opros, § 18, n. 3) straight, 

correct ; steep. 
opifa to command, prescribe (w. 

ace.) ; va o- 5 opicrco is it agreeable ? 

if it please you ; koKZos opiore 

welcome. 
opio-fios order, disposition. 
6picl£cD to swear (tr.); SpKifanai 

swear. 
opicos oath, swearing. 
Zppdv (Pontus) = povfidvi, 
opfirjveta ( Velv.) counsel, advice. 
6pfiT)Tiic6s rushing, impetuous, 
opviOa, opvlOi hen. 
opoKXtotcTKovfjiaiy aor. opoKkmora 

(Pontus) go slowly to and fro. 
opos, neut. mountain. 
op7rl(8)a hope. 
oprdrar (Gay.) truth. 
opros = 6p66s. 
optpdvia state of being orphan, 

orphanhood. 
opcjxivos orphaned, neut. orphan. 
ojoojtw (Pontus) = ip<or£>. 
oence, V. cr^i. 
ocro as long as ; ocro vd or ocro ttov 

until (§ 275) ; ocro ytd as for, as 

far as concerns ; ocro, ova (ocro kl 

av) however much ; ocro— («XXo) 

rdcro the more — the more, 
ocrof as great as (§ 150) ; oaoi (all) 

who. 

6o~7TlTL = 0-7TLTL. 

ora, 0Tav(e) = ovras ; ott' ora since. 

6ras = ovras. 

otl (1) that (§ 267, n. 2) ; (2) as soon 

as, when, also otl7tov, on vd (v. 

§ 273) ; (3) 6Yi, otl kl av whatever ; 

that which, all that. 
ov ( Velv.) = 6. 
ov$4 — olB4 neither — nor. 
ovXos = oXos*. 

ovpd (vovpd, § 34, n. 3) tail, 
ovpdvios heavenly. 
olpavos heaven. 
ova-ta being, essence ; taste, good 



taste ; navco o-ttjv ov. in the prime 

of life. 
ovt€ — ovt€ neither — nor ; ovtc <dv 

not even, nor. 
°Xi V re P- out °f> from, of (v. § 168, 

°Xh °X tcrKe > ocrice.no. 

oxovovs, adv. immediately. 

oxtos slope, base of a mountain. 

oxTpos = exrpos. 

6xtq> eight. 

6tyi,/. countenance. 

Ila : (1) (Pontus) enclitic— it oKl ; (2) 
drro ird (Maina) from there ; (3) 
itd y s upon (§ 171) ; (4) from 
7rdyo>, V. § 252, 1. 

7ra(y)aLV(0y 7Taa[vva) = 7rrjyalv(o t 

iraydvL (Cap.) ravine. 

7rd(y)a)y V. Trrjyaivo). 

7ray(op,€vos icy, frozen. 

iraycoTLa, pi. freezing, ice. 

irahd, adv. hither, here. 

7rdda = fi7rdvTa. 

ira(dpL (inra^dpi) market, bazaar. 

*7radaLva> (eTraOa, 7ra6cdfievos) en- 
dure, suffer. 

irdOosy neut. suffering, passion ; pi. 
§100. 

TraLyvih (fra^iSt) sport, game with 
music. 

7raiyvLbi£<d to play. 

7rato7 child ; dim. 7rai§aia ; dirb 
iraihl from a child (childhood). 

7raicuartKos pertaining to children, 
childlike. 

7rcucio7roi>Xo small child. 

Trailed (enaL^a, eVat^r^Jca) to play ; 
7rai£<o Kavovus to shoot off 
cannon. 

7raLV(o (erraiVecra) to praise. 

* Traipvco also naipco (e7rrjpa eTrr)pa y 
6a TrdpoHy Pontus 6a 7raip<o, 
i7rdp6rjKa) take, fetch ; 77- , ra 
j3owd go over the mountains, go 
away, get lost ; it. Ittlttqvov take 
to heart (Aegina) 

iraLxvibi = iraiyvidL. 

rrdX = 7raXe. 



GLOSSARY 



7raXaio/3crovXo the old, i.e. mean, kid 
(r/.§41,a).^ 

Trakatos = rraXios. 

7raXa/x77 (palm of) hand. 

TraXan palace. 

ttoXc, ?raXi (ttoX), adv. again, yet. 

7raXe0vpL = irapaBvpi. 

TraXevoD wrestle. 

TrakioyvvcuKa ugly (old) woman. 

TraXioTratSo street-boy, dirty fellow. 

7raXtd? (TraXatd?) old, ancient. 

-rraXXrjKapi young fellow, youthful 
warrior, hero, pallicar ; TraXX;;- 
Kapovhiy dim. 

7ra\\r}Kapi<nos like, pertaining to a 
pallicar. 

naXjios palpitation of heart. 

7ra\6s (Cap.) = 7ru\i6s. 

iravayvpi = 'iravr}yvpi. 

iravai, voc. (iravae //, TTelv.) exclama- 
tion, great heavens ! 

7rav4KXap.7rpos most illustrious. 

Travrjyvpt {iravayvpt) festival (holy 
day). ^ 

7ravrjyv pi^co celebrate, solemnise. 

iravi, cloth. 

irdvTa, adv. always ; yia n. for 
ever. 

TravTcpa banner. 

vravrixto expect, suppose, believe. 

navTofivvapis almighty (Provelengios). 

iravrov, adv. everywhere. 

Travroxh expectation, patience. 

jravTpcvca marry ; mid. get married. 

iravra), V. clttclvtS). 4 

iravTc&V) V. riXos it. 

77avG> — TrayG> } 7rr)yalvG>. 

irdva>) adv. above, over ; it. '$■ upon, 
on (§ 171) ; to *va kcl\ irdvco and 
one more into the bargain. 

7ravo>pios very fair. 

ira^ipdh biscuit, zwieback. 

iraTzabia clergyman's wife. 

irairas priest, clergyman ; indecl., v. 
§64. 

irairaTpixas (§ 73) superficial person. 

irania duck. 

7ra7rXo) pa, neut. covering, counter- 
pane. 



7ra7rXo) paras manufacturer, retailer 
of quilts. 

TraTrovrijjs cobbler. 

irairovT^i shoe, boot. 

iraTTirovs grandfather ; old man. 

irapd than after the compar., except, 
but, cf. § 158 n. 

7rapa(3alva> transgress (a command- 
ment). 

7rapafio\r) parable. 

irapayyeXia commission, order. 

irapayyekvco (jrapayyeika 7rapdyye\a) 
to order. 

napayios adopted son. 

irapdyca produce. 

irapaycoyrj production. 

7rapdh€io~o(s)f. (§ 87) or m. paradise. 

7rapadida> to surrender. 

irapdbo<n,f. transmission, tradition ; 
education. 

irapa^aXr} confusion, bother. 

irapaBvpi (iraXeBvpi) window. 

TrapaiTco abandon, resign. 

irapaKa\S> (v. ko\vq>) request. 

irapaKavoa exaggerate, overdo. 

7rapaKaT<0, adv. lower down. 

irapaKei (iraparo-et), adv. farther on, 
forward, more. 

7rapaKkrjriK.6s entreating. 

TrapaKowovo-rifa (Velv.) inform (a 
person pi). 

irapaKovco hear wrongly, hear, dis- 
obey. 

irapakuros paralytic. 

7rapapov€vco wait for, waylay. 

Trapapovr] evening before a festival 
(of the church). 

irapapvBi fable, tale. 

irapavios very young. 

irapdvcD, adv. farther above, up ; be- 
yond, over. 

7rapa£ev€v(y)opai to wonder, be 
astonished. 

irapd&vos striking, odd. 

irapardva higher up, over, more ; 
pi to it. in excess. 

77 apair are pas adoptive father. 

irapairipa, adv. farther away, beyond 
{cltto than). 



348 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



7rapa7rov€fx€uos lamentable, sad. 
7rapair6ve<riyf. trouble, lamentation. 
Trapanovo lamentation. 
Trapairovovpai lament, bewail. 
Trapas (Velv. /., pi. also irapdBia) a 

coin, Para ; money. 
TrapcKTKtvr} Friday. 
7rapaT€VT<i)v(D extend, spread (tr.), 

mid. intr. 
7rapaTr')pr)<ri,f. observation, watchful- 
ness. 
TrapaTiXidXis, V. nXidXtj. 
7rapax&pr}<Th /• concession. 
irapyopai, V. 7rapr)yop£>. 
ndpbos (Pontics) tom-cat. 
napiKeiy adv. farther over, a little 
farther on ; on the side, out of 
the way ; tt. 0770 beyond (§ 172). 
Trapefinpos, adv. in front, forward, 

farther. 
Traprjyopia consolation. 
Traprjyoptb (napiyyopeo-a) console ; 

mid. to become contented. 
irapOiva virgin. 
irapBtvia virginity. 
7Tflpio-iafa), 7rapov(rid{<0 present, show, 
put forward ; mid. appear, be 
present. 
Trapeo, indecl. (v. p. 47 footnote, § 234, 

3, n. 2) present. 
7ra<ra, naaaeuas each, every one, v. 

§ 155, n. 1. 
7rao-as pasha. 
Traaicd (Cap.) another. 
7ra<TKi(<o try, attempt. 
irao-o-dXi pole, peg, wedge. 
irdcra-o pace, step. 
Traa-TpLKos clean, neat; /. § 111. 
Tzacr)(aXid Easter. 
iraa-xdXia, pi. Easter-money for the 

priest. 
7rao-^tfo> = nao-Ki^ a>. 
Traripas father ; pi. § 73. 
TrarpiBa fatherland. 
narpiKos fatherly, paternal; neut. 

father's house or family. 
TraTpLS (Ut.) = 7raTpi8a. 
irarpKCTio-pos patriotism. 
TTara-d a blow. 



iraT<o to step, tread. 

7rdra>/ia, neut. storey, floor. 

7rara)<7ia (Syra) = id. 

7rav<0 cause to cease, stop, cease. 

Trdxvrj hoar-frost, frost. 

Traxvs (7raxfios", cf. § 54 n.) thick, fat. 

7rydb = 7Trjydbi. 

7T€ = a7rd. 

7T€ydb(i) = TTj^ydhi. 

TrefaypdcftTjpa, neut. prose. 

7T€(oypd(j>o5 prose writer. 

tt€{6s (lit.) on foot; in prose,. 

prosaic. 
7T€0aivcD, V. irodaivto. 
nedappivos dead. 
TT€d€p(i)d mother-in-law. 
7T€0€po£ father-in-law. 
7T€l6co persuade, convince. 
*Treivo> (ireivdfa, eireivao-a, ireiva- 

a-pepos) to hunger. 

77€lOT€pOS 9 V. 7T0\v$. 

TTtipdfa (eVei'pafa, eTreipdxTTjKci) tor- 
ment, tease ; dev Treipdfet it does 
not matter. 

7re\a(y)o sea. 

ireXiaripi = 7repi<TTepi. 

7r€pira> (e7re^a, Trepirdros, V. § 212 11.} 
send. 

rrevevrdo (Cap., v. § 141 n.), adv^ 
mutually, promiscuously, against 
each other. 

tt€v fjvra fifty. 

7T€V7)UTdpa a company of fifty. 

7T€V7]VTdpiKos containing fifty pieces,. 
cf. § 133. 

7T€VT]TaS pOOr. 

irivva pen. 

7T€PTa<6(rioL five hundred. 

irevrdpa (irevrdpi) a 5 lepta piece. 

7T€VT€ five. 

irevTiKapi, ttcvtikos mouse. 

7T€pa, adv. beyond, above, over on 
the other side ; eb<b ire pa here, in 
this case ; diro — kcli ntpa beyond 
(§ 172). 

TTcpfiaTcb = 7re/37raTa>. 

7rep/3c5Xi = 7reptj3oXt. 

TrepStKa (irepTiKiVy § 26) partridge. 

n-fpSiKouXa, dim, to id. 



GLOSSAEY 



349 



, 7T€p7j(j)dv€ia pride, arrogance. 
7T€pr}<pav€V0fxai be proud. 
7r€pfj(f)avo5 proud. 
ire pi (Velv.) = irapd after compar. 
TrtpifioXapiKos cultivated in a 

garden. 
7rep(i)l36\dpis gardener. 
irepifio'Xi (7T€p(36\i) garden. 
7r€piy4\acrfxay neut. laughter. 
7T€piy€\<b laugh at, deride. 
7T€piKa\<b (7r€pKak£>) request, ask. 
irspihafiaivw (v. Aa/3mVo)) embrace. 
7T€pt}x4v(o expect, wait. 
TrepiobiKo periodical, journal. 
nepiopiCop-ai limit, restrict oneself 

(to o-c). 
7T€pL7raTos a walk ; ftyaivco irepiiraTO 

go walking. 
7T€pi7raTa) go, walk, step. 
7T€pi7r\avaifjL€vos wandering around. 
7r€picr(T€V(o to have abundance. 

7T€pi(T(riOSy TTtpMHTOS (7T€pi(TCr05 9 7T€p~ 

'aos) (very) much, enough. 
7T€pi(rr€paj ir€piaripi (irckurripi) 

dove. 
7T€piTTo(rvX\aftos (gram, term) non- 

parisyllabic. 
TT€pi<f>p6vr}(Tiy f. contempt. 
7r€pixvv(ti pour around ; Idpcas /ac 

7r€pixvv€Tai the perspiration runs 

off me. 

*7T€/3J>a> (iTripCKTCL, 1T€pa(TfJt,€VOs) gO 

past, go over ; advance^ outstrip ; 

7T€pva <tt avr\ <avev6s it reaches 

somebody's ear. 
TrcpTrdTrjfia, newt, step, walk. 
7T€p7raTr}aid walking, gait. 
7rep7rarw, 7rep/3aToi (-e'co) go for a 

walk, to step, advance. 
rrepcros — Trepiacros. 
iripvaij adv. of last year. 

7T€(Tk4(TL (lT€(TTCri(Tl) gift. 

TreVo) (Cap.) within, inside ; with 

<t(4) within (of motion). 
neraXovda butterfly. 
7r€T€Lovfiaiy pres. particip. 7T€Tovp.€vos 

7T€Tdnevos) fly, hasten. 
TreTpa stone, rock. 
Trsrpid stone's throw, cast. 

2X 



7T€Tpivo$ of stone. 

TT€TpoTOTTos stony ground. 

irirtra rope, halter. 

7T€T(tl leather. 

7T€tov[A€vo (v. foil, word) bird. 

*1T€Tci> (V. alSO 7r€T€lOVpat, €7T€TCl£;a 

-(ray €7r€TaxTrjKa) fly, fly up, throw 
away. 

*7T€<pT(d (c7Te(7a, 7T€(T[l€VOs) fall ; 

7T€(j)T(o tov Bavdrov fall dead. 

TTTjyddt (ircydbiy § 6, n. 2) fountain, 
spring. 

^Trriyaivda^rfalvcOy 7rrjaivco, 7T7jaLvva> 
p. 135, n. 2), 7rayatv(0 (Maina, 
7ra'i{aivcoi) 7rdya> (v. § 252, 1), also 
irdvca (crrrjlyja [eTrdyrjcrcty 7rd(y)rjKa > 
§ 202, I. 6, n. 2], da Tray©, imper. 
va. nds or «/ze, § 218, ft. 3, 7rrjyai~ 
[xevos 7raycaiJL€vo$y pres. part. 
7rrjyaivdfjL€vos) go. 

7TTjyrj source, fountain. 

7rr}8a> to leap. 

7T^fo) (jfirrjgay 7rrj[y]p,€vos) curdle. 

7rr)pTrvpo perpyr (a coin). 

wrjTTiTo-a cake, pastry. 

vrJXVyf- (§ 86 > n - 2 ) CUDifc - 

irrixv (-dco) heap up, wall up. 

7rid—-7ri6. 

*7Ttdv(d (eirtacray eiridarrjica) catch, 
seize ; overtake ; Tndvopai be 
caught, get involved ; waver i) 
dvarrvor} breathing ceases. 

7riya>p6s strongly developed, power- 
ful. 

nidavos probable. 

7ridvfjLid desire, appetite. 

TriO&vto to place, put down. 

•n-iKapupevos (Syra) embittered, 
irritated, annoyed. 

nLKpa bitterness, sorrow. 

*7riKpaLVG> (iiriKpava, nucpapevos) 
embitter, cause sorrow ; mid. to 
be sorrowful, vexed. 

nLKpos bitter. 

*7tlv<d (irivvcoy Gyp.*, rjirtay 0a. 7ri<a, 
imper. 7rie[s] mere, itnuiOrfKa) to 
drink. 

7rtd, TTid (irkio irkidy v. § 32; irXeOy § 10, 
n. 1) more, in the formation of 



350 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



the compar. v. § 119 ; also already, 

now. 
7rtdr(r)e/)a, adv. more, rather. 
7ri7r€pi£(D taste of pepper. 
7rt7reV (Cap.) within, inside. 
TTip6v(t) (Pontu$) = 7rpi6vi. 
7Ti<rT€v(y)o<> (pisttfo, § 23 ft.) believe. 
m<m($),f. faith. 
TTioroXia pistol-shot. 
ttlvtos true, faithful. 
Triorco (jriarov), adv. behind ; vricrov 

tt'htov (Lesbos) in the course of 

time; Trto-w 9 s, prep, behind, tt. 

cltto behind ; v. also oV/o-o). 
7rL<cfi4vos drunken, from 7tlvcd. 
7r\dyi side. 
7rXaytafo) go to sleep. 
7t\cl6(o to fashion, form. 
77 kg>, V. <f>rdva>. 
nXaKa slab (e.g. of a tomb). 
7r\aK<i>v(0 strike down, hurl to the 

ground, strike. 
■jvhav (Pontus), adv. away, far 

behind. 
7r\avS> (-dca -eo), eVXaVeaxr, iiikavi- 

drjKo) lead astray, cause to wander ; 

mid. lose one's way. 
7rXa(rt,/. creation. 
7rAao7-ia, newt, creature. 
TrXdorjjs creator, inventor. 
TrXardvi (nkaravid, irkaravos) plane- 
tree. 
plate'guo, v. § 23 n. 
7r\arvs (TrXcxretoff, § 110 ft.) broad, 

wide. 
TrXeiorcpos, V. 7ro\vs. 
7tX4k<o (7t\4kv(0) weave. 

7r\4vG> = 7r\vV(0. 

vr\4o(v) = ir\i6. 

nXepoiva) (irXrjp&vco) pay ; ftlic?. 
receive pay. l 

7rXcTt/30U, V. 7T0Xvff. 

7rXeupo side. 

ttXco) (TrXeyco, eVXc^a) swim, travel. 

TrXrjyr} wound. 

ttX^os, neut. multitude, company; 

pi. the people. 
v\r)v but. 
"TrXrjpoavGi — 7r\€pa>vci>. 



TrXrjoridfa approach. 

7tXl6(v), 7r\id = 7rio. 

77X0Z0 boat. 

7rXov/xifo> adorn. 

TrXovfuoros adorned. 

ir\ov<nos (ttXoixtos, § 10, ft. 4) rich. 

n-Xovranxo (ttXovtvvio-kg}, § 199, I. 4, 
€7r\ovrr]va) grow wealthy. 

TrXoiJroy, fti. and neut. (v. § 100, ft. 1) 
wealth, riches. 

7tXvj/q), TrXeVco, 77Xtmo-KO>, § 199, I. 4 
(e 77X1/7; a e 77X1/0-0, €7r\v6rjKa) wash. 

7rXo>i/o) = a7rXo)j/co. 

7ri/€i3/xa, ftm£. spirit. 

TTvevpaTiKos spiritual ; m. father- 
confessor. 

7n/€0) to blow. 

7Tvly<o (iirvixTr}Ka iirvlyrjKCL) suffocate, 
strangle, drown, cause to drown ; 
mid. drown (intr.). 

ttvoy) breath, breathing. 

7T vdivay (Cap.) to sleep. 

770 = 0770. 

77oSapt, 77oSt (poda, Ter. d* 0.) foot ; 
dim. Tro^apaKL. 

7Todtd seam of a garment, apron. 

*7ro6aiv<0, TredaivcD, diroOaiva, oVc- 
OaivcQ, a7ro6vr}(TK<0 (dirodava [a]77€- 
Bava iiriBava, 7reda}ifi4vos) die. 

77o#o? longing, desire. 

77ot8a=77oSta. 

Troirjpa, neut. poem. 

7701170-1,/. poetry. 

iroir}TTjs poet ; pi. § 76. 

7tolt]tlk6s poetic. 

770tKa (eVot/ca), V. (ftrdvco. 

7T0L0S (77010?, 770-0?, etc. § 10, ft. 5) 
who? which? v. § 151. 

TToiorrjra quality. 

TroKafiiaro shirt. 

770fcarco, adv. = d7roKdr(0. 

iroKplvopai to answer. 

ttoXcijllkos warlike. 

7r6k4fjLLos enemy. 

7r6\cfii<rrf)pLov war-song. 

77 oktfjLos war, struggle. 

77oX€/xw to fight, struggle ; en- 
deavour. 

iro\rj<r}iov£> = 0770X77 07x01/0). 



GLOSSARY 



TrdAij /. city, especially Constanti- 
nople. 
7r6XiT€ia state, city. 
7ro\lTr)s citizen. 
noXiTtarfjLevos civilised. 
TToXvBeta polytheism. 
TTclXvOopvftos rioter. 
-rokvs much, many, v. § 112 ; adv. 

iroXv, rroXkd ; compar. § 118. 
7t6\vo-wt]6L£(d to be well accustomed 

to. 
7To\vTpo7ros adroit. 
7ro\vxpov€fi4vos a person to whom 

one wishes many years. 
Vo/xeVco = aTtoplvco. 
novcfxivos feeling pain, vexed. 
TTovivres (Crete) west. 
irovrjpia wickedness, baseness. 
7rovr)p6s wicked, cunning. 
novo? pain, grief. 
ttovtlki mouse. 
7rov£> ('€(O t enovcara, wovcpivos) 

suffer, feel pain ; have a longing, 

ivovii it pains. 
nones (Gap.), adv. within, from 

within (§ 174). 
Tropra gate. 
7rop(j)vpa purple. 
7Top(j)vpoy4vvT]Tos born in purple. * 

Trope*, V. p.7ropS>. 

ttootos so great, so much. 

Trordpi river. 

TTorafios = id, 

7t6t€ when ? cos tt. until when ? how 

long ? 7roT6 — tt6t€ now — then ; 

kclttotc Kal 7t6t€ sometimes. 
7roTe(s) at any time, ever; never 

(with neg. v. § 126). 
irorlfa (v. double ace.) make to drink, 

water. 
irono-pa, neut. watering. 
wov, adv. (1) where ? (2) (also ottov) 

who, which, usual relat. particle, v. 

§ 149 ; (3) (also ottov or ttov vd) 

that, so that (§§ 267, 279) ; as ttov 

vd until (§ 275), o~av Trov = o~dv as, 

just as (§ 281) ; ttov V of Texts I. 

a. 20~7rov eivai (+a redundant 

€ivai)* 



irovfttTis, adv. anywhere. 

irovyyl purse. 

7rov0c(v), adv. whence. 

irovOevd, adv. anywhere, with neg. 

nowhere. 
7tovXt)tt}s vendor ; pi. § 76. 
ttovXI (irovXki) bird ; dim. 7rouAa/a. 

7TOv\v = 7T0kv. 

ttouAg) sell. 

TTOVirera, 7rou7r€TLS = Trov^€Tis. 
ttov7tov\ov, neut. (Velv.) populace. 
TrovpvdpL (irpivdpt) evergreen (holly) 

oak. 
novpvo in the morning. 

7TOVS = 7Ta>S. 

irpd(y)p,a, neut. thing ; dim. irpa(y)- 
paraKi. 

7rpayfiOT€id, V. TTpapdreta. 

TrpayfjLariKos actual, real. 

irpdfa (irpdcrarco, tTrpaga) do, act. 

Trpapdrua, Trpayparcid wares ; busi- 
ness ; dvolyco 77 p. (Naxos) open a 
business. 

Trpap.aTtvop.ai carry on business with, 
deal. 

TrpaparevTaSiKo business. 

7rpapaT€VTT}s business-man, mer- 
chant ; pi. § 76. 

irpagi, f. action. 

Trpao-ivdfia the green (of meadows, 
etc.). 

TTpda-Lvos green. 

n-peVet (iTrpiirLori) it is fitting, 
necessary, one must. 

7rp€7r6s (§ 115) proper, becoming. 

7rp€7roi>p€vo propriety, decorum 
(from Trp€7r€i). 

TTpto-fivs (lit.) ambassador. 

* 7rpr)0-K(D, TrpT]C<*> (e^P^ctj irp7)crp£- 
vos) swell, rise. 

7rpiyKi]7ras (lit. TrplyKrjyj/) prince. 

tt p lynr] it 077 ov\o son of a prince. 

TrpLKos (TrpLKvs, § 111) bitter. 

7Tpi(v) before, previously ; rrpl (vd) 
before (§ 274). 

npivdpi = TrovpvdpL. 

npivrs, neut. (Pontus) rice. 

rrpLovL (Pontus TTipov) saw. 

irpird before (§ 274). 



352 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



7rpiTs away, begone ! 

7rptxov va before (§ 274). 

7rp6aXkos : r\s irpoaWes during the 
past days, recently. 

7rpo/3aXXo) propose, come forward. 

irpoftaTo slieep. 

7rpoyovr) step-daughter. 

7rpobi8<D betray. 

npoeo-Tos (§ 65, n. 1) president. 

TTpo^vp.1 leaven, yeast. 

irpoucifa furnish with dowry, fit 
out. 

7rpoKOfjifi€vo9 capable, diligent. 

irpoKo^Tto come forward, progress. 

7rpofAa£a>vcD : dev 7rpo/ia£a>i/ei to. 
X€i\ia rrjs (Sar. K.) she does not 
close her lips. 

7rpo^€vid wooing, betrothal (of a 
fiancee). 

7rpo£cvS> (-€(o) cause, procure. 

7rpo7rcpucri, adv. two years ago. 

irpos^prep. at, toward, on, v. § 168, 1. 

7rpo<T€x<>> (eVpoo-e^a) attend ; be on 
one's guard ; observe, guard 
against a person (ace). 

Tpoa-Kaipos lasting for a season, 
temporary. 

7rpoa-Kaka> call, invite. 

7rpo<TKw<0 honour ; greet respect- 
fully ; also as a greeting, Your 
humble servant, I take my leave, 
offer my respects. 

7rpo<rfj.€v<0 await. 

TTpo<roxj} attention. 

7rpo<T7rad€ia effort. 

7rpoo-7rarc5 go to, meet. 

it poara^co (v. rdfa) to order. 

7rp6o-Tvxos ordinary, common. 

Trpoa(f)€p<i> offer, present. 

7rp6ato7ro face ; person, pi. § 94. 

irporov (vd) before (§ 274) previously. 

7r p6rv7To(v) inodel, pattern. 

irpo<j>€p<o utter, give an opinion. 

7rpo<pr}T€ia prophecy. 

7rpo(f)r)Tr)s prophet. 

7rpo(f)Tdva> overtake. 

7rpoxT€s, adv. day before yester- 
day. 

•rrpm, to early in the morning. 



7rpS>ra, adv. at the first, early. 

TTptoTofiycikTos presented for the first 
time, debutant. 

7rpa>TOfid(rropa$ first or chief archi- 
tect, contractor. 

•jTpGyroiraTras chief priest ; arch- 
priest (an eccles. dignity). 

7rp5>ro$ first, compar. § 117 ; irpa>To(v) 
at first, in first place. 

7rpa>To(j)av€p(OTo? appearing for the 
first time. 

TTpcoroxpovid New Year. 

7rpc$yroxpovidriKOS relating to the 
New Year. 



77(705= 7TOIOS. 



7TT€povya = (prepovya. 

7rro)^d? = cj>T(ox6s. 

7rvpyo(j)v\axTos protected by a tower,. 

secure. 
Vcd, Vgff, etc. from Xeya). 
Traryo) (Po7l£ws) = 7rdyco, 7rr)yaiv<j). 
7TQ)X<» = ttovKco. 
ircapiKO fruit. 

ITQ&pVQ) V. TTOVpVO. 

7r«ff, adv. (1) how ? (2) that (§ 267) * 
elbefxr) 7tg>s else. 

Pa/3(y)<B = pd(j)TG). 

paftdi stick, staff. 

pay/£a>, payi^ojiai break (intr.). 

pa^aKi species of white grape. 

paid, brandy, gin. 

pdirvjf. (§ 86, n. 2) rape, turnip. 

par era race, splendid family ; metaph* 
personal prowess, strength. 

pd<pTT]s tailor ; pi. § 76. 

pd<j)rp(i)a tailoress. 

pd(j)TQ) (pdfi[y]a)) sew, 

paxdr = p€xdri.- 

pdx^f' ridge (of a mountain). 

paxovXa (small) ridge of a mountain,, 
hillock. 

pdy^ifio (§ 104) sewing. 

peireviCofiai (Maina) get into diffi- 
culty. 

pipa (pevfxa), neut. river, stream. 

pefiand brook. 

p€T<riv7) resin. 

pev/ia, v. pifxa. 



GLOSSARY 



0O0 



pexan (paxdr) rest, stillness ; paxdr 

paxar very tranquil, 
pea flow, cf. also § 252, 3, n. 1. 
prjyas king. 
pr)pa((o render lonely (prjpaypivos 

isolated). 
prjpia (Jprjpid) desert. 
pi(3ap<o (dppifiapa) arrive (Syra). 
pi£a root, foot of a mountain. 
piC L ~ id. 
pigtKo destiny. 
pi(opo\S> take root. 
pi^Toj, ptx vco > ptx T( *> (ptppivos ptx~ 

pevos) throw, cast away ; p. 

Tou(j)iKL discharge, fire a gun. 
po/3oX» descend. 
pohciKivo peach. 
pobivos rosy. 

poBiTrjs species of grape (rose- 
coloured). 
p68o rose. 

poX6(y)i watch, clock. 
povya street. 
pov(4ra rosette, ornament ; metaph. 

jewel, treasure. 
povpdvi (oppdvt) forest. 
pova-i or povxl (Cap.) mountain. 
pqvriva routine. 
povxoy usually pi. clothes. 
po(v)<f>S> (ipoixfirjga, § 201, II. c. n.) 

sip, suck up. . 
pv£i rice. 
pvdpi((o throw into rhythm, arrange, 

harmonise. 
pvdpos rhythm. 
pvvoo pour in. 
pvirapos dirty. 

pcdfiauKos mod. Greek, " Romaic." 
poofiiocrvvr] peculiarity of the Vcopios 

(the popular designation of the 

Greeks) ; (modern) Greekdom. 
para) = epoorca, dpoarco. 

2* (<re) = eis. 
era = crdv. 
aaams, V. (rains, 
crdfiavo pall, shroud. 
o-afiavwpevos wrapped in a winding 
sheet. 



aayLTa, cratra (cratrBa, § 35, n. 3) 
arrow ; a-an-iTo-a, dim. 

o-ayiT€vco shoot, hit with an arrow. 

(rdiravas Satan. 

(tclkkl bag, sack ; craiacovkt, <tcik~ 
ov\d\K)t y dim. 

craXeva move, stir. 

aa\i(3dpi bridle. 

ordXt(o) saliva. 

vakpas kind of musket with a short 
barrel. 

<rapdpi pack saddle. 

adpo (Gap.) conj. then, when, after. 

<rdv (axrdv), era as, just like ; if, 
whereas, as soon as (§ 272) ; crav 
vd like, as, just as, crav irov ac- 
cording as (§ 281). 

crairifa (iadincra iaairf)6rjKa) rot, 
decay. 

cranis (detains) lord, owner. 

(rairovvi SOap. 

vapdyi castle, palace. 

crdpaicas (wood-)worm. 

crapciKCDvco corrode, gnaw. 

(rapdvra forty. 

capir dpot> rfjv ayicovpa weigh anchor. 

a-dro a corn measure. 

craxdn hour. 

*(T(3r]V<Oy <r/3&> (eVjSqcra, ea-jS^OTiy/ca, 
(Tprjlo^pivos) extinguish, exter- 
minate ; also intr. be extinguished, 
die away. 

(t^tjcttos extinguished. 

o-yovpdy pi. ringlets. 

a-yovpopdXKrjs (§ 113) with ringlets 
of hair. 

(ryovporpifiopai grate, rub on (a per- 
son). 

(T€ ((ti) = els. 

(T€(Saiv<o (eio-eprjKa) go in, enter ; cf. 
dvtjBaivw. 

crifias (§ 105 n\ neut. reverence. 

o-e^gtXi (Pontus) darling. 

crefivras love. 

o-ebia sedan-chair. 

(T€Lp (Pontus), neut. condition. 

(T€Lpd row, order. 

(T€LpaXaevKovixaL to be arranged in a 
row. 



354 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



o-ft'o) (o-e/fco) shake. 

o-eXrjvrj (lit.) moon. 

o-iXka saddle. 

o-efxvos venerable. 

ctcvtovi linen (towel). 

o-€vtov(k)i(v) chest, box. 

(repftipoi) (J(rep(3ipi(ra, <r€pj3ipi(rp,ivos) 
serve, wait upon (w. ace). 

(rcpyiavifa go for a walk. 

a-epviKos male. 

*(T€pvcd (serro in Bova, eavpa, ia-vp- 
6y]ko) drag, draw out, tow ; also 
intr. go, depart ; o-vpe on ! ahead ! 

o-frepos your, v. § 143, n. 3. 

<re(p€pL war. 

<tt]ko> (o-tjkov) arise, get up ; v. § 222, 
n. 3. 

o-rjKtovG) ((nca>v[i>]a)) lift, elevate ; 
mid. rise, stand up. 

(rrjuabevti) denote. 

(rr)p,ala banner. 

<rr)p.aiv(D denote ; <r. ty]v Kaynrdva 
ring the bell. 

(rrjfiavTLKos designating, significant. 

o-rjfxavrpo a kind of bell. 

crrjfxeioyvco observe, note, denote, an- 
nounce. 

o-rjfiepa, adv. to-day. 

crr]iJLep(t)v6s, of to-day. 

o-iafo) (owo) arrange ; mid. pre- 
pare, direct. 

(Ttyd, adv. gently ; criya criyd slowly, 
gradually. 

o-iyaKd, adv. gently. 

o-id€po iron. 

at fid V, prep, near to, at (§ 171) ; 
o-ifxa vd about to, on the point of 
(§ 273). 

(rifiavG) (o-vfxoyvco) approach. 

o-ivdiTL,f. mustard. 

o-lvra (Texts I. a. 24. 45) if, when. 

(n6p(i) (indecl., § 74, n. 2) Mr., sir. 

(TipyidvL a walk. 

<Tir'a (Pontus) while, during, when. 

(Tirdpi (orapt) wheat. 

(TLxaivofxat (eaixdOrjKa) feel an aver- 
sion for. 

mxacridpis fastidious, having an aver- 
sion for. 



(TKOTrrjKos taciturn. 

<rKd{3(t) = (TKd(f)T(D. 

<r/cafa) (o-kg>, eo-Kao-a) burst asunder. 

o-KoXa stairs, ladder. 

o-KaAtfo chisel, carve (in stone). 

<rKa\<i>v<o (Pontus) set about, begin 
to. 

cTKapLvt stool, bench. 

(TKainrafiia a kind of boat. 

o-KavTa\L£ofjLai to be alarmed. 

o-Kapi keel, boat. 

(TKaCpra) (o-Kaj3[y]o), (TKaf/xo) excavate, 
dig out. 

o-Ke&afo take the measure of, sur- 
vey. 

(TKcdtOy neut. (o-zcedio?, neut. v. § 100, 
n. 1), measure, measuring. 

o-icekos, neut. thigh, limb ; pi. § 100. 

(TK€7rd^ai (or(re7rd£a>) to cover. 

(TK€7rao-/xa, neut. cover(ing). 

(TK€7rrj (<TK€7rr)) cover, lid. 

o-K€(j)TOfj.m (e<TKi(f>Tr}Ka) consider, re- 
flect upon. 

o-Keyjny f. reflection. 

o-ktjvt] stage, scene. 

(TKidfrfiai (eo-KidorrjKa cV/cta^r^/ca) 
be afraid of. 

(TKifo) (enc i(va> Pontus, (rrcri^co) split. 

(Ticio-fia (o-Kio-fiav), neut. fissure, 
crevice. 

o-KKa&id slavery. 

cr/cXajSo? slave. 

o~Kkr)pos hard. 

a-KoBpaXkovi (Chios) a kind of bird, 
lark (1). 

(tkoivl (<rxoivi) rope, cable. 

o-KoXeio school. 

o-koXt] holiday. 

<TKo\va> (<tko\g>, i(TK6\a<ra) cease, 
rest. 

(TKovrdcpTG) ((TKovrd(f)v(o) stumble. 

o-kottos aim, goal. 

o-Kop7Ttfo> strew, scatter ; also intr. 
spread. 

(TKoptfia ((TKp6<f)a) sow. 

(TKorddi darkness, obscurity. 

(TKoreLvia darkness. 

a-KoreivLao-piivos darkened, obscured. 

<tkot€iv6$ dark. 



GLOSSARY 



355 



o-kotos, neut. darkness. 

(TKorovpa torment. 

o-KOTcovay slay. 

(TKovfco (eo-jcoufa) cry, lament, 

(tkovXtjki worm. 

cncovvTd(f)T(o stumble. 

(tkovvtg) (c(TKovvTT]£a) knock against. 

o-Kov7rpa f pi. sweepings, dust. 

cTKovpidfa rust ; be stupefied. 

CTK VjSo) = 0~KV(j)T(i3. 

o-Kv0p<D7r6s gloomy, peevish, angry. 

o-KvXa bitch. 

o-Kvki dog. 

o-kvXos (&t&ov\os, § 6, n. 4 ; § 17 ; 

&vXos, $28n.) = id. 
crKv(f>T6s bent, stooping. 
(TKlXpTO), (tkvPcd (oro~v(By(D oTcrov/3co, 

§ 6, n. 4, and § 17) bend, bow. 

(TKCCtXriKl = OTGOuXqKC. 

cnea>i>(v)<«) = arjK coi/a). 

0-p.iyco associate, unite with. 

crofiapos serious, 

aoKaKL ((TOKaTo-i) lane. 

o-oXSt soldo, sou. 

(rovfiXi roasting-spit ; stake ; /3dfa> 

orb a-, impale, crucify (as capital 

punishment). 
o-ov/SA/fo) impale. 

(70VK0 = (TVKO. 

(Tovfjid : <ra (rovfid (Pontics) these days, 

recently. 
o-ovnid sepia, cuttle-fish. 
(Tova-dfiL (§ 6) sesame. 
(ro(j}6Xoyt6)raT05 the man of great 

wisdom (ironical). 
ao(j>6s wise. 
<T7rd(a) = o-(f)d£<o, 
inradi sword ; irriye ana koko cttt. oto 

o-ecfiipi he went in an evil hour to 

the war ; cnraOaKi, dim, 
a-ndpafa jerk, wriggle. 
cnrdprrfs sower. 
friripa evening. 
^(nripvG) (o"7T€ipa), tairctpa \jj l ir epj, 

§ 7, 11. 2], €0"rrdpdr)Ka) SOW. 
a-irera-apia apothecary shop, 
crTr^Xia, (nrrjhio (o-jreXoVy Pontus, § 6, 

w. 6) cavern. 



(TitlQa spark. 

(T7rLTl(v) (o*7TlT l , § 7, W. 2 J 00-7TtVl) 

house. 
o-ttitiko family, household. 
o-7riT07rapddvpo window of a house. 
(T7r\dxva y pi. bowels. 
o-TrXaxvtfaiMu to pity (ace). 
a-irXaxviKos merciful. 
cnropos seed. 

(77rov5af&) (£<T7rov8a£a -era) Study. 
(T7rov8aios (lit.) eager, serious. 
arirp&xya push, jostle. 
o"irvpl small grain (pimple). 
<rrd((o (eo-raga) to drop. 
aradepos fixed, firm, unalterable. 

(TTalvCO ~ (TTrjVGi. 

orakafJLarid drop. 

arafiarco remain standing, stop, 
hinder. 

ordfiva pitcher ; aTafivaKt, dim. 

orafivl pitcher. 

o-TaviKcos, adv. by violence, unwill- 
ingly. 

ordpi = o n dpi. 

arda-ov (North. Gk. order) stop \ 
(from o-t€ko>). 

oTavpoiroSrjs (§ 114) with legs crossed. 

aravpos cross ; Kavca to crravpo pov 
cross myself. 

oTavpo(f>opia crusade. 

oravpocfropos crusader. 

orempobvo) cross(the hands in prayer). 

ora(f)ida raisin. 

o-Taifivi] rule, guide. < 

<TTa<f)v\i grape, cluster. 

ardxrrj ashes. 

ordxv (dardxv), neut. ear (of plant). 

crretpa barren (of females). 

■*oT6Aca>, oreKOfiai (imper. ariita otc- 
jtare, io~Tddr)Ka, pres. part, ra 
(TTtKdfjLtva the things that stay, 
goods) stand. This verb also 
serves for the defective forms of 
elpai, V. § 224, 2. 

oreXiTTo dagger, stiletto. 

* ariXvcOy ariXXoy (or/pveo, § 31 ; 
oT€i'A<0, § 204 ; ecrreiXa, ioTdXSrjKa) 
send. 

<TT€vd£<o (ioT^va^a iorivao-a) to sigh. 



356 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



<tt€v6s narrow ; ra crrevd narrow 

pass, defile. 
o-Tevox&pta perplexity, difficulty. 
a-T€vox<of>€Ufiai be in perplexity. 

<rT€p€v<0 rob, deprive. 

<rr€pv6s later, latter. 

<rripo (Gap.), adv. after, thereupon. 

orctpdvi, orre</>avo(j) garland. 

oT€<f>av<i>vco crown with garlands ; 

to garland a pair of lovers, i.e. 

betroth ; pass. (w. ace.) also wed 

(Aegina). 
orrjOi, arrjOos, neut. (v. § 100) breast 

(also pi.), dim. o-TrjOdici. 
* <tt 771x0, orivco (Zac. the'nu, § 35, n. 

3, €<TTi](ra eoTecra, iorrjOrjKa, am)' 

p.€vos (TT€p,€vos) set up, erect ; 

a-riva 7r6\€fjLo carry on war. 
(TTi(y)p.r) moment. 
<mxqpos in verses. 
o-TixoTrXexrrjs versifier. 
otlxos verse. 
otoix€io spirit, ghost. 
<TToix€i<*>v<o make a ghost of, become 

a spirit. 
<TTo\idi ornament. 
oroXifo) adorn. 
a-TOfia, neut. mouth. 
orofjidxi stomach. 
(jtovttttI oakum. 
<TToxd{ofiaL think of, meditate. 
crroxaa-TLKos meditative. 
<TTpaj3o7rdTr)fxa, neut. false step. 
vTpa$oTraT<b make a false step. 
o-rpapos steep ; crooked, false. 
oTpdra street, way, journey. 
orpdreixcty neut. army. 
OTpaTuaTrjs (orpaBiwTtjs, § 16, n. 2) 

soldier. 
"*o-rpe<£a> (iarpdcprjKa) turn; turn 

back. 
o-Tptyytfia (Gap.), neut. noise. 
cTTpiyka (orpigXa) witch. 
<rrpi(poD twist. 

o-Tp&pa, neut. couch, bed, covering. 
oTpwva spread ; make a bed. 
arv\os pillar. 

(TV = €(TV. 



<rvpa<ri (§ 33, n. 3) agreement, com- 
pact. 

<rvyy€v €vo> be related. 

<rvyy€i>r}s (§ 115) related. 

<rvyypa(f)€as writer, author. 

<TvyKiva> move (metaph.). 

(Tvyvecfio, V. (rvvvecfio. 

avyvpifa arrange ; mid. prepare, 
begin. 

cvyxpovos contemporary. 

(Tvyx<opr)r6s pardonable, to be for- 
given (eccl.). 

<rv(y)x<opco (o-vx&peo-a, (rvx<opidr}Ka) 
forgive, pardon ; 6 <rvx<op€p,€vos 
"one whom may God forgive," 
i.e., dead, late, o-vx<*>pcQr)Kc also= 
diriOave (Velv.). 

cri/Seco (§ 33, n. 3) bind together. 

(rvdfcvrjs = (Tvyycvrjs. 

(tvko (crovKo, § 6, n. 4) fig. 

(TvnaTt liver. 

<rvXko(y)f) consideration, reflection. 

(rvWoyifypai, crvWoyovpai think, 
meditate, consider. 

o-uXXoyt(r/xd$' reasoning, considera- 
tion. 

avWoyovfiai (-€up.ai) = <rvWoyi£ofj.cu 

(rvp,j3aiv€i, (rvv4^q(K€) it is fitting, 
proper (v. § 207 n.). 

(TVfxfiiftao-pos (lit.) agreement, com- 
promise. 

<rvp.pifta(jTiK6s conciliatory, medi- 
ating. 

(TvpjSovXio (lit.) counsel. 

a-vfx^ovXos (lit.) counsellor. 

a-vp,ir\r]pa)V(o complete, fulfil. 

o-vpiroXiTiis fellow-citizen. 

a-vfi7Tova> (-eo>, ovp.7r6vt(Ta, (rvfiTrove- 
8rjKa) to pity. 

avfi(f)covos (lit.) according with, 
harmonising; a-vficftavo pi in 
agreement with, according to. 

(TVfj.d>v<iy, V. crifxavo). 

<rvvdy(o, vwdfa (invva^a) collect. 

awdpofif) (lit.) co-operation. 

<rw€i8r)(Ti,f. conscience. 

<TW€7rviyoi) suffocate, choke. 

<rvvv€<f)id£Qi> to cloud. 

(TVVV€(f>Q ((TVyV€<po) cloud. 



GLOSSARY 



357 



vvvopa, pi. boundaries. 
<TWTaxTr)s redactor, editor. 
<rvvT€Ta, adv. together, in common. 
<rvvTplf}<o break to pieces, lay in 

ruins. 
<rvvTpifXfiiaj pi. ruins. 
<rvvTpo<pid escort, company. 
(TvvTpo(f>os companion. 
crvprdpL drawer. 
<rv(f)opd (lit. (rvfi<f>opd) misfortune, 

accident. 
(Tv<f)(ov(0 agree, unite. 
<rvxvd, adv. frequently, 
o-u^oapo), v. (Tvyxcapco. 
<r<f)ayr] slaughter, massacre. 
<r(j)d£(o (o-7rnfa>, § 18, ft. 4 ; €0~<pa£a, 

€(r<f)dyr}Ka eacftdxrrjKa) to slaughter. 
<r<£aAi£a>j <r(f)akv£) (d(T7raXtfc0, § 18, ft. 

4 ; €cr<j)d\i£a or -era, €<T<f>aKlo-Tt)Ka 

€(r(j)a\ixrr}Ka) close, lock. 
<r<f>ciktxT6s shut, locked. 
<r<f>dX\(o (f)<r<f>a\a) be deceived, err. 
* (T<f>a\va>,V. cr^aXif a). 
<T<f>rJKa (§ 84) wasp. 
<r(f)iyy<o (p-iriyycDy €(rcpt£a) press, tie 

together, squeeze. 
<r<f>txTos fixed. 
(r<j)ovyydpi sponge. 
<rrf)ovyyi£(o ( icrcpovyyt^a -era) dry off, 

sponge. 
<r<pvpL£<o (<=V$t5pi£a) whistle, hiss. 
<rxe$6v, adv. almost 
cr^eo-t,/. relation, respect. 
<Txrjpa, neut. shape. 

ff^lfo), V. (TKl£<0. 
(TX 0lv h V ' (TKOIVI. 

cr^oXao-rtKos pedant, pedantic. 

o-cofxay neat, body. 

(T&V co (o-<afco, cf. § 224, 3, n. 3) save ; 

complete, finish, attain ; suffice. 
(twit a (§ 10, ft. 4) hush ! be still ! 
{7co7ra£ct>, <ru>7raivco (ecrcuTracra) to be 

silent. 
crcoptafa) heap up ; bury. 
o-apos mound (tomb) ; heap, pk to 

a. in heaps. 
<rm (Cap.), prep, until. 
cracTTos correct, right ; pe to. (raxTTa 

(pov) rightly (adv.). 



craTrjpla deliverance. 
a-coTLKa (a(t>\r\BiKd, according to § 36 
ft.), pi. intestines. 

Taydpi travelling-bag. 

ra(y)i(<x> nourish. 

rdfes, V, beiva. 

rdfo> (rao-o-Q), traga) promise, VOW. 

ralpi pair, mate. 

ratptdfeo unite, pair ; apply ; mid. 

fit, match. 
Tapiraicifa smoke tobacco, or snuff. 
Tapnovpi dike, embankment. 
rapirovpcovopai fortify one's position, 

entrench. 
ra&idi journey. 
rdgipo (§ 104) a vow, promise ; 

command. 
ra7T€tv6s humble. 
Ta7T€tvo(rvvr) humility. 
Tapdfa (Tapdcro-co) perplex. 
rdpva (Cap.), adv. quickly. 
rdprapa, pi. Tartarus, lower world. 
rdo-i cup, dish. 
Taffios tomb. 
rdxa, adv. perhaps, perchance ; rdxa 

vd seemingly as if, forsooth to. 
rdxans, adv. perhaps. 
rax^td (Velv.) to-morrow. 
raxriKos regular. 
raxvT€pvr) (Naxos) morning. 
Taxvrepovy adv. (Naxos) later ; v. 

§ 123, ft. 2. 
reT^off, neut. wall. 

T€KV(O = 0irci>. 

Te\€ia y adv. completely. 

reXfiftwa) finish. 

TeXcvralos (lit.) last. 

t4Xos, neut. end ; t4\os iravrcnv 

(irdvra) finally, lastly. 
T€p,7T€Xr}s lazy. 
t€V€k4s tin. 
T€veK€r£rjs tinsmith. 
riparo, neut. (§ 105, ft. 1) miracle. 
TCpco (Pontus) = Tr)pa>. 
recrov thine, v. § 143, n. 3. 
T€o-o~€pis (§ 128) four. 
rhapros fourth ; neut. a fourth, 

quarter. 



358 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



Htoios such, v. § 148. 
T€Tpdya)vo square. 
Ttrpddr) Wednesday. 
TerpaKoo-icroi four hundred. 
rerpdo-Tixo strophe (verse of four 
lines). 

rix vr l ar ^« 

t€xvik6s artistic, ingenious, tech- 
nical. 

T€x v ^ Tr )s artist. 

T£ai = Kat. 

T{aixi (vrfrfxi) mosque. 

rfu/ny/xa, neut. whistling, hissing. 

rrjydvL frying-pan. 

rrjpco (repcoj Pontus) watch. 

tl (1) what? which? (2) why? 

' wherefore? (3) for (§ 258). tl 
always retains its acute accent. 
(4) also a form of the article, v. 
§ 55, n. 3. 

Tibix, neut. order, Kavco r. (Lesbos) to 
order. 

TtSiv (Pontus) = Tcnora. 

Tifridx (Pontus) frame on which 
are laid large logs of wood to 
split. 

nXidXts (tiKioXts, Velv.) herald, 
auctioneer ; TiKidXidis TrapaTiki- 
aktbts auctioneer above auctioneer. 

Ttkidkv (Velv.) cry out, proclaim. 

rifjiTf (1) honour ; (2) price, value. 

ripnos honest, honourable. 

rifiS) to honour. 

Tip,(DpS> punish, chastise. 

rtvdfa (Tivdyoo) shake. 

TLvds anybody, v. § 153, n. 3. 

Tt7TOTa(s), Tl7rOTe(s), TLTTOTLS, TlftoTai 

anything ; w. neg. nothing, v. 
§153. 
TiirorivLos null, of no value. 

TLTTOTeS, T17T OTLS = T L7T OT€. 

tls who? v. § 152 and tL 

tltXos title. 

TotfidCopiaL get ready, prepare. 

toixos wall. 

tokos interest ; fidXkco arbv tokov 

put out to interest. 
roKp.7) daring, enterprise. 
ToXfjajpos daring bold. 



roX/zo) venture, dare. 

TOfiTi, temporal particle (Sar. K.) 
when. 

TovTLs y adv. really, truly. 

tovwvco strengthen (of medicine). 

Tonos locality, home, region, land ; 
position ; place. 

tos (§136 f.) he. 

to&oios (Pontus) = irotos. 

too-os so great, so small, so much ; 
aWos too~os as much again ; t6o~o 
so very ; as too~o yet, neverthe- 
less, meanwhile ; v. also oo-os. 

t6t((s) (toa v. § 22 n.), adv. then, at 
that time ; airo totc since then. 

tov (Gap.) — 7rov (Bel.). 

Tov£dh, neut. (Pontus) craft, cunning. 

Tov\dxio~To t adv. at least. 

TovXyos (§ 152, n. 3) what kind of. 

Tovkovna clew, coil. 

Tovfinavo timbal. 

tundo, v. tovtos. 

TOVVOS, V. dVTQS. 

tovos (Chios) = TOVTOS* 

TovptcevG) turn Turk. 

tiirtea (Otr.) here, hither. 

Tovo-aK, Tovo-dh (Pontus), neut. snare. 

tovtos (§ 145) this. 

Tov(p€KL musket, gun. . 

Tpaj$T]o-id blow, stroke. 

*Tpa(3a> (also written Tpavu, hpd- 
@T]ga> iTpapqxTrjKa) draw, drag ; 
lift to strike ; intr. (also mid.) 
retire, depart, go. 

Tpayavos gristly. 

Tpayovbi song ; dim. TpayovbaKi. 

TpayovSiorfjs singer, poet. 

TpayovbS) sing. 

Tpdica Tpdna tramp, tramp (onomato- 
poeic word). 

TpaKoaiot = TptaK ocrioi. 

Tpavalvco (eTpdvrjva) become great, 
grow up. 

rpavos clear ; great ; compar. § 117. 

TpavTa(j)vWi rose. 

TpavTcKpvXKid rose-tree; 

TpavTa(j)vX\o rose. 

TpavS) (Pontus) see. 

Tpd-n-e^a altar-table. 



GLOSSARY 



359 



Tpanigi table. 

Tpara net. 

rpavio, V. rpaftio. 

Tpafos (§ 68, n. 2) tomb. 

Tpaxvs rough. 

rpets, rpla (rpid rpiKa y § 10, n. 5) 
three. 

rpeXka madness. 

rpeXkaiva (erpeXXava, eTpeWddrjKa) 
be crazy. 

TpcWos crazed ; rpeWovTo-iKos some- 
what crazy (a little off). 

Tpepa (without aor.) tremble. 

Tpegtp.o (§ 104) running, race. 

"^rpe^o) (r/3€^i/o), pres. part. Tp€\ov- 
jievos Tpexdpevos, imper. rpexa 
rpexare, per/, part, rpexdros) run, 
flow (w. ace.) ; ra Tpexovfieva 
course, current events. 

rptdha trinity, v. § 133, n. 2. 

rpiaKocrioi (rpaKoo-ioi) three hundred. 

rpidvra thirty. 

Tptavrapid company (number) of 
thirty. 

rpiavrdpis thirty years of age. 

TpiavratyvXki ~\ 

TptavTa<fivWid V v. rpai/ra- 

rpiavTacpvXko J 

Tpij3(y)(o (irpi^rjKa, €Tpi(j)Ti]Ka) rub, 
grind. 

T#i/3a)i>(aff) = a. GJc. rptpav shabby 
mantle, philosopher's garb. 

TpiyvpL£(o surround. 

rpiyvpco, rpiyvpov, adv. all around ; 
r. V, prep. (§ 171) around, round 
about. 

rpiKoyia trilogy. 

TpiapaBos thrice deep, very deep. 

Tpi(rxapt-T6i)p,€vos exceedingly grace- 
ful. 

rplros third, neut. a third ; rpiTrj 
Tuesday. 

Tpo/xafa) (irp6p.a^a) fear, be afraid. 

rpofidpa fear, consternation. 

Tpopapurpevo?, rpopao-fievos as- 
tounded, frightened 

rpoTros manner ; fie Kavivav rporro 
in every way, by all means. 

TpvyrjTTjs reaper; name applied by 



the ordinary folk to the month 

of September. 
TpVTra, rpwiri hole. 
rpvTTios bored, punctured. 
Tpvrrw perforate, pierce. 
Tpv7r<i}v(v)(o penetrate into, insert. 
rpvfapos tender. 
*rp a>(y)a> (v. § 252, 2, e$aya, 

icfyayaOrjica, (jiaycofiivos) eat ; 

gnaw, 
rcr, v. also under k. 
to- (ra-rj, etc.) from the article or 

conj. pron. (§§ 55, 136, 142). 
Tcrabovva flute. 
T(ral= kclL 
rcrd'i tea. 

To-ctKi{(o break (in pieces). 
T(raK<i>v<D (Velv.) seize, grasp. 
T<rapi = T£ap,L 
T<rdv = Ktdv. 

r&avaftdpy neut. (Pontus) animal. 
ra-cKovpid blow with an axe. 

TO-epV&j V. K€pV<D. 

To-rjyaplfa roast ; torment. 

r&iyh, T&ovyKi (Pontus) for, be- 
cause. 

Ta-ijiTTiba spark. 

TcrifurXidpts deep-eyed. 

ro-t/ATra) prick, bite, pinch. 

ro-iovirpa (Epirus) maiden. 

rain (Pontus), adv. very. 

ro-ipifiovtesy pi. ceremonies ; adva to: 
be very formal, make much ado. 

Tcripo<j)\i£(*> burn up. 

to-lx, interj. (Naxos) not at all, not 
the slightest. 

Tarodir (Gap.), neut. answer. 

To-oTrdvrjs (d(ov$dv'$) shepherd. 

T&ovyiciy V. rarlyki. 

To-<D7rd£a> be silent. 

rvarepa = Bvyaripa. 

Tv\iy<o envelope. 

tvttos type, form of language. 

TV7T(opa, neut. printing. 

tvtjwo) print. 

Tvpdwia torment, sorrow. 

rvpawiKos tyrannical. 

rvpavyos tyrant. 

rvpl cheese. 



360 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



rvcpXos blind ; trari ara rv(p\d 
blindly, at random. 

^Tv-^alvoi (ervxa) happen, be acci- 
dental ; fxrjv tvxo tat, v. § 280, ti. 2. 

rvxn luck. 

rvxov(e), adv. perhaps. 

TvovTi (lit.) in reality, really. 

Tcopa, adv. now. 

'Y0pifa> = 0p/fa>. 

vyetd health ; also as a greeting like 
y€id. 

hypos damp, moist. 

vios = yi6s. 

vfxvos hymn. 

v vcuk a = yvvcuK a. 

vnapgi, f. existence. 

v7rdpx<o be present, exist. 

vTTtpvvvTtXtKos (gram, term) plu- 
perfect. 

v7rr)p€Tcb (-eo>) serve, wait on. 

virvapov^f. the sleeper, sleepy-head. 

vttvos (vvnvos, § 34, 7i. 3) sleep ; 
soporific. 

V7TOKaTG) O7T0, V. a.7rOKClTG). 

virojxovr) patience. 

v7r6(TKopai (vTToo-xopai, virocrx^rjKa) 

to promise. 
vpi£a> = yvpi£<o. 
v<TT€pa y adv. afterward, then ; v. a7rd, 

prep, after (§ 172). 
{jOTepi(s) = id. 
v<TT€pv6s last, additional. 
vcrrepos last, 
vcrT€pa> deprive. 

vo-TcpoiTepa, adv. afterwards, later. 
vyfsrjXos high. 

vyjraipos exaltation, elevation. 
vty&va elevate, erect. 

Qayas eater, gourmand. 

<payi eating, repast. 

<f)ayov>f. from (payas. 

(Od) <pd(y)<o (§ 252, 1), v. rpayoa. 

(fiarjTo food, repast. 

<f>aivopm (ecpdvTjKa, imper. (pavov 

cf>dvov) appear, manifest oneself, 

make appearance. 
<paiv6p€vo appearance, phenomenon. 



(paKtj (cpaTarj) lentil. 

tpaiuoki turban. 

(fiapikiKos pertaining to a family ; 
(jyafiiXiKov ovopa family name. 

(pavepos manifest, apparent ; <pm 
(pavepd, adv. clear as the sun. 

cj>av€pd)va> ((pavepavvcoj § 199, i. 6, 
n. 2) reveal ; mid. appear ; give 
to know. 

(f>av6s lighthouse, lamp, light. 

(pavrd^opai ((pavTd{a>) imagine, 
fancy. 

(pavracria imagination, fancy. 

(pavTacrpa, neut. ghost. 

(papdvs wide, broad. 

(fyappaicepos poisonous. 

(pappaKi poison. 

(pdpjiaKo medicine, drug. 

(pappaK(0}i4vos poisoned, unwhole- 
some. 

<f>appaKG>vc0 to poison. 

(pcyydpi (fagdpi, Ios) moon ; dim. 
cpcyyapdici. 

fayyofioXr) giving light (gerund). 

(peyyoftoXco give light. 

(peyyovcrKos moon. 

(piyyco (ecpetja) shine, be bright. 

<f)€\<o (-eco, (jyiXecra) assist, be useful. 

*(f)€pv<0 9 <pipa> (€<f>€pa \Jo~cyica i^iyKa, 
§ 203, 5, 7i.] i<f>€p6r)Ka) bring, 
carry ; mid. conduct oneself. 

(pipaipo (§ 104), neut. conduct. 

(pier i fez. 

<piro(s) = €<p€TOS. 

*(pcvya> ((pevcoj <pvyv<o, iiwper. (pev- 

ya[s] </)ei»ya[cr]rf, e<pv[y]a, perf. 

part, (pevydros) flee ; depart. 
(prtfirj glory. 
(pOdvo), v. (prdva). 
(pifcs (§ 77) kind of vermicelli. 
<pl8i snake. 

(piXdpyvpos avaricious. 
(piKevco receive friendly, entertain, 

wait on. 
(piXrjpa, neut. kiss. 
<pi\i kiss. 
<pi\la friendship. 

<pi\odo£a> love glory, be ambitious. 
(piXoXoyta literature. 



GLOSSARY 



361 



cf>iX6KoyLKos literary ; ret c/uXoXoytKa 

literature. 
cf)L\ov€iKia quarrelsomeness, ambition. 
(frtkoiraTpia love of native land. 
<f)i\os dear ; m. friend. 
<f>i\o<ro<j>la philosophy. 
<f)i\6(ro<l)os philosopher. 
(j)i\w (-coi) to kiss. 
(jxapiorrjfjitvos — evxapio'TrjiAivos. 

CJxapKTTcb s=a €VKClpl(TT<0. 

*0K€t«voj, <f)T€iav(a (jE(f)K€ia(rq, i<fi- 
KeidoTrjua) make. o\ <JX sLUs 

(jxydpt, shovel. 

ifiktpa vein. 

<f)\e(Sdpis February. 

cj)\6ya flame. 

(pXoycpa shepherd's flute. 

(j)\oyepos flaming, glowing. 

cf)\ovp4vios consisting of (gold) 
ducats. 

<fi\ovpi, (j)\<0pl florin. 

(j)\vapia gossip. 

<f)o$€pa threat. 

QoPepifa frighten. 

<j>ofiepos terrible, fearful. 

(fropovfjLcii ((poovp.aty § 22 n.) fear, be 
afraid. 

(f>ovids (cloves, § 71, n. 3) murderer. 

cpoviico murder. 

(frovTts (Cap.) then, when (temporal). 

(frooptfa (Pontus)=4)o l 3€pi£Q> terrify. 

<fiopd (<f>ovpd) time, Ft. fois ; Kcip-id 
(j). sometimes ; noWes (fropis fre- 
quently ; <rrr)(v) (fropd at once. 

<j)op£(<*> put on, wear (a garment). 

</)op?/xa, neut. clothing, garment. 

<j>Qp€(Tld = id. 

(f)opT<i)vai to burden, load ; mid. take 
on a burden, carry a load (w. ace). 

*<f)Op£> (-f'w, e^Jopeca, icfropiOrjica) 
carry, yield ; wear a garment, 
(aor.) put on. 

(j)OVK ClpKTTG) ss €VK.apl(TTG>. 

<j)ovpi(a> make celebrated. 

(frowTuros luxuriant, bushy. 

<f>ovpKi£c0 hang, kill. 

(frovxTct fist ; also what would fill 
the hand, a handful ; jue rh 
<f)ovxr€s with full hands. 



(frovxTid handful. 
(fipdyKiKos Frank, European. 
(f)pd£ai (eeppa^a) enclose. 
(j)p€VlflO$ := <f)p6vip,os. 

(jipovrjcri, /. reason, cleverness. 

(jipovifAos reasonable, sensible. 

(j)poprtba care. 

<j)povri£(o care (for one yid). 

(ppovTivTiKcs full of care. 

<f)pv8i eyebrow. 

<j)raigip.o (§ 104) guilt, fault. 

(f)Tai(y)to (cf, § 251, 2, <^ra/^a) € <£rcu£a) 

to be at fault. 
* <pTav(D (e<f)Tacra and c^ra^a, (f)Ta(T- 

pevos) arrive, reach ; comprehend 

(Texts II. a. 22); tyrdvei it is- 

enough. 
(f)TapiAi£op.ai sneeze, 
(prdaiy iiroiKa, Ba ttkoo (Pontus) make,. 

do (§ 202, n. 2, and § 214, n. 5). , 
(f)T€idv<a, V. (jxcidvoj. 
<f)T€pa y c[)T€pTj fern. 
cf)T€p6 wing ; Kavco (frrepd flee away 

from, make off. 
(j)T€povya wing. 
(pTepoaros winged. 

*(f)TL = aifTL. 

cj)Tov<o to envy. 

cf>Tvva (<f)T<o) expectorate. 

(^rco^atVoj (€(pTa)x r ) pa ) ^ e P° or « 

(j)To)X €La poverty. 

(J)t<oxik6s poor, miserable. 

<pTa>x°s poor. 

(f)T(axov\Ls (§ 113, n. 2) miserable,, 
poor. 

<f)vyr) flight. 

<j)v\d(y)o) watch, guard against, 
observe, lie in wait for ; mid. be- 
on guard against. 

<f)v\aKas (§ 65) watchman. 

<fiv\aKfj prison, imprisonment. 

cf)vXaxr6 amulet, protection. 

(pvkrj race, tribe. 

(j)v\\av8S) put forth foliage, bloom. 

</>vXXo leaf. 

<£i>XXoKa/ifo valve of the heart. 

cj)vpvS>, (fivpS) (€<f)vpa(ra) decrease (tr* 
and intr.) ; lose. 

<Pvo~ik6s natural. 



362 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



(frvo-ioKpartKo? pliysiocratic. 

<j)vcri($) 9 f. nature. 

(f)v<ra> (£<j)vo-r}£a) to blow. 

(j)VT€va> to plant. 

cJ)vto plant. 

<j)vrpa)va> grow. 

<fm\ui nest. 

0o)Xtafo) have a nest, dwell. 

0o)i/afa) {i(f)a>va$u) call, call to, shout. 

<j)a)VTj voice, cry ; pi. screaming. 

0g)?, neut. light. 

<pa>(TTT)pas light, light of eyes, eye. 

<j)oyr€Lvos clear, bright. 

<jxoT€p6s shining. 

0am a light, fire. 

Xd (Pontus) = 3d. 

Xa£ovp\a.€VKovjiai (Pontus) prepare, 

begin. 
Xaifidv(i) (Pontus), neut. animal. 
^aiSeuot), ^aSeua) caress. 
Xaipdncriia, neut. greeting, salutation. 
xaipercb, xMptfLC * to salute, greet. 
Xalpofiai, ^atpa) (exdprjKa, imper. 

Xapov xdpov) rejoice. 
XaXdft hail ; Kavct, 7ri(j)T€L x* it hails. 
XaXapos loose ; unrestricted. 
Xa\a&€VG) (Pontus) beg pardon. 
xa\€vG> demand ; desire. 
XaXira-L (Maina) pebble, stone. 
XaXnr] brass gate. 
XaXictds smith. 
xd\K<o}ta, neut brass, metal ; bronze 

vessel. 
^■^aXvoi, ^aXw (€xd\a<ra, e^aXaor- 

tjjko) destroy, exterminate, perish. 
X dfiai (xa/xaO^X^- 
XafidXrjs (§ 74) porter. 
xa^XoXoytafa) meditate, reflect with 

bowed head. 
XaprjXos humble, downcast (of eyes). 
xaiirj\cava> cause to sink, cast down 

(the eyes) ; (intr.) sink. 
XajioyeXo laughter. 
X(ipoye\a) laugh. 
xapos destruction, loss, 
xa/xco (xdpov, x^P at ) a dv> upon the 

ground, Lat. humi. 



xdvi(v) inn, khan. 

xdvco (xdwoy, § 199, I. 6, n. 2, €x a(Ta i 
€X^ r J Ka y Pontus exdra) lose ; 
destroy, annihilate, defeat 
(enemy) ; mid. perish, be un- 
done ; also to be bent upon, very 
eager for (Velv.); va x a ^f) s «*"' 
eba> go and be hanged ! 

Xapd joy ; festival, wedding ; x a P<* 
eras joy be with you. 

Xapavyrj dawn. 

xdpL, f. grace (also personified — the 
ancient Graces) ; kindness, grati- 
tude ; x<*P LTl &*{<} (]>&•) thank God ! 
by God's grace. 

Xaplfa present, make a gift. 

xdpio-fxa, neut. gift. 

XapiToojiivos graceful, charming. 

XapKa/ia, V. xaX^co/xa. 

XapoKar)p.4vos overtaken by Death 
(Charon). 

Xdpovras, Xdpos Charon, god of 
death. 

XCLpoT€VTG>fjievo$ stiff in death. 

Xapovji€vos (from x 04 '/ 30 /* 01 ) na PPy> 
joyful. 

Xa/m (xapki, § 16, n. 2) paper. 

Xapca-TTos joyful, happy. 

xdo-nas (§ 73) gaper. 

XacrKa) (ixdcrKicra) open the mouth 
wide, gape ; (Sar. K.) see. 

Xaa-fjLovpeufMat yawn. 

X<iT{i]s pilgrim ; indecl. § 64. 

Xarcf-i/xo (Pontus) death. 

Xa$ra) gulp down, swallow. 

Xax aff (§ ^3) laugher. 

XeCkas thick-lipped. 

X^tXt, neut. {pi. to, x* tXta and ra x € ^Vi 
v.§ 100) lip ; dim.xa\dia(cr€t\dT<Ti, 
CaL). 

Xet-p&vas winter. 

X€tpoT€pos (xcpoTtpos) worse (§ 118). 

XeXtSovt swallow ; dim. x^XtSoi/a/ct. 

X€\id6vio-fia, neut. swallow-song. 

X^Xatva turtle. 

X^pi hand (xetpas, ace. pi., lit. form) ; 
dim. x € pdKi. 

X€p6T€pos=x €i P° T€ P ?' 
X*jva goose. 



GLOSSARY 



363 



xfjpa widow, pi. § 90; widowhood 

(Texts I. a. 9). 
xypyios widowed. 

X&es=x r * s ' 

Xii™ (Cap.) run, go. 

j^iXtaSa thousand. 

xihtapiKos containing a thousand 
units. 

X^€KaTO[Xfxvpio(v) milliard. 

X&loi thousand ; ^/Xta dvo t v. § 133, 
n. 3. 

Xihio7ra.Tr]ii€vos trodden of thousands, 
oft-trodden. 

Xi-^io7r\ovfi7rL(rTos decked with a 
thousand ornaments, very beauti- 
ful. 

XiXiorpvTTTjTos pierced a thousand 
times. 

Xiovdros ice-cold. 

Xiov€p6s with much snow, 

Xiavi (also pi.) snow. 

Xiovi&i it snows, is snowing. ♦ 

XiovKTfAevos snow-white. 

Xhifapos = Ohificpos. 

Xkiiipievos = 6\ififi€vos. 

X^kos tepid, lukewarm. 

^Xta/xdf pale. 

X^<op6s green. 

Xvapi = dxvdpi. 

Xvovddros with downy hair, soft ; 

(of a rock) covered with a soft 

mantle of plants. 
Xvovdo down, fluff. 
Xotpos pig. 
Xo\f) gall, bile. 
Xo\id£a> be angry, enraged ; to be 

troubled. 
XovTpaLvo) (ExovTprjva) thicken, grow 

hard. 
XovrpoKOTTid roughness, vulgarity. 
Xovrpas (xovdpos) coarse, rough ; 

compar. § 117. 
Xop€vrp(i)a dancer (/.). 
Xopcv(y)co to dance. 
XOpos dance ; arpavco to x P° ^ ea d 

the dance, dance. 
* X°P T( *Ca } x°P Ta ^ v °> (cxpprcura) 

satiate. 



xoprdpt grass, weed. 

Xopro grass. 

Xovfx5> rush upon. 

Xov(T<opa (Sar. iT.)=^puero)/xa. 

Xpeidgofiai (pres. part. xP €La C°^f JL€V °s) 
to need, use (w. ace.) ; xpeidfcTai 
it is necessary. * 

xpeos, neut. debt, duty. 

Xpf}nara y pi. money, riches. 

XpumaviKos Christian. 

XpioTLctvos a Christian. 

xpovos year, pi. § 96 ; tov xP® V0V 
next ye"ar, in a year ; pe xpovovs 
with the years, in the course of 
years ; nano xp° v ip) v( * \jl to the 
devil with him. 

XpOVOTG) s» ^(DOTG). 

Xpv<ro(3€pyr}s (figure in fable) prince 

with the golden rod. 
Xpva-oXaTprjs slave of Mammon. 
Xpva-ofidXkrjs golden-haired ; /. v. 

§ 114 n. 
xpvo"07r\€fi€vos woven with gold. 
Xpva-os golden. 
Xpvo-ocj)GiTi(r[i4vos illuminated with 

gold. 
Xpvo-ocJHOTos shining like gold. 
Xpvaoy^dXtdo golden shears. 
Xpvo-odfxa, neut. gilding (with gold). 
XP&pa, neut. colour. 
XpaorS) (xpovtrrSi) owe. 
XTcnrobi = dxTairobi. 
XTcvifa to comb. 
xrh (ex r€ ' ? )j a ^ v - yesterday. 
XTifa build, found. 
XriKidfa to be or to make con- 
sumptive. 
XTtKidpLs consumptive. 
XtIottjs mason ; pi. § 76. 
XTV7ra> beat, knock ; x T - ora /xarta 

strike, come to notice of. 
XvSaios dirty. 
Xvilqs sap. 
xvvco pour (out) ; let fall ; x^ V€TaL 

(of the sun) sets (Texts IT. a. 

22). 
XG>/ia, neut. ground, earth. 
X&vevG) digest. 
X&va pierce, insert. 



364 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 



^copa land, larger village, centre of 

xcoparas joke. [a district, city. 

X(opar€V(0 to joke. 

Xoypd(f)i acre, field. 

X<*>pia vd without (§ 282, 1). 

Xcopiarrjs peasant, boor ; pi. § 76. 

XMptCco separate. 

X&pi6 (feopiov, x^pKoV) § 10> n ' ^) 

village. 
X<opts (also x^p[ L ] s ) without (§ 167) ; 

X> «XXo, x^P^ KCLl X W P LS a ^ a ^ 

events, at any rate ; x* vd without 

(with verbs, § 282, 1). 
X<0piirn6s division, separation. 
X(opS> (ix<^p€(Ta) hold, contain (of 

space). 

Juts (Pontus) by no means, ab- 
solutely not. 

ya6a heap of straw. 

\jsa\i8i shears. 

"^^dXXo), \jfe\pQ) (eyjsaXa, iyJAaXOrjKa 
iyjfdp6r]Ka) sing. 

^aX/xoj^ta singing of psalms. 

yj/a\rr}s singer, poet ; pi. % 76. 

yjsapas fisherman. 

y\rap€v(y)<x> to fish. 

yf/dpL fish ; dim. yjfapdia. 

y\tapov fisherwoman. 

\jrdxvG) (^a^o)) try, ferret out, 

y\r€ipa louse, [rummage. 

i^etp/fa) to louse, pick off lice. 

yjreXvo) = i/z-aXXco. 

y\rip.a (^d/xa), neut. lie, falsehood. 

yirefiaTLKos apparent, seeming. 

*t//-6 va), y^Tjvoo (fyrjo-a) boil, roast. 

yjtero (Otr.) = £epa>. 

i\ri s — fyis. 

\j/€vB6s lying, false. 

yff€i>TT)s liar. 

■yjfevrid lie. 

yjf€VTiKos false, counterfeited. 

yjfevToyydo-Tptona, neut. apparent 
pregnancy. 

y\f€VToyya<jTp(x>fxevo : Kavoo to y\r. be- 
come pregnant, get in the family 
way. 

yj/€VToypafjip,aTiKT) pseudo - grammar, 
debased grammar. 



y^evTo^ddrja-iy /. false culture. 
y)f€VTO(jo<f)ia conceited wisdom. 
^j/evTpa liar (/.). 

-^njkos high. 

yjsr)\os, neut. (§ 100, w. 1), height. 

yjrr](f)L^(o, yjtr)(f)a) observe, esteem. 

y^Ui nuptial procession. 

yjn\6s thin, fine. 

i|n'xa crumb, bit ; little piece. 

^rofxa, neut.~\jsefia. 

\lro(j)a> (yjrocf)io-iJLivos) perish, die. 

ypvXKos flea. 

yj/vxr} (fa, Pontus, v. § 37 n.) soul. 

yjfvxoTraidi adopted son. 

■^t^ovXa, dim. to ^t^i?. 

yjsvxpos cold. 

yp-co^as baker. 

i|r6)/xi bread ; /3yafa> to \p>. p.ov earn 

my bread ; dim. y^oopuKi. 
\^a>/xoO female baker. 

J i2i§jJ ode. 

wipe, inteij. ah ! 

2>pos (pcbpos) shoulder. 

&pa hour, time, o'clock ; ri copa- 
what o'clock is it 1 ? o>s ctttjv &pa 
up to the present time ; &pa Ka\r) 
formula of salutation or blessing, 
like f) &pa va v evpy wish thee- 
every happiness, good luck. 

copaiosy oopLos beautiful. 

(DpiocTTakaxTos dropping beautifully, 
trickling. 

cos (1) prep, until, till (§ 166) ; <ar 
7t6t€ until when ? how long "2 a>s 
too-o in the meanwhile, neverthe- 
less; (2) as ttov vd, conj. until, 
as long as (§ 275) ; (3) as, as for 
example, thus also ; (4) o>? KaBoos 
when, while (temporal, § 273). 

cao'dv = a , dv. 

&o-t€ vd until (§ 275). 

cjtip (Pontus), neut. ear. 

a><£*XeI (cf. <£eXa>) it is useful, ad- 
vantageous. 

&Xi interj. ah ! 

a>Xp6s pale. 



APPENDIX. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Notice should be taken of the works cited in the Foreword to 
the first German edition, which are not again given in this list. ' For 
a sketch of the progress made in modern Greek philology, compare 
the helps also cited in the same Foreword. My notices in the Anz, 
der Indoijerm. Forsch. (vols. i. vi. ix. xiv. xv.) reach to the year 
1902. Cf. also the reviews and items of information in the Byzant. 
Zeitschr., edited by Krumbacher, i. and ff. (Leipzig, 1892 if.) and E. 
Schwyzer, "Uber die neugriech. Studien," in Jahrb. d. Vereins 
selaceizer. Gymnasiallehrer y 1908. 

Grammars. 

Those from the 16th-18th century (cf. the Foreword, p. xvii, on 
'Simon Portius) are given in 

Girolamo German o, Grammaire et vocabulaire du Grec vulgaire 
publies d'apres Tedition de 1622 par H. Pernot. Paris, 1907. 

To which are to be added : 

Grammatica linguae graecae vulgaris . . . per Patrem Romanum 

Nicephori Thessalonicensem Macedonem. Ed. par J. Boy ens. 

Liege, 1908. (A Grammar of the 17th century.) 
KavcAAov ^ttclvov ypa/xfiariKr] tt}<s kolvtJs to>v 'EAA^van' yXwao'rjs . . 

vvv tt/owtov e/cStS. wo 'I. B(mti\ikov. Triest, 1908. (A Grammar 

of the year 1749.) 

Recent Grammars are : 

H. Pernot, Grammaire grecque moderne. Paris, 1897. 

"W. Barth, Neugriech. Unterrichtsbriefe. Two parts. Leipzig, n.d. 

K. Petraris, Lehrbuch der neugriech. Volks- und Umgangssprache. 

Heidelberg, 1903. 
M. <&t\rjvTas, TpajJifjbaTLKrj rrjs pw//,at/dys y\uxro"r]s. a\ &<ovokoyia. 

Athens, 1902 (2nd ed. 1907). 
24 ^ 5 



36 G HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

Manuals. 

J. K. Mitsotakis, Neugriech. Sprachfuhrer. Konversationswdrter- 

buch. Leipzig, 1892. 
A. N. Jannaris, Wie spricht man in Athen ? 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1893. 
M. and H. Pernot, Manuel de conversation francais-grec moderne. 

Paris, 1899. 

Lexica, Loan-words, 

Sophocles, A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods. 

New York, 1888. 
Du Cange, Glossarium ad scriptores mediae at infimae latinitatis. 

Lugduni, 1688. 
A. da Somavera, Tesoro della lingua greca-volgare ed italiana. 

Paris (Venice), 1709. 
'A. Ko/>a^, 'Axa/cro. 5 vols. Paris, 1828-1835. 
*A. BAa^o?, Az&kov iWyvoyaWiKov. Athens, 1897. 
'A. 'HttlttjS) AcfiKov tWrjvoyaWiKOV ttjs XaXovfiivrjs 7Xo)crcrr;s. 

Athens, 1908 (13 numbers, up to £v/Aaxns). 
R. A. Rhousopoulos, Worterbuch der neugriech. u. deutschen 

Sprache. Leipzig, 1900. 
A. Jannarakis, Deutsch-neugriechisches Handwdrterbuch. Hanover, 

1883. 
K. Dieterich, Taschenwdrterbuch der neugriech. Umgangs- und 

Schriftsprache. Deutsch-Neugriechisch. Berlin, 1909. 
A. Buturas, Ein Kapitel der his tor. Grammatik der griech. Sprache. 

Uber die gegenseitigen Beziehungen der griechischen und der 

fremden Sprachen. Leipzig, 1910. 
G. Meyer, Neugriech. Studien. II. Die slav., alb. u. ruman. Lehn- 
wdrter. III. Die lat. Lehnwdrter. IV. Die roman. Lehnwdrter. 

S.-Ber. d. Wiener Akad., vols. 130, 5. 132, 3. 6 (18941). 
M. Triandaphyllidis, Die Lehnwdrter der mittelgriech. Vulgar- 

literatur. Strassburg, 1909. 

History of Literature, Texts. 

K. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzant. Literatur. 2nd ed. Munich, 

1897. 
K. Dieterich, Geschichte der byzantin. u. neugriech. Literatur. 

Leipzig, 1902. 
A. Thumb, Die neugriech. Literatur. Die Kultur der Gegenwart, 

i. 9(1908), 246 fF. 
K. naAa/xas, Tpa/jLjxaTa. 2 vols. Athens, 1904. 
J. Mitsotakis, Chrestomathie der neugriech. Schrift- und Umgangs- 

sprache. Stuttgart, 1895. 



APPENDIX 367 

H. Pernot and Legrand, Chrestomathie grecque moderne. Paris, 1899. 

E. Brighenti, Crestomazia neoellenica. Milan, 1908. 

A. II. TayKoVouAos, Nea XaLKrj avOoXoyia. Athens, 1899. 

Texts of the Folk-literature. 

Z<i)ypd<f>eios 'Aywv tjtol M^^eta t^9 eAAwvi/aJs apxawTTjTos tfavra Iv tw 

vvv cAA^vtKuI AaaJ, i. Constantinople, 1891. 
Aaoypacfria. AeArioj/ rrjs iXXrjvtKrjs X.aoypa<j>iKfj<; eratpetas, i., ii. 1. 

Athens, 1909, 1910. 
C. Fauriel, Chants populaires de la Grece moderne. 2 vols. Paris, 

1824-1825. 
A. Passow, Popularia Carmina Graeciae recentioris. Leipzig, 1860. 
E. Legrand, Recueil de chansons populaires grecques. Paris, 1874. 
Jean Pio, NeoeAA^vi/ca TrapajjLvOia. Contes populaires grecs. 

Copenhagen, 1879. 
N. r. UoXlttjs, MeAerai €7ri tov /3lov /cat ttjs yAaxrc^s tov iWrjviKov 

Xaov. Ilapoi/ucu. Vols, i.-iv. Athens, 1899-1902, Ilapa- 

Soo-cts [Legends]. Vols, i., ii. Athens, 1904. 

Linguistic Problem. 

Vvxapr]?, To Tafi'8i jlov. Athens, 1888. 2nd ed. 1905. 
Vvxdpr)*;, PoSa koI ^\a. 5 vols. Athens, 1902-1909. 
<1>. A. ^omaSr;?, To yAwo-a-i/coy ^rjTrffia k rj iK7rai$evTiKrj fta? dvaycV- 

vyjo-ls. Athens, 1902. 
K. Krumbacher, Das Problem der neugriech. Schriftsprache. 

Munich, 1903. 
r. N. Xar£ioa/as, *A-irdvT7]o-i<s eis to. tov k. Kpovfifidxep. Athens, 

1905. 
K. Brugmann, Schrift- und Yolkssprache und die Sprachfrage der 

heutigen Griechen. Deutsche Revue, 1906, 211 ff. 
A. Thumb, Zur neugriech. Sprachfrage. N. Jahrb. fur das klass. 

Altertum. xvii. (1906) 704 ff. 
G. N. Hatzidakis, La question de la langue ^crite neogrecque. 

Athens, 1907. 
N. r. Xar^iSaja?, 'A/caS^/AeiKa di/ayv^afxaTa irepl tov ypa.7TTOv rjfxwv 

Aoyov. 'E7rcTTy/)t? tov Haveino-Tr} /xtov y 1910, p. 25 ff. 
M. TpiavTa^vWiSrjSy Hcf^Aao-ia 17 wroTeAaa; MeAeTT; irep\ tu>v fcivtav 

Ac^ewv -rrjs veas tWrjviKrjs, i. 1, 2. Athens, 1905, 1907. 

Dialects, Patois. 

Tozer, The Greek-speaking Population of Southern Italy. Journ. of 
Hell. Stud. x. (1890) 11 ff. 



368 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

D. Comparetti, Saggi dei dialetti greci dell' Italia meridionale. 

Pisa, 1866. 
G. Morosi, Studi sui dialetti greci della Terra d' Otranto. Lecce, 

1870. 
G. Morosi, I dialetti romaici del mandamento di Bova. Archivio 

glottol. ital., iv. (1874) 1 ff. 
Pellegrini, II dialetto greco-calabro di Bova. Turin, 1880. 
A. Pellegrini, Nuovi saggi romaici di Terra d' Otranto. Turin, 1895. 
na7ra£a<£€ipo7rouAos, Heptcrwayooy^ yXwcro-t/dJs v\r]$. Patras, 1887 

(Peloponnesus). 

A. Thumb, MeXirrj irepi rijs crjfJLcpivfjs iv Alytvrf XaXovfiivrjs SlolXcktov. 

'AOyva, iii. (1891) 95 ff. 
Chalkiopulos, De sonorum affectionibus quae percipiuntur in dialecto 

neolocrica. Curtius' Studien, v. (1872) 339 ff. 
n. 9 A/oa/?avT6vos, 'H7reipamKoi/ yXwo'dpiov, Athens, 1909. 
'A. T£apT£avos, Tlepl rfjs <Tvy\p6vov ^eo-o-aXifdJs SiaXeKTOu. Athens, 

1909. 

E. M7rowTwva$, MeXirrj 7T€pt rov yXiavo-iKOv i8«o//,aTOS BeX/?€i/TOi;. 

'Ap^eta ttjs vewrepa? eXXrjv. yXcocrcr^s, i. 2 (Athens, 1892). 

St. tyd\T7]S, ®paKLKCL 7} fieXcTY) 7T€pl TOV yX<JXT(TlKOV iSlOJ/XaTOS T^S 

7rdX€o)s Hapdvra 'EkkX^o-iwv. Athens, 1905. 
P. Kretschmer, Der heutige lesbische Dialekt. Vienna, 1905. 
H. Pernot, Phonetique des parlers de Chios. Paris, 1907. 
Uao-n-dTr]^ Xtafcoir yAwcrcraptov. Athens, 1880. 

B. ^dpYj^y rXcocrcriKcu €7rta , rao"£ts avafapofJLtvai ets to ^Kvptov ioYa)/xa. 

Tto-o-epaKovTaeTTjpU Kovrov (Athens, 1909), 242 ff. 

A. Thumb, Beitrage zur neugriech. Dialektkunde. Der Dialekt von 

Amorgos. Indog. Forsch. ii. (1892) 65 ff., vii. (1896) 1 ff. 
K. Dieterich, Sprache und Volksiiberlieferungen der siidlichen 

Sporaden. Vienna, 1908. 
G. N. Hatzidakis, Ikarisches. Indog. Forsch. ii. (1893) 371 ff. 
M. Beaudouin, Etude du dialecte chypriote moderne et medieval. 

Paris, 1883. 
'A. SaKeXXaptos Ta Kircrpiafca. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Athens, 1890, 

1891. 

B. M. Dawkins, Modern Greek in Asia Minor. Journ. of Hell. 

Studies, xxx. (1910) 109 ff. (Summary — especially on dialect 

of Silli in Cappadocia.) 
D. E. Oeconomides, Lautlehre des Pontischen. Leipzig, 1908 

(important for material). 
n. KapoXi'S^s, TXiiHTvapiov (rvyKptriKov iXX7jvoKa7r7raSoKiKiov Xc^cwv. 

Smyrna, 1885. 
P. de Lagarde, Neugriechisches aus Kleinasien. Abh. d. Gb'tt. Ges. 

d. Wiss., 1886 (Cappadocia). 



APPENDIX 3G9 

H. Gregoire, Notes sur le dialecte de Farasha. Bull, de corr. hell. 

33(1909), 148 ff. 
M. 'I. Movcratos, BaTra/oioytol rjrot, \eit\6ytov rrjs AetfS^a-Lavrjs 

StaXcKTov. Athens, 1884. 
A. Thumb, Die ethnographische Stellung der Zakoncn. Indog. 

Forsch. iv. (1894) 195 ff. 
Deville, £tude du dialecte tzaconien. Paris, 1866. 
M. Deffner, Zakonische Grammatik, i. Berlin, 1881. On which cf, 

the criticism of Hatzidakis, in Gbtt. gel. Anz., 1882, 347 ff. 

History of the Modern Greek Language. 

Investigations on Special Questions of Grammar. 

G. Meyer, tlber die linguistische Stellung des modernen Griechisch. 

Essays u. Studien, i. (1885) 91 ff. 
G. N. Hatzidakis, Einleitung in die neugriech. Grammatik. Leipzig, 

1892. 
r. N. XaT&Sa/as, TAtocnroAoyi/ccu jxeXeraL. Athens, 1901. 
r. N. Xar^tSctKt9, MccratwviKa /cat via EAA^vi/ca, i., ii. Athens, 

1905, 1907. 
r. N. XaT^iSaKi?, Utpi rrjs kvoTqros rfjs iWrjviKrjs yXwcrcrT/s. 

'E7T€T77ptS tov *Et0v. HaveirurTrjfJLLOv, 1909, 47 ff. 
K. Dieterich, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen 

Sprache. Leipzig, 1898. 
A. Thumb, Die griechische Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenismus. 

Strassburg, 1901. 
A. Thumb, Prinzipienfragen der Koti/77-Forschung. N. Jahrb. f. d. 

klass. Altertum. xvii. (1906) 246 ff. 
J. Psichari, Essai sur le grec de la Septante. Eev. des Etudes juives, 

1908, 161 ff. 
D. C. Hesseling, De Koine en de oude dialekten van Griekenland. 

Yersl. der Kon. Akad. Amsterdam, 1906, 133 ff. 
K. Krumbacher, Beitrage zu einer Geschichte der griech. Sprache. 

Kuhns Zschr. f. vgl. Sprachf. xxvii. (1885) 481 ff. 
J. Psichari, Etudes de philologie neogrecque. Paris, 1892. (A 

collection of works of the editor and his students.) 
J. Psichari, Essais de grammaire historique neo-grecque. 2 vols. 

Paris, 1886, 1889. 
G. Meyer, Zur neugriech. Grammatik. Analecta Graeciensia (Graz, 

1893), 1 ff. 
K. Foy, Lautsystem der griech. Vulgarsprache. Leipzig, 1879. 
K. Dieterich, Akzent- und Bedeutungsverschiebung im Mittel- und 

Neugriechischen. Indog. Forsch. xvi. (1904) Iff. 



370 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR 

K. Krumbacher, Ein irrationaler Spirant iin Griechischen. S.-Ber. 

d. Miinchener Akad, 1886, 359 ff. 
J. Ps'ichari, Essai de grammaire historique sur le changement de A. en 

p devant consonnes. Me^n, orientaux (Paris, 1905), 291 ff. 
II. Pernot, La dissimilation du o* inter vocalique dans les dialectes 

neogrecs. Rev. des Etudes grecques, xviii. (1905) 153 ff. 
G. Meyer, Analogiebildungen der neugriech. Deklination. Bezzen- 

bergers Beitr. i. (1877) 227 ff. 
2. McvapSos, *H ytviKj] Kara Kv-rrpLOVS. 'A^va, viii. (1896) 435 ff. 
A. T^apT^dvos, Mt/cpa o~vpL/3o\r] eh Ty\v k\i<tlv tov ovoparos iv rfj vtq 

tWrjVLKrj. Teo-G-cpaKovracT^pts Kovtov (Athens, 1909), 217 ff. 

(Use of the Genitive in Thessalian.) 
G. N. Hatzidakis, Zum Gebrauch der medialen Verbalformen. Indog. 

Forsch. xxv. (1909) 357 ff. 
M. Deffner, Die Infinitive in den pontischen Dialekten. Monatsber. 

d. Berl. Akad., 1877, 191 ff. 
K. Dieterich, Die prapositionalen Prafixe in der griech. Sprachent- 

wicklung, i. euro. Indog. Forsch. xxiv. (1909) 87 ff. 
N. Dossios, Beitrage zur neugriech. Wortbildungslehre. Zurich, 

1879. 
G. N. Hatzidakis, Zur Wortbildungslehre des Mittel- und Neu- 

griechischen. Byz. Zschr. ii. (1893) 235 ff. 
P. N. Xar^tSaKts, HvpLJ3o\rj as rrjv Trapaywyrjv Ta£ea)S twos Acfcaw. 

'ETricrT^/xovtK^ 'Ettct^ois tov 'E0v. UaveinorTrjpLov, 1905-1906, 

p. 46 ff. (on the composition of substantives). 
E. Schwyzer, Altgriechische Syntax und neugriechische. N. Jahrb. 

f. d. klass. Alt. 21 (1908), 498 ff. 



MODERN GREEK WRITING 
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Printed by 

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Third Edition. Demy 8vo, 8s. net. 

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By the late James Adam, M.A., Litt.D.(Camb.), LL.D., Fellow, 

Lecturer, and Senior Tutor of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

Edited, with a Memoir, by his Wife, Adela Marion Adam. 8vo, 

price 10s. 6d. net. 

1 When so prolific a subject is treated with the exhaustive knowledge and expository 
skill that Dr. Adam brings to bear, students have opened to them a rare source of mental 
enrichment.' — Christian World. 

Early Ideals of Righteousness. Hebrew, Greek, and Roman. 

By Professor R. H. Kennett, B.D., Mrs. Adam, M.A., and 

Professor H. M. Gwatkin, D.D. Post 8vo, 3s. net. 

These three lectures summarise the Ideals of Righteousness formed by the three 
great nations of antiquity. 

The Fourth Gospel and the Synoptists. Being a contri- 
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Worsley, B.D., Durham. Crown 8vo, 3s. net. 
1 The writing is clear and cogent. Within the limits imposed upon himself by the 

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The Fourth Gospel. Its Purpose and Theology. By Prof. 

E. F. Scott, D.D., Kingston. Second Edition. Demy 8vo, 

6s. net. 

1 The most elaborate and thoroughgoing treatment of the whole theology of the Fourth 
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The Kingdom and the Messiah. By Professor E. F. Scott, 
D.D., Kingston. Post 8vo, 6s. net. 
This work deals, from a modern and critical point of view, with the message of 
Jesus and His attitude to the Messianic claim. The subject is one of central interest 
in theological discussion at the present time. 

The Pauline Epistles. A Critical Study. ('The Literature of 
the New Testament. , ) By Robert Scott, M.A., D.D., Bombay. 
Demy 8vo, 6s. net. 

The purpose of this volume Is twofold— to Indicate the teaching of the Pauline Epistles and to 
set forth a theory of authorship based on characteristics of thought and style. Perhaps the 
paradox may be ventured that this study of the Epistles has its most important aspect in the 
light it incidentally attempts to throw on the Gospels— on the authorship or author of the First 
and on the mind of the writer of the Third. 

1 A work as stimulating as it is original, and one which no student of the literature 
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GRIMM'S LEXICON. 

Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, being 
Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti. Translated, Revised, 
and Enlarged by Professor Joseph Henry Thayer, D.D., Harvard 
University. Fourth Edition. Demy 4 to, price 36s. 

* The best New Testament Greek Lexicon. . . . It is a treasury of the results of 
exact scholarship.' — Bishop Westcott. 

' An excellent book, the value of which for English students will, I feel sure, be best 
appreciated by those who use it most carefully.' — Professor F. J. A. Hort, D.D. 

* This work has been eagerly looked for. . . . The result is an excellent book, which 
I do not doubt will be the best in the field for many years to come.' — Professor W. 
Sandat, D.D., in the Academy* 

1 Undoubtedly the best of its kind. Beautifully printed and well translated, ... it 
will be prized by students of the Christian Scriptures,' — Athencewnu 

GREMER'S LEXICON. 

Biblico - Theological Lexicon of New Testament 
Greek. By Professor Hermann Cremer, D.D. Translated by 
W. Urwick, M.A. Fourth Edition, with Supplement. In demy 4to, 
price 38s. 

This Lexicon deals with words whose meaning in the Classics is modified or changed 
Scripture, words which have become the bases and watchwords of Christian theology, tracing their 
history in their transference from the Classics into the LXX, and from the LXX into the New 
Testament, and the gradual deepening and elevation of their meaning till they reach the fulness 
of New Testament thought. 

^lt gives with care and thoroughness a complete history, as far as it goes, of each 
word and phrase that it deals with. . . . Dr. Oremer's explanations are most lucidly set 
out '— Guardian. 

' It is hardly possible to exaggerate the value of this work to the student of the Greek 
T e stamen t. ' — Church Bells. 

4 We cannot find an important word in our Greek New Testament which is not 
discussed with a fulness and discrimination which leaves nothing to be desired.' — 
Nonconformist. 

The Growth of Christian Faith. By Kev. George Ferries, 
D.D., Cluny. 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

Summary of Contents :— Part I. The Preparation for Religion. Part II, Re- 
ligion as an Established Fact of Life. Part 111. Forgiveness through 
Christ. Part IV. Historical. Part V. Development of Results. 

* We know of no work in English exactly like it. . . . The whole of this rich and 
fertile work demands, and we think will receive, close attention. Dr. Ferries in 
writing it has conferred a great benefit upon all open-minded lovers of Christian 
truth.' — Christian World. 

The Fatherhood of God in Christian Truth and Life. By the 
Rev. J. Scott Lidgett, M.A., Warden of Bermondsey Settlement. 
8vo, 8s, net. 

This booh is an attempt to establish the Fatherhood of God as the determining fact of Christian 
life and the determining principle of Christian Theology, Among the subjects dealt with are: 
The New Testament Doctrine of the Fatherhood of God. Place in New Testament Theology. The 
Relation of the Old Testament Doctrine to the Fatherhood of God. The Doctrine in Church History. 
Validity and Content. Manifestation. 

4 Every reader will own the masterly skill with which Mr. Lidgett handles his sub- 
ject, the breadth of his reasoning, the wide knowledge which he brings to bear on 
every page of his work, and the zeal which fuses and transfuses the whole.' — Methodist 
Recorder. 

' A valuable contribution to the study of a very great doctrine.' — Guardian. 

A Handbook of Christian Ethics. By Professor J. Clark 
Murray, LL.D., Montreal. Post 8vo, price 6s. net. 
1 This is distinctly the best handbook with which we are acquainted. It is the work 
of an experienced teacher, a ripe scholar, and a profound thinker. . . . We have come 
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An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testa- 
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The Guardian says : ' By far the best account of the great critical problems con- 
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Christian Ethics. By Newman Smyth, D.D. Third Edition. 

Price 10s. 6d. 

The Bookman says : ' It is the work of a wise well-informed, independent, M and 
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By the late Professor A. B. Bruce, D.D., Glasgow. Third Edition. 

Price 10s. 6d. 

The Expository Times says : c The force and the freshness of all the writings that 
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History of Christian Doctrine. By Professor G. P. Fisher, 
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The Critical Review $b.jq: 'A clear, readable, well-proportioned, and, regarding it 
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A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age. 

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Price 12s. 

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Christian Institutions. By Professor A. V. G. Allen, D.D., 

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Canon and Text of the New Testament. By Professor 
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The Expository Times says : ' It is a great book upon a great subject. If preachers 
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Deuteronomy. By Prof. S. R. Driver, D.D., Oxford. Third 
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Literature says : ' The most complete and minute commentary hitherto published.' 

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The Book of Isaiah (Ch. i.-xxvii.). By G. Buchanan Gray, 
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The Book of Ecclesiastes. By Prof. George A. Barton, 
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Amos and Hosea. By President W. E. Harper, Ph.D., 
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The Books of Micah, Zephaniah, and Nahum, by Prof. 
J. M. P. Smith, University of Chicago ; on Habakkuk, by Prof. 
W. H. Ward, New York; and on Obadiah and Joel, by 

Prof. J. A. Bewer, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 
One Yol. 

St. Matthew's Gospel. By The Yenerable Willoughby C. 
Allen, M.A., Archdeacon of Manchester. Second Edition. 12s. 
The Scotsman says : ' Mr. Allen has provided students with an invaluable introduction 
to the comparative study of the Synoptic Gospels. The work as a whole is a credit 
to English New Testament scholarship, and worthy to rank with the best products 
of the modern German school.' 

St. Mark's Gospel. By Prof. E. P. Gould, D.D. 10s. 6d. 

The Baptist Magazine says: 'As luminously suggestive as it is concise and sober. 
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St. Luke's Gospel. By Rev. Alfred Plumper, D.D. Fourth 
Edition. 12s. 
The Guardian says : • We feel heartily that the book will bring credit to English 
scholarship, and that in its carefulness, its sobriety of tone, its thoughtfulness, its 
reverence, it will contribute to a stronger faith in the essential trustworthiness of the 
gospel record.' 

Romans. By Prof. William Sandat, LL.D., Oxford, and Principal 
A. C. Headlam, D.D., London. Fifth Edition. 12s. 
The Bishop op Ely says : ' We welcome it as an epoch-making contribution to the 
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1st Corinthians. By the Et. Eev. Archibald Eobertson, D.D., 
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Ephesians and Colossians. By Prof. T. K. Abbott, D.Litt., 
Dublin. 10s. 6d. 
The Expository Times says: ' There is no work in all the "International" series 
that is more faithful or more felicitous. . . . Dr. Abbott understands these Epistles 
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Philippians and Philemon. By Prof. Marvin E. Vincent, 
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The Scotsman says : ' In every way worthy of the series which was so well com- 
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St. Peter and St. Jude. By Prof. Charles Bigg, D.D. 
Second Edition. 10s. 6d. 
The Guardian says : ' A first-rate critical edition of these Epistles has been for a 
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A History of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in 
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This book provides for the first time a Descriptive History in one volume of the 
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recent organisations), and a discussion of the Practical and Ethical Problems 
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The Religion of the Ancient Celts. By Canon MacCulloch, 

D.D., Author of several works on Folk-lore and Religion. Demy 

8vo, 10s. net. 

It covers the whole field of Celtic religion, and it is based on a fresh study of the 

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Fionn Cycle — Gods and Men — Cult of the Dead — Primitive Nature Worship — River 

and Well Worship — Tree and Plant Worship — Animal Worship— Sacrifice — Tabu 

— Festivals — The Druids — Magic — Rebirth and Transmigration — Elysium. • 

The Christian Doctrine of Man. By Professor H. Wheeler 
Robinson, M.A., Leeds. Just Published. 6s. net. 
'This work is one of the finest contributions which has been made for long to 
Biblical and philosophical theology, and will ensure an eager welcome to anything else Vl 
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The Ideal of Jesus. By Professor W. 1ST. Clarke, Author of 
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Contents : — The Picture of the High Aim — The Kingdom — Righteousness — The 
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The Historical Narrative of the Old Testament. By 

y the Kev. J. E. M'Eadyen, D.D., Professor of Old Testament 
' Language, Literature, and Theology, United Free Church College, 
'* ^ v Glasgow. Now Ready, price 6d. net. #^- 

Life's Christ Places. By Rev. Joseph Agnew, Dunbar. Crown 
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Every place visited by Christ during His life on earth may be associated with an 
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The Philocalia of Origen. A Selection of Choice Passages 
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excellent introduction to the study of Origen, and is almost indispensable to the 
student of Holy Scripture. 'Much of Origen's best thought,' says Dr. Robinson^ 
' is here presented to us, arranged under various important heads ; and we are 
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21 



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